No fieldwork undertaken.
Arcadia Avenue, Barnet, N3 TQ 25209 90433 MOLA (Gemma Stevenson) evaluation May 2008 William Dunk Ltd ACA08
Two evaluation trenches were excavated along the southern and western edges of the site. Natural clay with occasional flints was overlain by modern topsoil and rubbish. No archaeological remains were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-43105
Barnet Market, St Albans Road, EN5 TQ 24400 96820 MOLA (Jon Crisp) May 2008 evaluation Mr & Mrs N Walsh BNQ08
Three evaluation trenches were excavated on the site of a former market to the north of Barnet town centre in advance of residential development. Natural sand and gravel was observed at an average height of 130.46m OD.
In a trench in the south-west of the site, this was overlain by a sandy layer, possibly formed by heavy root action, which was cut by a small undated N-S running ditch. This contained a sandy clay fill and was sealed by an undated dumped deposit beneath a silt and sand layer containing 19th century material. Gravel and rubble associated with the demolition of the modern market completed the sequence.
In a second trench in the middle of the site, natural sand was overlain by a sandy layer similar to that in the first trench. This was cut by a large feature thought to be a tree hole, and an undated NW-SE aligned re-cut ditch of unknown date. The ditch, which was not fully excavated, contained a silty clay fill and was sealed by two undated levelling layers. A large 19th/20th century pit cut these layers in the NE part of the trench. Gravel and demolition rubble again sealed the archaeological layers.
A third trench in the NE part of the site contained only natural sand beneath a sandy layer, 19th century dumped deposits, and demolition rubble and gravel like those in the other two trenches.
OASIS ID: molas1-43250
Jewish Community Secondary School, Westbrook Crescent, East Barnet, EN4 TQ 26500 96875 MOLA (Tim Braybrooke) evaluation August 2008 Jewish Community Secondary School Trust WBK08
Fourteen evaluation trenches were located in the playing field of the Livingstone Primary School, and the adjacent East Barnet Upper School in advance of development and construction of the Jewish School. Across the site, natural London Clay was overlain by subsoil, turf and topsoil. In Trench 10 (on the W side of the site) part of a NE-SW aligned ditch was found containing no datable finds. In Trench 8 (on the far W side of the site) two similar E-W aligned ditches were recorded. Trench 13, on the south side of the site, revealed two N-S aligned ditches. Trench 2, in the area E of the school buildings, contained up to six pits, two containing 12-14th century pottery, charcoal and burnt flint, as well as plough marks and an 18th century post-hole. The remaining trenches contained no archaeological features. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-61176
Green Level Pumping Station, Mulberry Way, Erith, Belvedere TQ 50690 79675 MOLA (Virgil Yendell) geo-archaeological watching brief March 2008 Jacobs GPG08
One borehole and four window samples were carried out on site and monitored by MOLA geo-archaeologists. Variably across site Pleistocene gravel was encountered 7 - 8m below ground surface, above which was 0 - 2m layer of sandy clay with occasional organic bands representing fluvial and foreshore deposits. Overlying this and encountered 2 - 5 m below ground level was 1 - 2m of peat/humic clay that indicated a waterlogged marshland environment. 1 to 4m of alluvial clay, probably relating to mudflats, were sealed by 1 to 3m of modern made ground and backfill. An additional 8m window sample sequence was taken adjacent to the location of one of the four sampled earlier and the sealed cores were retained for detailed examination and sampling by MOLA at a later point.
Cricklewood Bus Garage, 329 Edgware Road, London NW2, TQ 23310 86292 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) evaluation September 2008 Metroline Ltd CBJ07
Following work in 2007, a single trench was excavated in the south-central area of the site. Clean natural clay was overlain by a layer of brownish-yellow clay contaminated by diesel seepage from large metal tanks located nearby. This was truncated by modern concrete and rubble, which included the remains of an undated clinker floor surface. No other archaeological remains were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-32938
Rectory Paddock School (now the Riverside School), Main Road, Orpington, Kent TQ 4717 6940 MOLA (Bruce Ferguson) watching brief January-February 2008 Frankham Consultancy Group on behalf of the London Borough of Bromley RPS08
Groundworks for the extension of the school buildings were monitored. Natural sand with flints and natural gravel were observed. A possible soakaway containing 19th-20th century pottery had been cut through the gravels at the south-western end of the site. Overlying both the soakaway and the natural deposits was silty clay subsoil with flints from which a piece of 19th century pottery was recovered. In the northern corner of the site a large feature of uncertain purpose was observed, although brick fragments found within it suggests the area may have been used to dispose of building rubble during the construction of 20th century residential housing to the west of the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-37901
Kings Cross Station, East Range Refurbishment and Construction of Platform Y, London N1 TQ 30310 83057 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) evaluation February-April 2008 Network Rail ERC07
Following work in 2007, two trenches were monitored. One contained 19th century foundations relating to the present station buildings beneath modern make-up layers and concrete. The other contained only modern deposits.
18 Frognal Way, Hampstead NW3 TQ 26253 85515 MOLA (Sian Anthony) watching brief October 2008 Fitzpatrick London Ltd FWA08
Work on three test pits was monitored prior to redevelopment and extension of the existing house. Truncated natural sandy clay was observed at 95.18m OD to the north of the house and 92.13m OD to the south. Above this, a mixture of re-deposited sandy clay, 20th century bricks and glass fragments was overlain by make-up for York Stone paving in two test pits and by turf and topsoil in the third. These deposits relate to the construction of the house in 1930-1 and no earlier archaeological remains were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-50415
Chichester House, 278-282 High Holborn, WC1 TQ 30824 81555 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief September 2008 HEDF II UK Office Sarl & HEDF II UK Residential HHV08
One trench was monitored in the SE part of the site. Natural gravel was cut by a 19th century pit containing burnt wood, dumped building material and cessy deposits. This was sealed by modern concrete which had also truncated the natural deposits across the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-56256
62 Frognal, Hampstead, NW3 TQ 26128 85480 MOLA (Peter Cardiff) watching brief February 2008 Judd Architecture and Surveying Ltd FON08
Natural clay was observed beneath modern garden soil and building debris. No archaeological finds or features were recorded.
[OASIS ID - molas1-39338]" siteid="molas1-39338]
Great Ormond Street Hospital, Great Ormond Street, WC1 TQ 30481 82071 MOLA (Jon Crisp, Sian Anthony) evaluation March 2008-February 2009 Gardiner and Theobald LLP on behalf of Great Ormond Street Hospital GOM08
The excavation of a pit for a crane base was monitored. Natural gravels were overlain by an orange-brown clay layer beneath modern brick rubble and thick concrete. No archaeological features were observed. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-55410
31 Great Queen Street, WC2 TQ 3045 8130 MOLA (Andrew Westman and Patrizia Pierazzo) standing building survey April 2008 Brimelow McSweeney Architects GQS08
Assessment of Nos. 30, 31 and 32 Great Queen Street in 2007 was followed by recording of office fittings on the 1st floor of Nos. 30 and 31, before their proposed removal. In 1923–4 the latter site was redeveloped, with 26 and 28 Parker Street to the north, to form a single office building, now listed grade II. The original owners, the Royal Masonic Institution for Girls, had its headquarters on the 1st floor, and let out the rest to other businesses, while a caretaker’s flat occupied the 4th-floor roof space. The 1st floor included ornately panelled director’s and board rooms to the N (to be retained), and a single large space to the S, subdivided by timber partition walls to above head height, forming distinct offices to either side of a central passage. The original partitions were moulded in neo-Classical style, to suit the exterior of the building (architect, E. R. Barrow). Doors and internal windows with counters faced the passage, and some, but not all, offices directly intercommunicated. Subsequently some partitions were glazed to the ceiling, moved or dismantled, and internal windows were blocked, while new partitions were added, sometimes imitating the original style.
Kings Cross Package 3a: Footbridge, Kings Cross Station, NW1 TQ 30270 83107 MOLA (Andrew Westman) standing building recording September 2008 Morgan Estates KCP08
A footbridge running across the main station train shed, between platform 1 on the E side and platform 8 on the W side, was recorded prior to removal as part of the station redevelopment. This structure, approximately 66m long, was made of composite lattice girders with diagonal straps and it is supported by cast iron columns with octagonal bases on all platforms except on platforms 7-6. Although it only linked platforms 1 and 8, the presence of gates within the south parapet in line with the intermediate platforms suggest staircases were once present to allow access to these.
A clock was situated directly over platform 8, with two large clock faces, to N and S, fixed above the faces of the bridge, driven via a rod by a clock mechanism housed inside the W range of buildings nearby. Maker’s plates and dates indicate that the W side of the footbridge was constructed in 1892 by A Handyside & Co. of London, who were one of the leading contractors for structural ironwork in the second half of the 19th century, and whose name appears on other structures within the station. Possibly the E half of the bridge was an addition, or else a replacement. Perhaps the western half, if built first, was to connect only departure platforms, which the clock would also have served, when trains arrived at and departed from different platforms in the two halves of the station. The bridge was removed in December 2008.
OASIS ID: molas1-58076
King’s Cross Station, Package 4: Milk Dock & Hotel Curve tunnel portal, Cheney Street, N1 TQ 3016 8320, 3016 8320 MOLA (Andrew Westman and David Sorapure, David Sankey) standing building recording and watching brief May-June 2008, November 2008-January 2009 Taylor Woodrow KCP08
A brick wall, c.30m west of the suburban train shed, recorded under watching brief conditions, formed the north portal of the single-track Hotel Curve tunnel, constructed in 1863, repositioned further south by the 1890s and since disused. The brick side-walls of a cutting north of the portal contained arched recesses or refuges. The east wall of the cutting had partially collapsed during previous infilling with foam concrete in 2003. Post-1945 brick walls on the surface may have been for the so-called Milk Dock, where milk trains were unloaded. Additional monitoring of ground reduction works revealed brick and concrete foundations, possibly associated with the 19th century Train Shed and the Hotel Curve tunnel wall, beneath modern material.
OASIS ID: molas1-58222
Kings Cross Station: Northwest Block and Northern Building, Pancras Road, N1 TQ 30225 83004 MOLA (Peter Cardiff, Gemma Stevenson) watching brief January-February 2008 Network Rail KNX07
Following work in 2007, a further seventeen geotechnical test pits were monitored. Only modern made ground, re-deposited natural clay, brick fragments and concrete were observed. Natural deposits were not reached.
OASIS ID: molas1-40213
Kings Cross Station Redevelopment Programme Package 6 – Western Concourse and Associated Works, NW1 TQ 30250 83150 MOLA (Sian Anthony, David Sorapure) standing building survey and watching brief October-November 2008 Taylor Woodrow KOA08
A standing building survey was carried out to record the Old Parcel Yard roof, the southern end of the Suburban Train Shed, an outside wooden staircase, and areas on the eastern side of the Great Northern Hotel prior to demolition and redevelopment of the site.
The roof of the Old Parcel Yard covered an open area at the N end of the W range of station buildings. It consisted of a modern truss construction, formed from three sections of pitched roof running E-W supported by large steel lattice beams beneath the valleys of each roof. Iron rods acted as braces along with diagonal raking struts to support iron principal rafters, with the rods and struts transferring the weight onto a wrought iron tie beams. Where the W ends of the beams meet the E wall of the Suburban Train Shed they were supported by inbuilt stone corbels. At their E end the beams were inserted into the W wall of the eastern range building.
The Suburban Train Shed was a brick building situated directly E of the main station, on a slight NE-SW alignment with a double entrance at the S end and a second arched entrance situated in the E wall. The building was constructed in the 1870s, and was enlarged in 1895 and modernised in the 1930s. The survey revealed features reflecting the alterations to the structure during its lifetime, including differences in brickwork, decorative details, a now demolished chimney, and a roof formed from successive pitched bays running E-W, supported by steel trusses. The Hub Office, located at the S end of the shed, was the only part of the remaining suburban station building to exist at first floor level, consisting of two rooms with a kitchen in-between, while a blocked doorway at the W end would originally have led to the (now demolished) station buildings fronting Cheney Street.
A timber staircase situated at the N end of the Old Parcel Yard was also recorded. It comprised a gallery running E-W, reached by a dog-leg staircase, the lower portions of which had been replaced with steel. The wooden staircase abuts the E wall of the Suburban Train Shed, and is supported by a series of RSJs located in the N wall of the Old Parcel Yard. The staircase and walkway were built to fit into the awkward shape of the north end of the Old Parcel Yard. The steps ran alongside and parallel to the E wall of the Suburban Train Shed, whist the gallery was set at a different angle, resulting in a triangular shaped gap, between it and the N wall of the Old Parcel Yard. Running alongside the N edge of the gallery is a substantial steel lattice beam that supports the N end of the Old Parcel Yard roof. Both this beam and the timber gallery obscure a window within the N wall of the Old Parcel Yard, indicating that they are both later additions.
A watching brief was carried out to record the original York stone paving lying to the front (NE) of the Great Northern Hotel prior to its removal to excavate a trench for a ground beam. The paving was lifted after recording and some complete slabs and large pieces salvaged. Part of the 19th century hotel cellar (filled with concrete) was exposed during this work, as the paving stones lie directly on top of the walls with only a thin layer of slate used to level them.
OASIS ID: molas1-52649
King’s Cross Underground Station redevelopment Phase 2 Works Northern Ticket Hall (South-East stairs) NW1, TQ 30194 83068 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief April 2008 Metronet KXS01
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was undertaken. On the western side of the site, natural clay was overlain by modern made ground beneath the concrete slab. Within the made ground were the remains of two parallel brick footings associated with the Western Range of the station. In the remainder of the site contained only made ground was seen beneath modern concrete. No other archaeological remains were found.
OASIS ID: molas1-42289
Bond Street Station (LUL), Marylebone Lane, Bird Street, Stratford Place, W1 TQ 28520 81160 MOLA (Tom Hoyle) geo-archaeological watching brief September 2008 London Underground Ltd MBB08
A series of geotechnical boreholes were monitored. Two located at the north end of Stratford place revealed natural London clay beneath river terrace gravels and made ground of probable 17th-19th century date (although no datable finds were recovered). This was sealed by modern paving and tarmac. Three further boreholes at the south end of both branches of Marylebone Lane revealed a broadly similar sequence. A single fragment of possible human bone was recovered from the borehole on the west side of Marylebone Lane, which may be related to the churchyard of the medieval Tyburn Church which once stood nearby.
Middlesex Hospital Annexe (former), 44 Cleveland Street, W1 TQ 2926 8181 MOLA (Andrew Westman) June 2008 standing building survey University College Hospital NHS Trust MEX08
An assessment was carried out of a group of buildings which had most recently been used as the outpatients department of the Middlesex Hospital, 50m to the south-west. The central building, on the west of the site, fronting on to and set back from Cleveland Street, was constructed in 1775-8 as a workhouse for the parish of St Paul, Covent Garden. The site is documented as the Strand Union Workhouse from c.1836, when the rear of the building was modified and others were constructed (although these have since been removed). Extensions to the rear of the 18th-century building were constructed in 1874-5, when the site became a workhouse infirmary, the Central London Sick Asylum; the north and south wings of the 18th-century building were continued to the east end of the site, enclosing a yard between them. At the same time, two separate ranges were constructed running from Cleveland Street eastwards, backing on the north and south sides of the site respectively. These buildings still exist, although all have been modified to a greater or lesser extent since. The 18th-century building is also notable for its connection with Dr Joseph Rogers, whose successful campaign for hospital reform in the 1860s stemmed from his experiences as medical officer at this workhouse. The buildings were acquired by the Middlesex Hospital in 1924 and vacated in 2006.
St Giles Court, St Giles High Street, WC2 TQ 30021 81340 MOLA (Sian Anthony and Peter Cardiff) watching brief January 2008 Stanhope PLC SIC06
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was carried out on pile probing on the north side of the site. Only modern deposits were observed. No archaeological features were recorded and natural strata were not seen.
OASIS ID: molas1-43212
St. Botolphs and Ambassador Houses, Houndsditch, EC3 TQ 33525 81325 MOLA (Sadie Watson) watching brief March-May 2008 Minerva plc ABH04
Work was monitored following an evaluation and previous watching brief carried out by MoLAS in 2004. Natural sands and gravels were observed at c 10.50m OD and London Clay below that at c 3.50m OD. These were cut by a chalk-lined well, which probably dates to the later medieval period, in the north-eastern side of the site. Modern disturbance had truncated all later archaeological deposits.
Project Centurion (St Alphage House), EC2 TQ 34250 81609 MOLA (Hana Lewis) evaluation July-August 2008 Hammerson plc AHC07
Following work in 2007, three test pits were excavated. The evaluation area lies within the Roman Cripplegate fort and close to the medieval tower of Elsing Spital, also known as St Alphage Tower, a Grade II listed building which was founded in 1329. In the first trench, on the E side of St Alphage Tower, a yellow stock brick foundation or plinth associated with the rebuilding of the NE wall of the tower during 1962 consolidation works was observed. This was sealed by a compact mortar surface and modern paving.
The second trench, at the E end of the roadway in St Alphage Gardens revealed a dump probably deposited between the 16th-19th centuries (containing residual Roman brick and imbrex roof tile) cut by modern services at the N end. In the S part of the trench, a possible late Roman make-up deposit was sealed by two medieval occupation layers, one of which was cut by a small pit containing metalworking debris. This was covered by an external gravel surface which had once been laid up against a medieval chalk wall, for which only a robber cut was present. This wall may have been part of St Alphage Church, and the demolition material found nearby probably represents the robbing out of the material from it. The gravel layer was sealed by several medieval occupation layers, which in turn were cut by two medieval pits. One of these contained residual fragments of Roman samian pottery and imbrex tiles. A layer of probable 16th-19th century date covered these features, and was cut by modern services and sealed by modern deposits and paving.
The third trench, at the W end of the roadway in St Alphage Gardens, had been truncated by modern services at its N end and partly truncated to the S by Victorian basements which had been backfilled with rubble and ash, probably from WWII bomb damage. Nine pieces of worked Caen stone were recovered from the backfill, and these may originally have been part of St Alphage Church. Due to truncation at the N end, deposits could only be recorded in section. A fairly sterile Roman brickearth dumped layer was sealed by a medieval consolidation deposit, beneath a medieval gravel yard surface, which was sealed by later medieval dumping. This had been truncated by modern services and tarmac. Natural deposits were not observed in any of the trenches.
OASIS ID: molas1-47012
Walbrook Square (Bucklersbury House) EC4 TQ 32540 81000 MOLA (Ian Blair) evaluation February-May 2008 Stanhope Plc BBU05
Following work in 2005, a further 13 trial pits were excavated at Bucklersbury House, where Professor W F Grimes discovered the 3rd-century AD Roman Temple of Mithras in 1952-54. The trial pits were excavated within the shallower basements on the site. The most important discovery during the original evaluation was that part of the foundation of the north aisle ‘sleeper’ wall of the Temple of Mithras still survived on the east side of the site. It had been thought that the building had been completely dismantled and the stone and tile re-used in the reconstruction which was later built on a podium facing Queen Victoria Street.
The largest of the trial pits in the current work was located to determine whether the south wall of the temple had survived to a similar level. Despite the high level of truncation across the western half of the trench, the archaeology to the east was well preserved and the remains of both the south aisle and external wall of the temple were uncovered. Interestingly, the external wall was much shallower founded than the aisle wall to the north and had a timber drain or shuttering against its S face. The base of the deeper aisle wall was defined 1m lower and it is assumed that the foundation was strengthened as it constituted one of the main load-bearing walls of the building – which supported an internal colonnade along the side of the sunken nave.
It was known from Grimes’s original excavation in the 1950s that the temple had been constructed on unstable reclaimed ground on the east bank of the Walbrook – with the result that the building had been affected by subsidence and required repair and modification. The reasons for this were evident in the exposed face of the trial pit, which provided a sectional view of a large number of highly organic and originally waterlogged reclamation dumps that the temple had been constructed on.
As well as revealing the foundations for the east end of the Temple of Mithras, further south, part of a Roman clay-and-timber building was defined occupying a similar position on reclaimed ground on the east bank of the Walbrook. The structure was composed of a substantial brickearth clay wall based on a timber baseplate supported on driven timber piles, with a number of internal floor and occupation deposits defined on either side of the wall. The Roman sequences recorded in the other trial pits, included waterlogged fills and dumps in, or on the margins of, the Walbrook channel, two intercutting plank and tile lined drains cut into the reclamation dumps on the W bank of the Walbrook, and a decayed box-lined well.
Later features and deposits of medieval and probable 16th-18th century date survived in four of the trial pits, including external levelling dumps, unlined rubbish and cess pits, and an 18th century brick-lined well or drainage sump. The foundations and basements of the present building had removed all later deposits.
OASIS ID: molas1-4153
Christ Church Greyfriars, Newgate Street & King Edward Street, EC1 TQ 3200 8138 MOLA (Andrew Westman, David Sorapure) standing building survey July–August 2008 City of London CGX08
The surviving north wall of the church, a grade I listed building, was examined while under repair. Originally the church of a 13th-c Franciscan friary, it was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren after the Great Fire of 1666, then bombed in the Second World War and, in 1973, its east end was demolished. On the northern (external) face, Caen and Reigate stone blocks were laid in alternating courses above a Portland stone ashlar plinth, the coursing becoming less regular above the five high, round-headed windows. The Caen and Reigate stones are likely to be medieval in origin; a Reigate block, removed from the wall, was moulded on its inner face, raising the possibility that more could be similarly moulded. The southern (internal) wall face is a mixture of Caen and Reigate stone, flints, brick and tile, the windows dressed with Portland stone, their arches being formed of brick, with Portland stone pilasters marking former bay divisions between the windows. This face was not finished as well as the external face; consequently the mouldings of many reused stones could be seen in profile, embedded in the wall, especially higher up, often recognisable as having originally formed window mullions and jambs, perhaps from the medieval church. Some stones had been burned twice, firstly in their original position, in 1666, and a second time in their reused position, in 1940. A fragment of decorated glazed floor tile, used as packing beside a window, is dated 1250–1300. Work continues.
Cannon Place, City of London EC4 TQ 32620 80850 MOLA (Jeremy Taylor) excavation and watching brief November 2007 – November 2008 Hines UK CNV08
The site forms part of the Scheduled Ancient Monument known as the ‘Roman Governor’s Palace’ excavated from 1961-72 and interpreted by Peter Marsden as the probable residence of the Roman Governor of Britain, dating from the Flavian period and requiring the terracing of the hillside for the construction of this palatial official building and its ornamental garden.
Following previous work in 2004 under the code CCP04, this phase of the station redevelopment included excavation and/or monitoring of 11 pile caps within the viaduct arches (including six which were extensions of trial pits excavated in 2004) and four trenches for new drain sump pits. The watching brief monitored a series of ‘starter pits’ and trenches on the E side of Dowgate Hill, dug for the insertion of king posts on the W side of the viaduct.
Truncated, in situ, natural London Clay was observed in deep trenches towards the north end of Dowgate hill and in a car park area beneath the station. Elsewhere, in situ natural alluvial clay was recorded within the viaduct towards the W site limit, while in the central and E areas, in situ natural sands were recorded.
The Roman archaeological sequence is predominant, with all Roman masonry being provisionally dated to the 1st-2nd century. Extended excavation of areas previously visited in 2004 increased exposure of 1st century internal brickearth partition walls as well as substantial 1st-2nd century masonry walls/foundations. Whether the masonry all relates to the ‘Governor’s Palace’ is unclear, but it seems particularly likely that structural remains located towards the E site limit are associated with buildings interpreted by Marsden as lying within the ‘Garden Court’. N of the Garden Court, newly exposed masonry included two, c.2m wide, ragstone walls associated with a massive building central to the Palace complex, Marsden’s ‘Great Hall’ (or Room 42). One section formed the SW corner of the Hall, the other section extended from and to the W of the Hall and corresponds with a separate fragment of masonry previously recorded by Marsden (Wall 42A). Further west, fragments of two adjacent wall foundations, also c 2m wide, may represent an apsidal ‘chamber’, mirroring foundations of a structure Marsden recorded east of the Hall (Room 44).
Several features of provisional 11th-12th century date were recorded, including a large chalk foundation located towards the centre of the site. While only partly visible, it appeared to form the SE corner of a substantial masonry building. A chalk and ragstone lined cess/rubbish pit of similar date was partly exposed in a drain sump pit near the W site limit All surviving Roman and medieval masonry has been preserved in situ, sealed within a geotextile skin below a layer of sand.
The majority of 16th-18th century deposits were destroyed when the viaduct was built in the 1860s. However, limited remains were recorded towards the W site limit, including a brick cellar wall and a substantial brick foundation, both of probable 17th century date, possibly relating to post-Great Fire redevelopment along Dowgate Hill. Deep trenches excavated near the northern limit of Dowgate Hill revealed Victorian brick basements relating to the former City Terminus Hotel, a five storey structure which provided the frontage to the original railway station from 1867 until its demolition in 1963. Work continues.
20 Cannon Street, EC4 TQ 32255 80992 MOLA (Aaron Birchenough) watching brief April and September 2008 Bennett Urban Planning CNZ07
Two watching briefs were undertaken. In the first, seven window samples were monitored during preliminary work ahead of structural alterations to the existing building. No clear archaeological deposits were identified during the course of the earlier window sampling and it would appear that up to 4m of made ground survives below the current slab in the basement car park.
During the second watching brief, geotechnical test pits within the basement were monitored. Natural gravel was observed at 9.83m OD. Above this was a layer of 20th century brick fragments and concrete, within which a ragstone block was found. It is possible that the ragstone was once part of the masonry structure recorded in the mid-1950s (WFG36) and was removed during the subsequent redevelopment of the site with the fragments used as hardcore. Modern concrete slab completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-42202
Crosby Square (The Pinnacle), EC2 TQ 33150 81270, 33133 81214, 33135 81239, 33150 81270 MOLA (Ken Pitt) excavation September, November 2007-February 2008, watching brief April-May 2008, excavation May-July, October-November 2008 The Pinnacle No.1 Ltd CYQ05
Following work in 2007, three further phases of excavation and a watching brief were carried out. Excavation for the foundations of a service diversion gantry revealed a Roman opus signinum floor cut by fourteen medieval grave cuts relating to the cemetery of St Helen Bishopsgate, beneath modern material.
An excavation undertaken at 4 Crosby Square revealed natural brickearth sealed by Roman dumped deposits. Over these was a series of Roman clay-and-timber buildings, the earliest of which were provisionally dated to the 1st century AD. Along the E limit of the area, a mud brick wall was found with white wall plaster and a plain white fine tessellated border. In the NW corner of this area, cutting the clay-and-timber building was a sunken Roman plunge pool constructed from brick with a thick opus signinum floor and rendering on the internal faces. These features were cut by pits of late Roman or medieval date beneath a dumped soil horizon (dating pending) which in turn was truncated by the basement of the modern building.
A watching brief was undertaken on a trench for a secant wall on the E side of Crosby Square, followed by an excavation. This revealed natural brickearth beneath the fragmented remains of Roman clay and timber buildings. These had been cut by a series of late Roman or medieval pits, which in turn were sealed by yard surfaces and walls of late medieval date which may have been associated with the 15th century Crosby Hall which stood nearby. Walls of 17th-18th century date were also found. The removal of the Hall to Chelsea in 1908 had truncated later deposits in the 2m below present ground level.
A small excavation undertaken between on a sewer drop shaft at the junction of Great St Helens and Crosby Square revealed natural brickearth sealed by a thick Roman dumped deposit. Over this was a N–S aligned Roman internal wall with opus signinum floors on either side which appeared to have been destroyed in a fire and the foundation robbed leaving only part of the eastern plaster face remaining. Demolition material sealed the remains of the building and over this was a later Roman opus signinum floor, probably the same floor found in the gantry trench immediately to the E. Four inhumations and cemetery soil associated with medieval St Helen Bishopsgate were cut into and over this floor. Work continues.
Devonshire Square, 9-11 Cutlers Gardens, EC2 TQ 33401 81431 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz) watching brief January-July 2008 Fletcher Priest Architects DQC08
Six trenches were monitored. Previous archaeological works were carried out in 1979-80 under the code CUT78.
Natural deposits were not observed. The northern courtyard was characterised by extensive agricultural soil horizons containing pottery of 17th-century date. These were cut by a pit containing horn cores and 17/18th-century clay tobacco pipes and by two brick culverts, orientated east-west and north-south which were recorded in the eastern part of the courtyard. These were probably associated with the East India Company warehouses which were built on the site at the end of the 18th-century.
In the southern courtyard, two of the three trenches excavated exposed modern remains. The third, in the south, revealed 18th-century soil horizons cut by a brick vaulted undercroft structure and part of a brick wall, possibly associated with the former 18th-century warehouses. Modern concrete sealed these remains.
OASIS ID: molas1-53339
16-18 Finsbury Circus, 18-31 Eldon Street, EC2 TQ 3294 8166 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) watching brief January-February 2008 Prudential Portfolio Managers Ltd. ENS03
Following work in 2006, a watching brief was carried out on the excavation of drain runs, although these did not penetrate beneath the level of the existing drainage system. No archaeological remains were observed and natural strata were not reached.
20 Fenchurch Street, EC3 TQ 3308 8088 MOLA (Robin Wroe-Brown and Gemma Stevenson) excavation January-May, December 2008 Land Securities FEU08
Following work in 2007 under the code FCU05, the first of three planned phases of excavation was undertaken on the south and central parts of the site. Natural deposits consisted of sandy gravel capped in places by brickearth.
Early Roman occupation on site consisted of surfaces, post pits, beam slots and other structural evidence from the first and second centuries, although these were somewhat fragmentary due to later truncation. A line of large structural post holes on the north side of the site, early in the sequence, indicated the presence of a first-century building. Some of these features may belong to the 1st-century fort found to the east at Plantation Place under the site code FER97.
In the centre of the site three sides of a late Roman cellar were found. It measured 5m by 7m and over 2.5m deep, the eastern extent being beyond the edge of the excavation. Most of the masonry had been robbed out after its disuse but the substantial ragstone foundations remained to show that it was part of an impressive building. To the north the wall was dug deeply into the natural slope, forming a terrace behind it. The ceiling had been supported by a large square column base built of Roman bricks. It was floored with mortar directly onto the natural sands. Later, part of the cellar was divided off by a thin partition wall between the column and the south edge. A second mortar floor may have been associated with this phase. In addition to an abundance of pottery, finds from the site included items of jewellery, a quantity of Roman painted wall plaster and a glass sherd with the letter ‘A’ inscribed on it.
Survival from later periods was mostly confined to deep pits due to truncation. These included medieval chalk-lined cesspits, a barrel well and 17th-century refuse pits.
Although truncation by modern and Victorian basements was severe, substantial deposits remained across the site. Work continues. The second phase began in December 2008 in the south-east corner and is ongoing.
78-87 Fenchurch Street, EC3 TQ 33480 81070 MOLA (Sian Anthony) evaluation December 2008 Shieldpoint78 FNR08
Six evaluation trenches and two auger hole transects were undertaken within the existing basements on the site. Natural brickearth overlying gravel was observed, although this has been truncated down to gravels as it slopes down towards the southern end of the site. Auguring was carried out in the central portion of the site (82-87 Fenchurch Street) and showed only heavily truncated natural gravel and no evidence for any watercourse associated with the streams of the Lorteburn, which was thought to run through this area.
The first trench, on the W side of the site, revealed a compact metalled surface overlain by a sandy clay backfill layer containing occasional Roman pottery. This was overlain by a N-S aligned chalk wall abutted by a probably contemporary mortar and gravel floor surface. An E-W aligned ragstone wall, partly footed on the previous wall, was recorded and may be associated with the rebuilding of the building and possibly a division of its basement. The E-W wall was abutted by an undated mortar floor and two occupation layers, which were in turn sealed by demolition deposits of probable late medieval date. These were cut by a 19th century brick wall and brick drain, beneath modern made ground and concrete.
The second trench, towards the middle of site, contained natural brickearth cut by two (unexcavated) pits and overlain by dark silty sandy clay. Above this, in the N part of the pit, a medieval dumped deposit was cut by an E-W aligned chalk wall probably representing a medieval cellar wall or cess pit. The fill of this feature included fragments of building material, medieval pottery, animal bone, and a carved sandstone mould possibly used for metal casting. This fill was truncated by modern concrete. The third trench, on the W side of site, contained natural brickearth overlain by a sand and silty clay deposit (which may be the backfill of a large feature such as a quarry pit) which was truncated by modern concrete.
In the fourth trench, natural sand and gravel was cut by a probable Roman quarry pit containing a series of backfilled deposits. The secondary fills were re-deposited terrace gravels which may have been used to fill and consolidate the ground, but could also represent a metalled surface with continual renewal of the surface. These were truncated by modern concrete. The fifth trench, in the south of the site, revealed natural gravels, overlain by re-deposited brickearth possibly representing fill or slumping from Roman quarrying. This was cut by a pit of probable medieval date, overlain by a layer of possible 16th-18th century date beneath modern made ground and concrete.
The last trench, on the E side of site, contained natural brickearth over gravels, cut by a possible Roman pit, which in turn was cut by a pit of probable medieval date containing some residual Roman material. These features were truncated by a large square pit filled with concrete, which may be associated with previous excavations under the site code PUB80 which suggested that a line of medieval pits existed at the E end of the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-53158
Anti-Slavery Monument, Fen Court EC3, TQ 3322 8100 MOLA (David Sankey) watching brief June 2008 City of London FNT07
Fen Court forms part of the historic churchyard of St Gabriel Fenchurch (formerly St Mary Fenchurch also known as All Hallows Fenchurch). Three foundation trenches were sited in a line above the line of the graveyard wall identified as one of the four historic walls observed during work in 2007. The wall was reduced by 3 brick course in the area of the new foundations and they were protected by a geotextile membrane. A fourth foundation trench in line with these three lay to the north of the graveyard wall and, together with a fifth foundation on the east side of the main passageway, did not disturb archaeological remains. Specialist investigations of the bricks recovered in the watching brief indicate that they are likely to be 17th-century.
OASIS ID: molas1-26938
2-18 St Bride Street, 87-88 Farringdon Street London EC4. TQ 31590 81270 MOLA (Andy Daykin, Isca Howell) watching brief May-August 2008 Development Securities PLC FRZ06
Following work in 2007, a series of monitoring visits were undertaken. Foreshore deposits from the nearby River Fleet and provisionally dated to the 17th century were observed on the north-east of the site. On the western side, dumped deposits pre-dating the modern development and provisionally dated to the 17th-18th century were observed to a depth of approximately 1m. Elsewhere the excavations revealed truncated natural brickearth deposits consistent with those seen during the 2007 excavations.
OASIS ID: molas1-56138
Drop shaft outside 6-10 Foster Lane, EC2 TQ 32180 81300 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief August-September 2008 Corporation of London FSL08
The excavation of a single drop shaft was monitored. A large N-S aligned brick drain of possible 19th century date was observed beneath a gravel surface which was sealed by a deposit containing fragments of opus signinum, Roman pottery, oyster shell and animal bone. The layers above this were obscured by wooden shoring installed for health and safety purposes.
OASIS ID: molas1-61830
Princes and Bartlett Houses, 6-12 Basinghall Street, 93-95 Gresham Street, EC2 TQ 32570 81310 MOLA Sadie Watson excavation and watching brief May-June 2008 Standard Life Investments GHB06
Following work in 2007, an excavation was carried out in the area of the former Bartlett House. In the N of the Bartlett House site, truncated natural gravels were observed, although no brickearth had survived due to truncation from the previous buildings. The gravels were cut by an E-W aligned palaeo-channel, which had been re-cut and partly canalised during the Roman period. Within the man-made cut, a wooden drain constructed from oak timbers was recorded, while Roman pottery was recovered from the upper fills of the channel. The drain may date from the early Roman period, and appears to have been backfilled later, possibly to enable construction during the expansion of the Roman city. A small area of clay-and-timber building and associated occupation layers was excavated in the N part of the site. To the E of this, two deep pits were recorded, one containing a 1st century AD samian bowl.
Along the E edge of the site, two inter-cutting ditches curved in a SW direction, possibly reflecting the curve of the walls of the Roman amphitheatre which was located to the W. These may relate to late Roman activity, as they cut the upper fills of the palaeo -channel and are themselves cut by pits of c.970-1000AD containing large assemblages of domestic refuse. Several also contained the decayed remains of wattle-and-post linings. They were presumably located to the rear of buildings fronting Basinghall Street,
In the central N part of the site, two 12th-century chalk foundations were recorded cutting a number of earlier pits, including a barrel well containing a large assemblage of pottery. A ragstone wall along the E site boundary may be the W wall of the medieval church of St Stephen Coleman or part of Mason’s Hall, a substantial 15th century building. Several medieval pits were excavated across the site, including one containing a large assemblage of pottery.
At the SE corner of the excavation a stone-lined well/soakaway of probable 15th/16th century date was recorded. Constructed from high quality stone, it had been partly incorporated into a brick rebuild of the S party wall of Bartlett House. All later activity on the site had been truncated by the foundations and basements of 20th century buildings. A watching brief carried out within the sub-basement of Bartlett House and the adjacent site of the former Princes House, revealed only modern material truncating natural deposits.
5-7 Giltspur Street, EC1 TQ 31805 81500 MOLA (Rosalind Aitken) watching brief October 2008 Daniel Watney GSP08
Eight geotechnical test pits were monitored. In four of these, modern deposits overlay pit fills of probable late medieval date, while one contained natural sand beneath the basement slab. The remainder revealed only modern material.
OASIS ID: molas1-52126
36–41 Gracechurch StreetLondon EC3, TQ 3292 8089 MOLA (David Sankey) Excavation and watching brief May 2008 - January 2009 City of London GSY07
Following work in 2007, a limited area excavation revealed a sequence of Roman clay and timber buildings cut through by medieval cess pits. The Roman sequence was horizontally truncated at 12.4m OD or below and later Roman finds were recovered from secondary (medieval) contexts. The Roman remains are consequently limited to the 1st and possibly the early 2nd century. A mid 12th-c rubbish pit (dated by roof tile rather than pot) was succeeded by a large 14th-century chalk-lined cess pit with rye grains in the fill.
Archaeological monitoring of construction activity also revealed an 18th-c well and a collection of material including ancient timber, Roman roof tile and a possibly Roman brass object – or indeed an 18th- or 19th-century object – with classical decoration. This material was recovered from piling operations 6m below basement depth and considered to be from a secondary 20th-century context.
OASIS ID: molas1-53804
Heron Tower (Kempson House, 35–37 Camomile Street and Bishopsgate House, 106–126 Bishopsgate), EC3 TQ 33250 81450 MOLA (David Sorapure, David Sankey) watching brief January, February-April, August-September 2008 Heron Property Corporation Ltd KPH05
Following work in 2007, a series of watching briefs were carried out around the perimeter of the site. The first area monitored was a 25m long, E-W aligned trench excavated by the contractors along the southern edge of the site. This revealed pinkish-brown sandy silt containing 20th century brick rubble beneath modern made ground, concrete and tarmac.
The second area monitored was excavated adjacent to the NE corner of Kempson House. This revealed a sandy deposit containing red and yellow brick rubble and mortar fragments, beneath the concrete foundations of the present building, modern made ground, services and the concrete slab. The final area monitored was a trench on the former E edge of Kempson House on the W side of Outwich Street. A brown silty clay layer containing concrete fragments was overlay by a brown layer including brick, roof tile, chimney pots and tarmac beneath modern made ground and the concrete slab.
A watching brief on pile probing and perimeter works was then carried out. This revealed natural terrace gravels over London clay in several pile holes, usually having been truncated by modern foundations. In one area brick cellars of probable 18th-19th century date were observed beneath modern foundations. One pile probe exposed a dark grey ditch fill and a section through the later-version brick Irongate sewer (which was observed during the 2007 work) beneath modern material.
In the next phase, on the N part of the site, the ground was reduced to c.8m OD but no archaeological remains were observed. The second area monitored was on the W side of the site where a deposit of black, anaerobic silty clay was cut by a 19th century red brick drain. These remains probably represent the S edge of the City ditch, cut by the Irongate Sewer. No evidence for the City Wall was observed and this is thought to lie to the S of the site.
Between two piles, natural gravels were cut by the City ditch, which was observed on an E-W alignment and measuring some 4.8m deep. No dating evidence was recovered from the homogeneous black fill of the ditch. A third area, in the SE corner of the site, revealed brown silty sand cut by brick foundations of probable 18th-19th century date, and overlain by 20th century demolition debris. Following this, a watching brief was carried out to ensure that any human remains from the Roman extra-mural cemetery were not disturbed and that the City Wall (a Scheduled Ancient Monument) was not exposed by enabling works. No remains were observed.
8–13 Lime Street, London EC3, TQ 33130 81020 MOLA (Alison Telfer) watching brief January-February 2008 PPG Metro Lime Street Ltd LMZ06
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was carried out on groundworks during a piling programme within the basement. It continued within the footprint of 12–13 Lime Street, after the standing building was demolished, and monitored a targeted, reduced dig in order to insert ground beams and a new basement slab.
Natural brickearth was cut by backfilled Roman pits at the very northern end of the site but no other features were observed. Above this, and elsewhere on the site, 19th-20th century landfill, make-up and services were recorded beneath modern concrete.
OASIS ID: molas1-45231
Forum House, 15–18 Lime Street, London EC3 TQ 33095 81005 MOLA (Simon Pennington, David Sankey) excavation November 2007 – July 2008 F&C Investments LSC07
Following work in 2007, an excavation took place prior to the construction of new foundations. Natural sands and gravels had been cut by several large Roman quarry pits which were sealed by later Roman deposits. Above these were a Roman masonry lined well, which had been partially robbed out, a deep Roman pit containing substantial amphorae, and the remains of a number of clay and timber buildings (including a carbonised beam or sole-plate with a lead base). These structures would have fronted a substantial Roman road running along the E side of the later Forum. The Roman layers were cut by several deep medieval pits, a chalk lined medieval cess pit containing a glass urinal vessel (used for the medical inspection of urine), and a chalk-and-brick wall of 17th-18th century date. Modern foundations and basements had removed all later archaeological deposits.
OASIS ID: molas1-49980
Mariner House, Crutched Friars, London EC1 TQ 33443 80865 MOLA (Kirk Roberts, Antonietta Lerz) excavation April-November 2008 City Inn Limited MCF06
Following evaluation work in 2006, an excavation was carried out in areas required for new piled foundations. Natural gravels beneath brickearth were cut by heavily truncated pits and ditches of late Roman date, including an E-W aligned V-shaped ditch in the NW corner of the site and a similarly aligned ditch to the S which may represent property boundaries. Several pits containing Roman pottery were excavated in the N part of the site and, since they respect the line of the northern ditch, they were probably contemporary with it. On the E side of site, a probable well was recorded, containing a number of complete Roman vessels including black burnished ware pots, part of an amphora, a ‘face jar’ and a bowl with a makers stamp. Traces of more substantial structures, including a robbed out N-S aligned masonry wall, were also seen, although the area seems to have been mainly open land during this period.
The site lay within the Friary of the Crutched Friars and remains associated with this establishment were recorded, including three chalk pile foundations, probably for the W wall of the friary church. These had been constructed within pits probably representing industrial activity on the site before the foundation of the friary. Within the church, three complete and several truncated burials of adult males were recorded, including one wearing a studded belt. The church floor had been laid with 14th-century ‘Penn’ floor tiles from Buckinghamshire, although only one was still in situ and the remainder were found re-used in later structures. A medieval chalk cellar was located to the S of the church remains. Several other structures associated with the friary were found, including a chalk well (with later brick repairs) in the NW of the site, chalk foundations on the N side and series of pits of the W side containing 13th-14th century pottery including an aquamanile in the form of an animal being ridden by a knight. A large cut feature containing a dark organic fill may represent a monastic fish pond.
Much of the earlier archaeology had been truncated by brick structures of 17th-19th century date. On the W side of the site, a heavily truncated, possibly 17th century, building and brick-lined cess pits were recorded. The majority of the remains provisionally date from the 18th-early 19th century and consist of a number of N-S aligned brick walls with integral brick drains, E-W brick partitions, and floor surfaces associated with the walls.
On the E side of the site, a medieval chalk cellar had been backfilled and sealed beneath a brick-built Tudor structure, while in the area of the church, a complex water drainage system seems to have re-used earlier chalk foundations. An 18th-century brick wall also incorporated chalk blocks and stone fragments from the friary in its foundations. Several 19th-century brick cellars were located along the N perimeter of site, backfilled with rubble prior to the construction of Mariner House in the 1960s. Several 18th century properties were identified in the N part of the site, with N-S aligned walls and brick floors recorded in the central area. Modern deposits and foundations associated with the 19th/20th century buildings on the site sealed the archaeological sequence.
52-58 Minories, EC3 TQ 33682 80920 MOLA (Jon Crisp) evaluation and geotechnical monitoring July 2008 JG Land & Estates MIQ08
Four geotechnical test pits and a single borehole were monitored. In two test pits, modern truncation had removed all archaeological deposits. In one test pit within the interior courtyard area, a clayey silt layer containing 17th-18th century pottery was overlain by modern made ground, brick rubble and tarmac. Another test pit on the entrance ramp to the courtyard revealed a similar sequence, although sealed by thick concrete rather than tarmac. The single borehole in the courtyard area revealed natural coarse gravels beneath the clayey silt layer, which again was sealed by made ground and tarmac.
120 Middlesex Street, 12-18 Artillery Lane, EC3 TQ 33398 81678 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz) watching brief January-August 2008 Artillery Lane Limited MIX08
A watching brief was maintained on three phases of ground reduction works to lower the existing basement as part of the redevelopment. Natural sand was overlain by layers of 16th-17th century made ground and dumping which extended across the site.
The dumped deposits were cut by two rubbish pits of similar date. Modern concrete sealed the archaeological deposits. A geotechnical test pit was monitored in the southern part of the site where a similar sequence of deposits was recorded.
OASIS ID: molas1-37322
Milton Court, EC2 TQ 32580 81830 MOLA (Peter Cardiff) watching brief March 2008 DP9 MLU07
A watching brief was carried out within the basement of the building. A single geotechnical pit was excavated to check for the presence of ground water. Truncated natural clay was overlain by modern made ground and concrete. No archaeological features were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-39855
The Monument, EC3 TQ 32940 80760 MOLA (Julian Bowsher) watching brief December 2008 Corporation of London MUM08
The excavation of an 18m long cable trench was monitored. Only modern fills beneath modern paving were recorded except at the end adjacent to the Monument, where three 19th century brick features were observed. These probably relate to the railings which were once installed on either side of the entrance doorway. Natural deposits were not seen.
OASIS ID: molas1-54659
Piercy House, 7-9 Copthall Avenue EC2 TQ 3276 8141 MOLA (Sasathorn Pickering) watching brief July-November 2008 Ian Springford Architects on behalf of Apex Hotels PEY07
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was carried out on the excavation of new drains in the basement car park. A dark silty layer containing pottery of Roman date was sealed by modern made ground and concrete. Natural deposits were not seen.
Queenhithe Wharf Frontage, Property number N230, EC4 TQ 32293 80794 MOLA (William Mills) geoarchaeological evaluation October 2007-June 2008 Environment Agency QHY05
Following work in 2007, two geo-archaeological boreholes were drilled as part of the archaeological mitigation for the repair and refurbishment of the eastern wall of Queenhithe Dock.
The northern borehole (NBH) was drilled to a depth of just over 12m, into the surface of London Clay bedrock, which was overlain by sands and gravels accumulated within the Roman river and on the medieval foreshore. The uppermost c 3m of the foreshore gravel deposits were organic and clayey and could represent refuse dumped onto the foreshore or immediately behind revetments, as they were being built. Organic remains within this deposit were dated by radiocarbon to AD1000-AD1170 and it is possible that this borehole location lay on the open foreshore until the construction of the thirteenth-century waterfront. The foreshore deposits were sealed by 3.2m of make up for the river wall.
OASIS ID: molas1-46374
Riverbank House, Upper Thames Street, EC4 TQ 32730 80670 MOLA (Anthony Mackinder) excavation January–October 2008 Pace City Investments Ltd RKH06
Following work in 2007, pile locations around the perimeter of the site were excavated. This area had been the subject of an extensive watching brief in 1981-82 as Swan Lane Car Park under the site code SWA81. Sixteen large pile holes were excavated, and a watching brief was carried out on works in the area of SWA81.
The late 3rd century Roman riverside wall survived to a height of 1.40m under the southern pavement of Lower Thames Street. This was built over several timbers probably associated with the Roman 2nd century waterfront.
There were a series of medieval timber waterfronts, timber drains and associated dumps. Along the Angel Passage frontage (on the W side of site) there were at least four E-W running post and plank revetments. There were also several chalk walls and foundations of buildings that are assumed to be medieval in date.
A wide range of medieval items were recovered; these include numerous coins and tokens, pilgrim souvenirs including badges, a large decorated ampulla to hold holy water and a large decorated panel, knives, pins, buckles, fishing weights, horse shoes, a candle holder, cloth seals, chapes, a needle holder, razors, a spoon, a curry comb, several finger rings and numerous dress decorations.
Non metal items include leather shoes and scabbards, stone hones to sharpen knives, the worked bone items include handles, awls and an ice skate, and several wooden skewers may be to hold fish for drying.
A devotional lead openwork panel, with four scenes from the life and death of (‘St’) Thomas of Lancaster, probably mid 14th century date was found. It is a visual record of the last days of Earl Thomas, cousin and principal political opponent of Edward II in the early 14th century, who was executed in 1322 following his capture and trial at Pontefract, which was subsequently the centre of his popular cult as an unofficial saint. This remarkably accomplished and complete find of one of the largest known pilgrim souvenirs from the Middle Ages (a couple of small side panels may be missing) has several parallels, most being small fragments, and the British Museum has long held a near-complete six-panelled version of markedly poorer style. Additionally, this new find has a commentary in slightly garbled French, which for the first time reveals the maker’s intended message - a few other examples have nonsensical jumbles of letters.
On the Swan Lane frontage (on the E side of site) there were at least 10 post-and-plank timber revetments, the highest surviving to 2m in height, while others only the base-plates survived. Some revetments were running east-west, but others running north-south and front braced were probably defining property boundaries. There were also several timber tiebacks belonging to a waterfront running beneath Swan Lane. Several chalk foundations are probably the remains of buildings.
There were several timber waterfronts and associated dumps of probable 17th century date, and several sections of wooden water pipes, made from a reused ships pump. There were also brick buildings including several cellars backfilled with Great Fire (1666) debris. Modern material completed the sequence. Natural was not observed.
St Bride’s Church, Fleet Street EC4 TQ 31551 81141 MOLA (David Sorapure) watching brief March 2008 City of London SBF08
The construction of a disabled access ramp within the gardens around the church was monitored. One half of the internal steps were replaced by the ramp. No archaeological remains were exposed or removed.
OASIS ID: molas1-52716
St James Garlickhythe Church, Skinner’s Lane, EC4 TQ 32380 80857 MOLA (Isca Howell) watching brief October 2008 Briscoe and Stanton Architects SGK08
Four exploratory holes, located in the yard to the north-east of the church, were monitored in advance of the construction of a new Parish Room for the church. The results of the watching brief have shown the top of the previously known burial vault lies 0.60m–0.80m below the present ground surface, in the south-west corner of the yard, and evidence for a chalk block foundation, 0.70m below the present ground surface, along the Skinner’s Lane frontage. Elsewhere only the footings of the church and modern made ground were observed. There was no evidence that any burials had been disturbed.
OASIS ID: molas1-50863
St Michael’s Church, Cornhill, EC3 TQ 32950 81078 MOLA (Sadie Watson) watching brief March-April 2008 City Surveyor’s Office SIQ08
A watching brief was carried out on groundworks for the installation of railings. Natural was not observed. The earliest deposit was a buried cemetery soil, seen at c 16.95m OD. This was covered by the modern turf and topsoil. No human remains were encountered during the works.
OASIS ID: molas1-41498
Stationers’ Hall Garden, Ave Maria Lane EC4 TQ 31803 81189 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz) watching brief January 2008 RLF London SNU08
Following previous watching briefs carried out on the site in 2002 and 2006 (under the codes AMR02 and AEN06), two shallow trenches for wall footings encircling the raised garden were monitored as part of re-landscaping works in the courtyard gardens. In one trench, layers of garden soil dating from the 16th century were overlain by a later but undated wooden garden feature and a brick pathway. The second trench was shallower and only revealed modern deposits. Natural deposits were not observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-37591
Tower of St Mary Somerset, Lambeth Hill EC4 TQ 32163 80880 MOLA (Isca Howell) watching brief November 2008 Kate Renwick SYO03
Following work in 2003, two areas were investigated during the redevelopment of the building as a residential property. One was located within the tower of the church while the other was on its north side. During these works, a short section of the W wall of the Wren church was exposed, and a substantial quantity of disarticulated skeletal remains were removed for reburial.
OASIS ID: molas1-54242
10 Trinity Square, EC3 TQ 33450 80800 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief September-October 2008 City of London Department of Planning and Transportation TRN08
Three test pits were excavated on the site of the former Port of London Authority building. Natural light grey sand was cut by a 19th century wall (constructed from re-used bricks of 17th-18th century date) beneath modern foundations was recorded in one trench.
OASIS ID: molas1-54396
1 Tudor Street, EC4 TQ 31580 80965 MOLA (Portia Askew) evaluation January-February 2008 Stockland Halladale Land Ltd TUS08
Two evaluation test-pits were excavated on the northern (lower ground floor) part of the site. One revealed natural London Clay below modern disturbed ground and concrete. The second test pit revealed modern concrete and disturbed ground beneath the basement slab. No archaeological deposits were observed, and none appear to survive in the NW and NE parts of the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-37828
3, 4 and 5 Wardrobe Place, EC4 TQ 3187 8102 MOLA (Andrew Westman, Valeria Boesso) standing building recording October 2008 Montague Evans LLP on behalf of Warnford Investments Ltd WPE08
Three adjacent terraced town houses, probably constructed just before 1720, are brick- built on four storeys with a basement. Originally all three houses were independent properties, although No. 3, to the N, the smallest house, lacks coal cellars. Nos. 4 and 5 are fronted by narrow basement areas with vaulted coal cellars under Wardrobe Place. Original structures include the brick walls and timber floor frames: a single large timber girder is on each floor, with tenoned and pegged joists, frequently waney. The window frames and sash boxes flush with the external wall face, and straight-moulded, pegged staircases in Nos. 4 and 5, are also original. Doorcases to Nos. 4 and 5 are of late 18th-century type. Other fixtures are probably no older than the mid 19th century, when two of the buildings were lodging houses. No 3 was connected internally with No 4 from at least 1901; its entrance and staircase were removed, possibly in the 1930s, when all the buildings were offices. Extensions were added to the rear, the top floors were modified, and the roofs rebuilt (now hipped to the N and tiled). In 1980 all three buildings were connected internally. In 1996 Nos 3 and 4 were converted to residences and the entrance and staircase reinstated at No. 3. Panelling in No. 5, although probably 18th-century, as well as the marble fire surrounds, are likely to have been inserted recently.
OASIS ID: molas1-50892
Wellesley Square, Wellesley Road, CR0 TQ 32400 66210 MOLA (Sadie Watson) evaluation February 2008 Berkeley Homes (South East London) Ltd WQU08
Six evaluation trenches were excavated prior to redevelopment of the site. Truncated natural banded sandy gravels were observed beneath a silty backfill of late 19th-early 20th century date which probably relates to construction of buildings on the site in the early 20th century. This deposit was overlain by a loose rubbly modern backfill in some trenches (associated with the clearance of modern office blocks in the late 1990s or early 2000s) and by modern structures or services in others. Modern rubble and tarmac completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-38220
Baillies Walk, St Mary’s Church, Church Place W5 TQ 17715 79725 MOLA (Adrian Miles, Aleksandra Cetera) watching brief February and October 2008 EDF Energy on behalf of St Mary’s Church BWX08
A watching brief was carried out on new street lighting installation works within St Mary's churchyard. The site and its immediate vicinity probably remained as a burial ground from the medieval period until the late 19th century. The medieval church was demolished and rebuilt in the early 18th century, with substantial additions in 1865-73. During the first phase of work, no in-situ burials were recorded in the trenches or post pits, which contained cemetery soil beneath modern bedding and paving slabs or topsoil. Some disarticulated human remains were found in one trench and four test pits, and these were all re-interred. Two brick burial vaults were encountered, but too little was seen to determine dimensions. The other trench and three test pits were found to be outside of the burial area. Natural ground was not observed. A second watching brief on the removal and relocation of a lamp column revealed only a dark grey soil containing brick and chalk fragments beneath modern turf.
OASIS ID: molas1-38387
UGC Empire Cinema (former Forum Cinema), 59–63 New Broadway, Ealing, W5 TQ 7530 8063 MOLA (Andrew Westman & Michael Tetreau) standing building survey October 2008 Empire Cinemas Ltd ECB08
The cinema was of steel-frame construction encased with brick, with concrete floors and steel-framed roof. It was constructed for Harry Yapp, to a design by J Stanley Beard, and opened in 1934, seating 2,175 in stalls and circle. A café-tea room, with adjoining kitchen and a recessed stage for a small orchestra, was situated on the first floor over the ground-floor entrance foyer. The original decoration of the interior was Art Deco-Classical in style, complemented by an Egyptianesque façade on the street front. The building also included a stage, fly-tower, scene dock and dressing rooms. The proscenium arch was flanked by grilles formerly hiding the pipes for a Compton organ (later removed), the keyboard of which rose from a pit in front of the stage. The original projection room, film store and rewinding room, at the back of the auditorium near its ceiling, were entered from an external gallery behind the entablature of the façade. The building was subdivided in 1975 to form three separate cinemas, and surviving fragments of the original decoration of the auditorium ceiling, proscenium arch, foyers, decorated safety curtain and other elements were recorded, and a list was compiled of items of interest that could possibly be salvaged. Although locally listed, the cinema was demolished at the end of 2008, except for the street facade.
OASIS ID: molas1-50999
No fieldwork undertaken
Greenwich Market, Greenwich Church Street, SE10 TQ 38340 77715 MOLA (Ian Blair) geotechnical investigation July-August 2008 NB Real Estate Limited, on behalf of Greenwich Hospital GEK08
Five trial pits and three boreholes were monitored as part of a geotechnical investigation within the footprint of the proposed Greenwich Market Regeneration area. Natural deposits were not revealed in any of the trial pits, although the boreholes showed that the surface of the natural Kempton Park gravel lay at c.3.23-3.32m OD. Despite the small size of the trial pits and the proximity of existing foundations, a sequence considered to be medieval and probable 16th-18th century make-up and levelling deposits (predating the existing market building) beneath garden soil and modern material was recorded on the E side of the site. On the W side, a broadly similar sequence was observed, together with a wall footing of probable 18th century date.
OASIS ID: molas1-48707
Greenwich Wharf, SE10 TQ 39120 78635 MOLA (Andy Daykin, Nathalie Cohen) evaluation, foreshore recording and watching brief January, February-October 2008 Greenwich Wharf Ltd GWW07
Following work in 2007, five evaluation trenches were excavated. These located further evidence of the prehistoric landscape as well as a revetted channel (speculatively dated to the 17th century) towards the SW corner of the site. From February onwards the site was monitored as a watching brief. As part of the watching brief a section was maintained throughout the prehistoric landscape from which regular environmental samples were taken. Prehistoric evidence including peat deposits probably dating to the Bronze Age and a small pit filled with prehistoric pottery were recorded. On the W side of the site substantial remains were found of a medieval tide mill dating to the late 12th century. To the SW of the site further evidence was found for channels including further remains of the possibly 17th century revetment found in the evaluation. Further work on the site is planned.
During April, an archaeological assessment and foreshore survey was carried out on the areas formerly known as Lovell’s Wharf, Dead Dog Bay and Granite Wharf. Cartographic and drawn evidence, together with an examination of the building materials used, suggest that the construction of the central dock within Dead Dog Bay dates to the mid-late 19th century during extensive development of the site area for industrial use. This structure was subsequently blocked and partially in-filled during the 20th century. There is evidence for several phases of repair and consolidation, both to the masonry and working surface of the dock. The structure has been damaged due to the erosive nature of its tidal location and should be considered at risk. The waterfront both up and downstream of the dock area comprises former wharf areas; the area in front of Granite Wharf has been dredged to an unknown depth. The Lovell's Wharf foreshore shows some evidence for shipyard activity.
OASIS ID: molas1-47413
South West Wing, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, SE10 TQ 38575 77581 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron, Julian Bowsher) watching brief and evaluation April-May, August 2008 National Maritime Museum NAM08
A watching brief was carried out on the excavation of six geotechnical test pits and a single bore hole. Natural gravel beneath 20th century material was recorded in one test pit, while another contained a red-brick wall of possible 18th century date beneath 20th century deposits. No other archaeological remains were observed in the other four trenches which revealed only 20th century material.
During the evaluation four trenches were excavated. Trench 1, in the Regatta Café Courtyard, revealed natural gravels truncated by an undated E-W aligned linear feature containing a clay fill and covered by a thin silt layer. This layer was cut by an E-W aligned brick culvert of probable early 19th century date which was sealed by a clay layer beneath modern silt, rubble, and flagstone paving. A 19th century E-W aligned stone wall was observed in the northern end of the trench cutting the clay layer, and may represent a retaining wall for some unknown feature.
Trench 2, in the Dolphin Sundial Court, contained a sequence of possible natural gravel, sand and clay layers beneath a crushed brick consolidation deposit. This was covered by modern silt, rubble and flagstone paving. The ‘natural’ deposits were cut by a wall of a basement room at the eastern end of the 1833 swimming pool, constructed from yellow stock brick with a whitewashed inner surface. The northern wall of the room ran eastwards and included a chute containing a cast iron pipe, perhaps part of a heating system. The room had been backfilled with 193 6 demolition rubble, beneath modern deposits.
Trench 3, on the lawn south of the Regatta Café, contained natural gravel and sand beneath subsoil, modern rubble and topsoil. The western end of the 1833 swimming pool, constructed from red and yellow bricks, was recorded cutting the natural deposits. A concrete surface which may have been the base of the pool was also revealed. Debris relating to the demolition of the pool in 1936 was overlain by topsoil, partly truncated by a large 1980s concrete foundation.
Trench 4, within the Contractors Compound, natural gravel was observed beneath silty sand and a series of re-deposited sandy silt layers. Three undated pits had been cut into the subsoil, containing fragments of animal bones. These were sealed by a layer containing 19th century material beneath modern topsoil and a concrete path.
No evidence was found for either the medieval Woolwich-Deptford highway or for burials associated with the 18th-19th century Greenwich Hospital Burial Ground. Throughout the site there was extensive evidence of recent re-landscaping and re-deposition. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-48240
Old Brewery, former Royal Naval College, Greenwich, SE10 TQ 38395 77880 MOLA (Michael Tetreau) standing building recording November 2008-January 2009 Greenwich Foundation for the Old Royal Naval College RNJ08
A survey was carried out of the former brewhouse in the grounds of the Old Royal Naval College during redevelopment of the interior and removal of the existing roof. The present structure is a small remnant of the larger brewhouse that stood on the site between the 1830s and the 1880s. Construction of the brewery building began in 1833 and the first phase of the building’s history lasted until 1843, when it was damaged by fire. The second phase of the building’s history lasted from 1843, when it was reconstructed after the fire, to the early 1880s when most of the structure was demolished. The third phase of the building’s history extended from the early 1880s until the mid 20th century. During at least a portion of this phase, the remnant structure served as an engine house for nearby laboratories and workshops. From the mid 20th century, the structure housed an electricity substation, and, from the late 20th century – after the substation was decommissioned – the structure was used as a store for a café.
East London Line Project, Hoxton Station site, Geffrye Street, London, E2 TQ 33575 83120 MOLA (Andy Daykin, Antonietta Lerz) watching brief February-May 2008 Transport for London GFE05
Following an evaluation in 2005, a watching brief was carried out. The natural brickearth and gravel was truncated, probably by quarrying, and overlaid by 18th or 19th-century made ground and demolition deposits. Evidence of 18th-century buildings preceding the construction of the viaduct was represented by a compacted gravel surface and an 18th-century brick wall-foundation recorded in the northern part of the site. These were overlaid with made ground and demolition dumps. The stepped brick footings and concrete foundations of the mid 19th-century railway viaduct were exposed, revealing the two phases of the structure.
Homerton College of Technology, Homerton High Street, Homerton E8 TQ 35331 85133 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) evaluation February 2008 City of London HMO08
Three evaluation trenches were excavated in the northern part of the site and four in the southern part. Natural brickearth was sealed by a silty sand layer, which may represent plough soil. In the NE corner of site, the remnants of brick walls presumably belonging to the late 19th/early 20th century Upton House Industrial School truncated this deposit. In the NW, a similar sequence was partially truncated by a backfilled modern basement. To the south of this trench, the plough soil layer was overlain by a thin deposit of sand and pebbles, which was cut by further 19th century walls. Modern rubble and made ground sealed the archaeological sequence.
In the southern area of the site, the southern-most trench contained a silty-soil layer (possibly representing plough soil), which included animal bone, clay pipe, and 17th century pottery. Sealing this deposit was a layer of light brown soil containing glass, clay, bone and pottery of 17th-18th century date, including an assemblage of Chinese porcelain and two residual medieval sherds. This was sealed by mixed modern backfill. In the SE part of the site, natural gravels overlain by natural brickearth were cut by a N-S linear feature filled with silty sand and material of 17th/18th century date. This included building material similar to that found at the nearby 16th and 17th century Sutton House (SUT90). A semi-rectangular pit cut into the fill of this feature contained an almost complete horse skeleton and 17th century pottery. This was sealed by a plough soil layer and modern makeup deposits.
A trench on the west side of the site fronting onto Homerton High Street revealed natural brickearth overlain by a silty-sand soil layer. This was truncated by brick walls representing two phases of construction. A building consisting of at least four rooms was constructed from red bricks of 18th century date, while the bricks of the rebuild were yellow suggesting a 19th/early 20th century date. A basement had been added to the NE part of the structure in the early 20th century. The room, with concrete floor at one end, featured a washing station of four washing bowls made of enamel and one rectangular ceramic sink. This was sealed by a demolition layer, including blue ‘medicine bottles’ of 19th/20th century date, which in turn was covered by modern construction/demolition rubble. In an adjacent trench, natural gravel was covered by silty soil containing building material. This was cut by a brickwork structure of probable 1960s date which was sealed by modern made ground.
OASIS ID: molas1-45029
Millfields Waste Transfer Depot, Millfields Road, Clapton, E5 TQ 3596 8626 MOLA (David Sankey) watching brief February Capita Symonds Ltd MFW08
Monitoring ceased after the discovery of modern material contaminated with asbestos to a depth indicating that 20th century activity had truncated or removed all archaeological remains. Natural deposits were not seen.
OASIS ID: molas1-51533
142 Lea Bridge Road, Clapton, E5 TQ 35562 86508 MOLA (Tim Braybrooke) watching brief November 2008 Vision Homes Ltd LGH04
Following work in 2007, ground reduction was monitored prior to construction of a ramp for the basement car park. Natural alluvial sand and gravels were sealed by a layer of black silty clay representing the original lining or filling of a 19th century dock. A mixed layer above this relates to the filling-in of the dock during the 20th century. These layers were cut by the construction of a 1950s concrete culvert, which was sealed by a make-up layer for the concrete and tarmac road which serviced the entrance of the industrial units occupying the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-52622
4–6 New Inn Broadway London EC2 TQ 33320 82397 MOLA (Heather Knight) evaluation June 2008 Tower Theatre Company NIN08
Three evaluation trenches were excavated. One in the SW corner revealed a brick surface and possibly contemporary wall constructed from late-medieval bricks which could have been associated with Holywell Priory but may have been reused material.
At the E end of the wall was a truncated brick-and-chalk foundation, and to the SE of this was a robbed NW-SE aligned wall construction cut. With the wall and foundation, these formed part of a polygonal structure which may represent ‘The Theatre’, a 16th-century theatre documented as standing close to the site’ The remains are of national importance and have been recorded and preserved in situ. Part of the wall was truncated by a later construction using bricks of c.1600-1700 forming the NW corner of a building probably fronting onto New Inn Broadway. A series of make-up layers were truncated by the walls of a building of probable 17th-18th century date, which, after demolition in the 19th century, were sealed by made ground and garden soil, beneath a later cobbled surface and make up layers for the modern concrete slab.
A second trench, NE of the first, revealed silty clay beneath demolition deposits probably relating to the destruction of buildings associated with Holywell Priory. The demolition layers were sealed by a garden soil deposit, truncated by three postholes and covered by a further layer of demolition material. Finds from the postholes suggest an 18th century date for this activity. After the removal of the posts, a further layer of garden soil was deposited. Above the demolition rubble, an open drain or brick lined gully had been constructed, running NE-SW and truncated at the SW end by a later pit. The drain is not aligned with the New Inn Broadway street frontage and may indicate that the earlier demolition and site clearance was comprehensive and removed the earlier property boundaries. The garden soil layer was cut by the foundations of a post-1750 century brick structure, and by three pits of 19th century date. These were sealed by a 19th century wall associated with a cobbled surface, which in turn was covered by modern make-up and concrete.
The first trench was later extended, revealing sticky clay beneath a demolition layer which was in turn cut by a pit containing oyster shell and pottery(dating pending) The demolition layer was sealed at the S end of the trench by a cobbled surface, with a brick or tile drain constructed on its northern edge. This surface appears to have been contemporary with the polygonal structure recorded earlier. The eastern end of the surface was sealed by demolition debris, possibly from the polygonal structure, which was in turn truncated by a series of postholes probably representing a fence line perpendicular to the New Inn Broadway street frontage. These remains were sealed by garden soil, beneath a brick surface probably associated with buildings fronting New Inn Broadway. This in turn was sealed by rubble, modern make up and concrete. Natural deposits were not observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-45256
Kent House, 10 Lower Mall, Hammersmith W6 TQ 22965 78245 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz) watching brief December 2007–May 2008 Robin Walker Architects on behalf of Tooting Mitcham Sports Leisure Ltd KTH06
Following work in 2006, the underpinning of the basement walls was monitored. Natural sand was observed in the middle of one of the basement rooms. The walls of the current building were observed to be built on a 7–9 course high foundation, of which the lowest 3–4 courses were stepped out. The bricks were bonded with a soft, white lime mortar and may be an earlier foundation. Traces of an earlier floor surface, 100mm below the current ground level, were visible against the walls. To the rear of the building were the foundations of an arched room which originally projected beyond the current façade of the building. The northern part of the room had been demolished and brought in line with the rest of the building.
Ground works carried out to the rear of the property revealed the remains of a 17th or 18th century external red brick wall and brick surface. These had been overlain by made ground layers of possible 19th century date which extended across the area and concrete which may be associated with the construction of the adjacent club house between 1921 and 1950.
OASIS ID: molas1-55600
Vicarage Driveway, All Saints' Hall, Fulham High Street TQ 24350 76085 MOLA (Isca Howell) evaluation January-February 2008 Barton Finch PDK07
Subsequent to an earlier evaluation under the site code FHI03 to the north of All Saints' Hall, four test pits were opened in the driveway to obtain further information on the Fulham Palace Moat, which cartographic sources show aligned E-W in this location. The moat, which documentary sources state was filled in between 1921-24, formed part of the boundary of Fulham Palace, a Scheduled Ancient Monument.
Two of the test pits identified a slope cut into the natural alluvial clay deposits which indicates the northern side of the moat. The cut was sealed by layers of black silt and re-deposited clay containing rubbish of 19th-20th century date which are consistent with the date when the moat was being backfilled. This material was sealed by 20th century overburden and the modern driveway surface. One trench to the south revealed that the concrete foundations for the brick wall of the existing Territorial Army drill hall had truncated any deposits associated with the moat. A further trench contained only 20th century material.
OASIS ID: 1-37694
Thames and Palace Wharves, Rainville Road W6 TQ 23391 77465 MOLA (Virgil Yendell) geo-archaeological watching brief December 2008 Cornish Architects TPW08
Two boreholes and eight window samples were monitored by MOLA geoarchaeologists. The gravel surface recorded in the two boreholes monitored on the river walk (c. 25.m OD) relates to the Kempton Park gravels. This deposit forms a terrace, which represents a former floodplain of the river that subsequently became incised and left high and dry as the river down-cut to lower levels.
The present floodplain was created during a down-cutting event as a result of the very low sea-level and large flux of meltwater at the end of the last cold stage. Coarse gravel sediments were subsequently deposited across the valley floor and these gravel deposits maybe represented by the gravels located in the foreshore test pits (c. 0.5m OD) and represent possible reworked Kempton Park gravels. There is a possibility that these may be Roman foreshore gravels similar to those found up-river and directly overlying London Clay. However, the lack of any finds within these units makes this unlikely. Although brickearth deposits were recorded at c. 4.5m OD some 480m to the N at Hammersmith Embankment under the site code HWR99 no comparable deposits were found on site. Significant truncation of the natural deposits and dumping of made ground appears to have occurred and is probably associated with the construction of the present river walls. In the absence of any fine grained or organic deposits the potential for environmental or landscape reconstruction at this point is considered poor.
No fieldwork undertaken
No fieldwork undertaken
Albyns Farm, South End Road, Rainham, Essex RM1 TQ 52944 83945 MOLA (Emma Dwyer, Tim Braybrooke) standing building recording and watching brief April and August 2008 Shrub Tub Ltd ALF08
A survey was carried out prior to conversion of the barn for use as a house. The barn was constructed in three broad phases; Phase 1 was the four-bay barn with a projecting wagon entrance, constructed in the 17th or early 18th centuries, Phase 2 was the southern extension with catslide roof, constructed shortly after Phase 1 and providing additional storage space and allowing for the re-arrangement of the internal spaces. Phase 3 was constructed in the late 19th century and allowed for the storage of machinery and vehicles associated with the increased mechanisation of farming. The building has undergone a number of changes to its external appearance, with the removal of brick cladding and nogging to external walls, the renewal of timber weatherboarding and the removal of the thatched roof covering and its replacement with pantiles.
Excavation of the foundation trenches to support new internal walls within the barn was monitored during the redevelopment of the barn into a house. A single N-S aligned trench was excavated, extending southward centrally from the northern wall within the 19th century extension of the barn.
Natural flinty gravel with coarse sand was sealed (over two-thirds of the trench) by sandy silty clay representative of the local worked soil, which also served as a floor for the rear (northern) half of the barn. In the south of the trench, the edge of an E-W aligned ditch was observed which was in line with the southern wall of phase 1 of the barn and was a boundary or drainage ditch in use before the construction of the 19th century extension. This contained re-deposited soil and gravels with fragments of roof tile, sealed by modern concrete (and gravel bedding layer and polythene membrane). In the southern third of the trench, the backfilling was sealed by a series of thin layers representing a series of floors for the front, open side of the barn beneath modern bedding, polythene and concrete.
OASIS ID: molas1-43859
Romford Market Place, St Edwards Way, Romford, RM1 TQ 51267 89032 MOLA (Sian Anthony) evaluation and watching brief August-September 2008 Pickenham (Romford) Ltd RFP08
This site had been excavated in 2002 under the site code RME02. Work under the new code consisted of two evaluation trenches adjacent to the Market Place. One located pits, a gully and a large 18th century brick building divided into four separate dwellings with brick floors and fireplaces, this trench was enlarged and converted into an excavation to uncover the entire structure and associated features. The other uncovered only a boundary wall and well of late 18th-19th century date. A watching brief on the rest of the site uncovered only two other 19th century soakaways as further truncation from the 20th century shopping centre had truncated most of the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-51325
No fieldwork undertaken
Chiswick House, Burlington Lane W4 TQ 20862 77567 MOLA (Gabby Rapson, Isca Howell) evaluation and watching brief May, August and November 2008 Mouchel Ltd CGH06
Following work in 2007, an evaluation was carried out. Three areas were examined during the first phase of work: One trench at the rear of the existing Conservatory and the Hockey Field revealed natural sandy brickearth sealed by later deposits probably relating to the landscaping of the area.
Two trenches were excavated in the Car Park. One contained natural brickearth beneath a clinker path aligned with the entrance to the Northern Walled Garden, beneath an undated dump of slag and clinker below the modern tarmac surface. The other revealed natural brickearth cut by a series of bedding trenches filled with loose garden soil with fragments of pottery, clay tobacco pipe and glass.
A fourth trench at the rear of the Conservatory revealed natural brickearth cut by a shallow N-S aligned ditch of possible 18th century date which was in turn sealed by a probable 18th century mixed brickearth/occupation layer. This had been cut by a brick wall and – in the N half of the trench – by a deep pit containing 18th-19th century demolition material. Compact dumped layers of probable 18th-19th century date had been built up against the remaining courses of the wall, probably forming external surfaces. This was overlain by a truncated brick and pebble surface beneath the make up for the current yard surface.
Further work in August involved the excavation of five trenches. Two were located in the Northern Walled Garden, one on the E side of the path and the other across the path 10m south of the gate. Both revealed a similar sequence of natural brickearth beneath two soil horizons which were interpreted as earlier planting beds beneath modern topsoil. These features suggest formal gardening and may relate to the period when the area was in use by the Royal Horticultural Society or earlier.
Three trenches were excavated in the Southern Walled Garden: The first exposed part of a gravel path overlying an earlier brick surface, two cuts containing an ashy demolition deposit including flower pots, window glass and brick, as well as pottery of 18th-19th century date, and a domed brick-lined well of similar date. The demolition deposits may relate to a ‘stove house’ or a conservatory used for growing fruit trees, exotic plants, or early spring flowers. A second revealed a gravel path, probably associated with that in the previous trench, overlying garden bedding deposits of probable 19th century date. Some residual prehistoric burnt and worked flints were also recovered from these deposits. A narrow N-S aligned robber cut removing a probable 18th century wall, which may have been associated with a pre-1743 phase of landscaping. The last trench, close to the gates, revealed a chalky deposit which probably represents many phases of repair to them and continuous use of the gates for access into the garden area. Several phases of a soil or brickearth path which were then truncated by 19th century planting beds were recorded. A single residual fragment of probable Iron Age pottery was found within these deposits.
An additional watching brief was carried out after contractors exposed a masonry structure while excavating a trench for a water pipe in the SW corner of the West Yard. This consisted of two red brick walls separated by a red brick floor, and was interpreted as a probable late-19th century potting shed.
BSKYB, Harlequin 1, Harlequin Avenue, Brentford TW8 TQ 16352 77868 MOLA (Peter Cardiff) watching brief June 2008 Stanhope Plc HQN07
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was carried out on four test pits. These contained natural alluvial silt/brickearth beneath re-deposited natural and sealed by modern concrete and tarmac. No archaeological deposits were observed.
Hotel Development, Syon Park, Brentford, Middlesex TW8 TQ 1712 7696 MOLA (Robert Cowie) excavation Apr–Jun 2008 watching brief July–August 2008 Ability Hotels SYV04
Extensive excavations in the NW corner of Syon Park, between London Road and Syon House car park, followed earlier phases of evaluation and excavation and provided an almost continuous transect across a Roman landscape. Two phases of the London–Silchester Roman road were revealed immediately next to the modern London Road. The earlier road was flanked by a ditch and later by a fence. Evidence for occupation on the SE side of the road, clearly represented part a linear settlement that, as previous excavations have shown, extended alongside the road into what is now the centre of Brentford. The evidence included the remains of two substantial timber buildings. These had burnt down and their earthen floors were covered by charcoal and burnt wall daub. Outside the buildings were bread ovens, hearths, pits, gravel surfaces and a possible cremation burial.
Further investigation was undertaken of a large palaeo-channel, probably a former branch of the River Thames, recorded on the SE side of the site during the evaluation in 2004. A trench revealed part of the profile of the channel, which was filled with a sequence of fine-grained sediments. No artefacts were recovered from these deposits during the excavation, but during the evaluation Roman pottery and a coin of Valentinian I or Valens dated to AD 364–78 was found in an upper fill. The lower channel fills are as yet undated, but included thin layers of peat/organic matter that might be dated by radiocarbon assay.
Successive Roman field systems, clearly delineated by ditches and gullies, lay between the settlement and the channel. The ditches defined individual fields and a track, possibly a droveway, running down from the settlement to the channel. A skeleton lay in one ditch and crouched burial lay in a small grave next to another ditch.
Most artefacts, especially metal objects, were found in the settlement, although some were recovered from field ditches. The finds included a large quantity of pottery, fragments of tile and burnt daub, 120 coins, two bronze finger rings, brooches, tweezers and other toilet instruments, a stylus, lead discs, iron rings, blades and hooks, pieces of shale bracelets, quernstones and whetstones. At least 30 residual prehistoric struck flints were also found. Later activity was represented by several pits, for which dating is pending.
OASIS ID: molas1-64676
Syon House, Syon Park, Brentford, Middlesex TW8 TQ17350 76660 Birkbeck College University of London (H Sheldon, R Cowie, R Densem, S McCracken, M Miles) training excavation June–July 2008 Birkbeck SYY04
Following previous training excavations on the site further remains of Syon Abbey (Bridgettine 1431–1539) were revealed to the E and SE of Syon House. They included the robbed S and E walls of the church. Inside the church the robbed foundations of a structure at the E end of the building may have been associated with the Sisters’ choir. An isolated grave and the remains of brick-lined tomb lay next to the structure. An E–W wall foundation immediately E of the church could have ante-dated the Bridgettine abbey, but might be contemporaneous. Wall foundations and robber trenches to the N of the church delineated rooms and possibly a quadrangle. To the south of the church the remains an east cloister and a parallel range were revealed. A row of graves lay within the cloister, twelve of which were excavated. Each contained a single skeleton, six of which were identified as either female or probably female (the others were of indeterminate sex). All contained wooden coffins, which were evident from rows of iron fixing nails and small pieces of wood. Two graves cut through a stone drain on an E–W alignment that passed under the cloister and the adjacent range. The entrance to the drain in the cloister garth was covered by a rectangular iron plate with a long handle that projected upwards. An isolated grave lay immediately S of the church. Two others, containing a female and a male respectively, lay in the garth adjacent to the east cloister.
OASIS ID: molas1-58730
The Angel Centre Building, 403 St John Street, N1 TQ 31423 83073 MOLA (Heather Knight) evaluation May 2008 Buro Four Project Services Ltd ACB08
Five evaluation trenches were excavated prior to refurbishment of the existing building. In one trench on the E side of the building, 18th-century garden soil was sealed by modern concrete, while in another located to the S of this, natural clay had been truncated by a brick foundation of possible 19th-century date which had in turn been sealed by modern make-up and concrete. In a third trench, within the former car park, natural London clay and gravel (contaminated by patches of diesel) were overlain by modern make-up and tarmac.
A fourth trench within the open light well of the building contained only natural clay which had been truncated by modern service trenches. In another trench on the E side of the light well, the natural clay was cut by an 18th-19th century cesspit containing animal bone, pottery, and clay tobacco pipe of contemporary date. This had been sealed by re-deposited clay, modern make-up and concrete. The 18th-19th century remains were recorded some distance from both the St John Street and Pentonville Road frontages, and the deposits are typical of backyard activity in this period, which could be predicted from cartographic sources as well as from the location of nearby standing buildings.
OASIS ID: molas1-43232
76-78 Clerkenwell Road, EC1 TQ 31790 82130 MOLA (Aaron Birchenough) watching brief April 2008 Collins Ltd CKX08
A watching brief was carried out on a drainage run associated with the redevelopment of the building. Natural sand and gravel was overlain by a dumped deposit containing a single sherd of pottery dated to 1730-1780. This was sealed by another dumped layer of possible 19th century date was cut by a possible pit of unknown function. A modern basement slab completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-45041
96-100 Clerkenwell Road, EC1 TQ 31600 82128 MOLA (Jon Crisp) evaluation May 2008 Azure Property LLP CKZ08
Following earlier work in 1996-7 under the site code TCR96, an evaluation was carried out at the site, which lies within the precinct of the medieval priory of St John of Jerusalem. Nine trenches were excavated of which two revealed significant archaeological remains.
Trench 1, at the north of the site, contained natural sand and gravel. These deposits were cut by a series of medieval pits which may represent quarrying although two contained a backfill including roof tile and one had late medieval pottery in its fill. These pits were sealed by a brown silty deposit beneath a mortar-rich silty layer which lay north of and abutting a medieval chalk foundation. This consisted of up to three courses of rough-hewn chalk nodules with a thin layer of firm gravel in between as bonding. In the eastern part of the trench, a series of inter-cutting pits of late 19th –early 20th century date and two modern NW/SE aligned brick walls were recorded. The archaeological remains were sealed by a series of modern levelling deposits beneath a tarmac surface.
In Trench 2, in the NE part of the site, natural sand and gravel were cut by a large, vertically sided pit containing material of late medieval and Tudor date, which was sealed by modern brick rubble and tarmac. Heavy modern truncation in the other trenches had removed all archaeological remains and only modern structures and brick rubble were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-43112
Rear of 23 Goswell Road, London EC1 TQ 32043 82077 MOLA (Heather Knight) evaluation February 2008–March 2008 Thornsett Ltd GWO05
Following earlier work in 2005, four evaluation pits/trenches were excavated. Natural brickearth was found at similar levels to that recorded during an earlier evaluation at St Bartholomew’s Medical College in 1989 under the code MED89. No in-situ Roman remains were found although three re-deposited fragments of Roman pottery and tile were recovered.
The site lies within the boundaries of the medieval Carthusian monastery of Charterhouse, and plans of a similar site at Mount Grace, Yorkshire, predicted a latrine to be present on the western boundary of the site. The feature, which had an outfall or lip feeding into an E-W aligned linear drain, was located during the evaluation. The drain appeared to have had a stone lining, although this had been robbed.
A gravel surface was found which was probably contemporary with the listed late-16th century wall preserved in situ on the northern edge of the site and may represent the surface of a courtyard on the south side of the wall accessed from the garden to the north via a doorway. The doorway had been blocked and this may be contemporary with the deposition of up to 2m of dumping on the site. The garden wall appears to have acted as a retaining wall for a laystall (a dumping place for nightsoil). The front walls of the monastic cells may have remained for come time after the Dissolution, and it is possible that the western laystall wall could have been the back wall of these buildings. The dumped deposits, which included remains of painted plaster, suggested that substantial remains of the monastery still existed and were being robbed in the late 16th/early 17th century. The dumped material is similar in composition to deposits recorded at several other sites nearby including 1-13 Seward Street (SDS99) and 15-29 Seward Street (SDT99), both located some 400m N of the site.
The bulk of the pottery from these deposits is of 16th-early 17th century date and relates to household or light industrial refuse. The pottery dates suggest that they were dumped over a relatively short time span, while the other finds and environmental assemblages suggest that ‘secondary refuse’ (discarded away from its place of use) was being deposited here. The refuse deposits were truncated by 19th century basement walls.
OASIS ID: molas1-50468
Islington Green School, Prebend Street, London N1, TQ 32018 83607 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) evaluation April 2008 City of London IGS08
A single evaluation trench was excavated, revealing natural clay truncated by modern basements and foundations and sealed by modern dumped layers. No archaeological features or finds were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-42027
Joseph Grimaldi Park, Rodney Street/Pentonville Road N1 TQ 30848 83134 MOLA (Adrian Miles) watching brief September 2008 London Borough of Islington Department of Environment and Regeneration JGP08
Six trial pits were excavated within the park (formerly the churchyard of St James Church, Pentonville) to determine whether any archaeological or human remains were present prior to possible landscaping of the area.
The Church was constructed in 1788 with the burial ground in use from 1790-1855. The park takes its name from Joseph Grimaldi, the famous clown, who was buried there in 1837. It was converted into a public garden in 1907, with the church continuing in use until declared redundant in 1978. It was subsequently demolished and replaced with a replica building now used as offices.
A clay deposit (apparently natural but possibly representing a layer used to seal the burial ground) was overlain by a brown clay deposit, which in turn was covered by a mixture of silty clay and rubble beneath the modern topsoil. A small quantity of disarticulated human bone was found in trenches in the south and central areas of the north garden. One trench on the south side of the west gardens revealed a section of red-brick wall (possibly part of a burial structure) cutting dumped deposits beneath the rubble and topsoil layers.
OASIS ID: molas1-50164
Lamb's Club, 1 Lamb's Passage, EC1 TQ 32525 82010 MOLA (Alison Telfer, Jonathan Crisp) evaluation January 2008 Clan Real Estates (Lamb’s Club) LPG08
The evaluation consisted of five trial trenches, two in the area of the existing basement, the other three spaced evenly across the remainder of the site. Natural gravel was overlain by a large homogenous deposit some 1.30-2.30m thick which appeared to be fill from an earlier (but undated) episode of quarrying. The nature of the layer suggested that the site had been open land between the 17th and 18th centuries when it was levelled prior to construction. A brick culvert and several brick walls of 18th-century date were observed cutting the homogenous layer, and were in turn sealed by modern demolition deposits. At the northern end of the site, inside the existing basement, the remains of a brick tank with a rendered interior were found. The purpose of the tank was unclear but may relate to one of the manufacturers documented on the site during the late Victorian period.
OASIS ID: molas1-39862
St Mary Magdalene Church Gardens, Holloway Road, N1 TQ 31305 85010 MOLA (Adrian Miles) watching brief September-October 2008 London Borough of Islington: Greenspace MMD08
Seven trial pits were excavated to determine whether any archaeological or human remains were present in the areas of the gardens to be affected by landscaping. No archaeological deposits or articulated human remains were found.
The three test pits excavated in the NE part of the site near the Holloway Road revealed natural clay overlain by clay-silt deposits which, in turn were covered by a silty-sand and rubble layer beneath modern topsoil. Those excavated in the NW of the churchyard and the area N of the Church contained a weathered orange-brown clay beneath a silty sand layer and modern topsoil. In the pit near the path located north of the Church, natural gravel was observed below the clay at the base of the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-50160
Chelsea Academy, Lots Road, SW10 TQ 26280 77058 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) evaluation May-June 2008 The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea CAU08
The site was known to be located at the edge of the Floodplain Terrace (Shepperton Gravels), with the survival of alluvial and peat layers possible in the southern areas of the site, in the mouth of the Chelsea Creek. The eight evaluation trenches were positioned to give the maximum coverage and largest potential for recovery of information, both archaeological and geological.
In the SW of the site, natural gravel was overlain by a dark ‘garden’ soil possibly from 19th century allotments, This was sealed by 19th-20th century dumps or truncated by a 19th century basement containing rubble infill beneath modern deposits. A trench in the SE revealed natural sand and gravel, beneath a sand/gravel layer containing 17th-19th century material with some re-deposited flint debitage of possible Mesolithic date, which may indicate activity of this period nearby. This layer was cut on the W side by re-deposited natural layers beneath 19th century allotment type soil, a 19th century dumped deposit the and modern ground surface.
On the west side of the site, only 19th/20th century basements were observed. In the middle of the site, natural gravel was covered by the allotment-type soil, cut by a N-S aligned ditch, possibly for drainage or separating the plots, which was sealed by modern make-up and tarmac.
On the N side of the site, natural sand and gravel were overlain by a sandy layer with root marks, possibly representing a small river channel. This was sealed by dark agricultural soil possibly from the allotments. In one trench a NE-SW aligned ditch filled with this material cut the earlier deposits. This was covered by 19th/20th century rubble, dumping and tarmac. One trench contained natural sand, sealed by a large Victorian rubbish dump, which in turn was sealed by allotment-type soil and modern deposits. There was negligible evidence for prehistoric alluvial deposits.
OASIS ID: molas1-45557
No fieldwork undertaken
Brixton Central Square, Tate Library Gardens and Rushmore Square, Brixton SW2 TQ 31025 75215 MOLA (Sadie Watson) watching brief April 2008 Transport for London BXQ08
Three trenches were excavated. In one, natural London Clay was observed beneath natural gravels, which were overlain by a series of dumped gravelly clay layers which were probably imported as make-up. Above these was a silty clay deposit similar to garden soil and may relate to an earlier phase of gardens on the site, which was covered by a silty rubble deposit beneath the modern turf line. A second trench revealed natural London Clay cut by a modern sewer pipe trench which had been backfilled with brown clay and gravel. This was covered by mortar, modern make-up layers and modern turf. The last trench contained a rubble and concrete layer (probably relating to the Esso petrol station which stood on the site until the 1970s) covered by a clean gravel deposit under a geotextile membrane beneath a silty clay layer and modern turf. No remains of the earlier Tate Library Gardens or the Orange Coach Station were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-40715
Stockwell Park School, Stockwell Park Road, SW9 TQ 30719 76593 MOLA (Sadie Watson, Michael Tetreau) evaluation January-February, July-August 2008 Willmott Dixon Construction SKP08
An evaluation was carried out in two phases. During the first, three trenches were excavated. In one trench, natural gravelly clay was overlain by natural subsoil and a deposit of imported soil containing relatively modern building material. This material may be a garden soil originally from the gardens of the terraced houses along Clapham Road. This material was banked up against an E-W aligned brick wall of 19th-20th century date. To the north of the wall was a modern make-up layer, while to the south was a thin mortary demolition deposit. Modern topsoil sealed the sequence. A second trench showed a similar sequence, although no wall was present, while the third revealed a modern sandy fill beneath a modern concrete surface overlain by rubble and tarmac. No archaeological remains were observed.
The second phase of work involved the excavation of three trenches in the S part of the site and the examination of a gas servicing trench opened by contractors. In one trench, buried topsoil, 19th-century pit and possible buried turf of 19th- to 20th-century orphanage grounds were recorded. A second trench revealed possible plough marks in subsoil, buried topsoil, 19th-century pit, and possible tarmac path of 19th- and 20th-century Stockwell Orphanage (demolished and replaced by the present school in the 1950s). The third trench contained buried topsoil and demolition rubble from orphanage. Monitoring of the gas service trench uncovered buried foundations of the orphanage buildings.
OASIS ID: molas1-37332 and molas1-48285
Stockwell Park and Robsart Village Estates, Stockwell Park Road, Robsart Street, Stockwell, SW9 TQ 30996 76092 MOLA (Andy Daykin, Tim Braybrooke) evaluation October-November 2008 Higgins Construction SKV08.
Four evaluation trenches were excavated. Natural gravels, with brickearth subsoil surviving in some areas, were overlain by made ground of 19th century date. In three trenches this had been cut by small pits containing 19th century pottery. In one trench at the NE corner of the site, the made ground was cut by brick foundations probably relating to late 19th century terraced houses near the junction of Robsart Street and Thornton Street. Modern made ground and topsoil completed the sequence. No remains associated with the 16th century Stockwell Park Manor were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-51056
Honor Oak Park Sports Ground, Brockley Rise, SE4 TQ 36505 74248 MOLA (Gabby Rapson, Damion Churchill) geophysical survey (Stratascan for MOLA), geotechnical monitoring and evaluation February, April, September 2008 Loates-Taylor Shannon on behalf of King's College London HKP08
The first phase of work involved the monitoring of geotechnical pits and boreholes prior to redevelopment of the site. The majority of the investigations were made on grassed areas, revealing natural clay beneath a sandy clay topsoil and modern turf. On the Netball court (a raised area to the south of the site), deeper deposits of topsoil containing brick fragments, coal and slag were observed. These may be associated with gardens belonging to houses on Stillness Road, one of which was destroyed by WW2 bombing and is now the location of the court. Around the Pavilion, deposits had been disturbed during its construction and made ground was recorded in several pits, though one pit in this area contained gravel deposits approximately on a predicted alignment of the Roman road from London to Lewes (Margary 14). Evidence was also found for disturbance around a grandstand to the east, probably associated with its construction but possibly related to earlier re-modelling. No other archaeological remains were observed.
The geophysical survey concentrated on the west side of the site and the Roman road alignment. Two anomalies, potentially associated with the road, were identified.
During the third phase of work, seventeen evaluation trenches were excavated including four to establish whether remains of the Roman road were present and might be affected by the proposed development. Three revealed areas of stiff, dark grey clay on which gravel layers were deposited almost exactly on the predicted road alignment. The fourth, furthest to the south, demonstrated that the road metalling had been truncated by the levelling of sports pitches as the road rose up a natural slope. A section placed where the survival of the road was greatest suggested the presence of a camber on either side. No other archaeological features associated with the road were identified. The other trenches contained only remains relating to the construction and landscaping of the modern sports ground. Three shallow pits were also found, one of which contained fragments of brick and tile, which are likely that they are all contemporary with the ground reduction and subsequent levelling of the sports ground. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-48674
East London Line Project, Canal Junction (Southern Bulk Supply Point), Canal Road, SE8 TQ 36010 77900 MOLA (Gabby Rapson, Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief February-June 2008 Transport for London NXE07
Following previous work nearby in 2007, a watching brief was carried out. Sterile alluvium was overlain by 19th/20th century land-raising deposits (possibly from the construction of the adjacent Grand Surrey Canal). No other archaeological remains were observed.
East London Line Project, New Cross Gate Depot, SE8 TQ 36010 77750 MOLA (Jon Crisp) watching brief March 2008 Transport for London NXE07
Excavation of a 150m long trench for a retaining wall was monitored. Natural sand and gravel was overlain by undated cultivated soil horizons beneath modern made ground. Alluvium was not present.
27 & 27A The Grange, Wimbledon SW19 TQ 23741 70925 MOLA (Peter Cardiff) watching brief February 2008 Fleetwood Developments Ltd GGI08
Deposits of 20th century date overlying natural terrace gravels were recorded. No archaeological finds or features were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-38534
Morden Park Baths, London Road SM4 TQ 24949 67476 MOLA (Hana Lewis) evaluation March 2008 Merton Borough Council MDK08
Two evaluation trenches were excavated on the western and eastern side of the baths. Natural London clay was overlain by modern rubble and garden soil. No archaeological features were observed, and no evidence was seen for Stane Street, the Roman road believed to run close to the site.
[Oasis ID: molas1-39089]
Chester House, 3 West Side Common, Wimbledon SW19 TQ 23367 70695 MOLA (Tim Braybrooke) evaluation September 2008 Holden Partners WSO08
A single evaluation trench was excavated on the site of the proposed extension to Chester House. Natural sand was overlain by a silty sand sub-soil which had been heavily truncated by drain trenches and features added to (and subsequently removed) during numerous alterations to the garden of the house. Sieving the subsoil produced a small quantity of flints, some possibly Mesolithic struck flint and some early medieval pottery sherds were also recovered
Three wall remnants were observed in the trench sections which are also likely to be associated with alterations to and features within the gardens. Likewise a thin spread of mortar and rubble, which butted a further spread of orangey gravel, that may have formed the bedding for paved path and a garden path respectively. These features are likely to date from the 18th-20th centuries.
The eastern end of the trench was heavily truncated, to the natural, by modern features containing a rich humic soil, many plant roots and large plastic tubs; these may indicate the planting of trees or shrubs in one of the most recent garden alterations.
OASIS ID: molas1-49974
Land at Angel Lane, Stratford, E15 TQ 38756 84602 MOLA (Mary Nicholls) geoarchaeological watching brief January 2008 Mirvac ANE08
Geoarchaeological monitoring was carried out on five boreholes and eleven window samples in the S of the site. The data from this exercise have been used to place the site in its topographic position within the Lea Valley, to understand the archaeological potential of the site and target further work. The site is located on the east side of the Lea Valley and would have occupied a prominent position overlooking the Lea floodplain. It may have been chosen for occupation in both prehistoric and historic periods, although preservation of archaeology and the potential for past environment reconstruction was poor due to hillslope processes, modern truncation and the lack of organic deposits on the dry, valley-side.
The sequence generally comprised bedrock, overlain by gravels, brickearth and some weathered alluvium under 19th century and modern make up, although the geology was highly variable most likely due to the slope of the valley side leading to exposure of different bedrock types. Thanet sands were observed overlain by the Lambeth Group. This comprised both stiff grey clay of the younger Palaeocene Reading Beds and mollusc-rich, dark silty Woolwich Shell Beds. Pleistocene terrace gravels (deposited by former river channels with heavy bed-loads) were seen in few boreholes between 1 and 3.5m below ground level, with firm orange brown sandy clay brickearth present in almost all interventions. Bands of gravel within the brickearth further indicate the action of hillslope processes. Weathered alluvial clay representing historic flood-deposited material was evident in two boreholes overlain by dark silt containing flint and ceramic building material, likely to represent 19th century land-raising associated with the nearby railway. Modern made ground and concrete completed the sequence.
Abbey Road DLR Station, Stratford E15 TQ 39097 83472 MOLA (Tony Mackinder) evaluation July-August 2008 DLR AYF08
The site lies within the precinct of the medieval Stratford Langthorne abbey. Three evaluation trenches were excavated. In the first trench, parallel to the railway line, natural clay was overlain by disturbed natural containing six sherds of 18th-19th century pottery and two re-deposited fragments of medieval tile. This layer was cut by a shallow feature containing a silty fill including pottery dated 1820-1895. The northern part of the trench was truncated by a large brick structure, probably the kitchen or cellar of a late 19th century building. A N-S and an E-W aligned wall had survived, with white glossy tiles still present. The structure had been backfilled with rubble and debris of 19th century date. The second trench, in the footpath area, revealed natural clay overlain by an undated soil horizon, beneath a deposit of ash, silt and clinker of probable 19th century date. The third trench, in the garden of Abbey House, contained natural clay overlain by the soil horizon beneath a loose brown silt layer forming the make-up beneath the modern pathway. No evidence was found for the medieval cemetery associated with the nearby abbey.
OASIS ID: molas1-51839
DLR Upgrade, Canning Town, Canning Town Flyover, E16 TQ 3958 8099 MOLA (Virgil Yendell) geo-archaeological watching brief June 2008 CAJ08
A geo-archaeological survey consisting of one borehole was carried out. The borehole located towards the centre of the site, contained natural sandy Pleistocene gravels beneath as the basal sediment. This was sealed by a layer of reed peat deposits and then more a terrestrial wood peat, representing waterlogged marshland environments. Overlying these deposits was a series of blue grey silty clays representing alluvial overbank deposits of a nearby river channel. The alluvial layers were sealed by 17th to 18th Century and modern made ground and backfill. This is part of on going work as the results of dating and environmental analysis of the sediments have not yet been synthesised.
St Mary’s Church, Church Road, Little Ilford, E12 TQ 42896 85291 MOLA (Adrian Miles) evaluation August 2008 Ronald Wylde Associates MCI08
A single evaluation trench was excavated in the graveyard to determine the presence or absence of burials in this area in advance of the installation of a soakaway. Two burials of 17th-18th century date were located between 1.2m and 1.3m below the modern turf. The burials were not fully exposed or excavated. Their positions and were recorded and then they were preserved in situ. No other archaeological features were observed and natural deposits were not seen.
OASIS ID: molas1-57381
Scheduled Ancient Monument, Bakers Row (including part of the site of the abbey of St Mary Stratford Langthorne), West Ham, London E15 TQ 39097 83472 MOLA (Robert Cowie) evaluation and community excavation January-February 2008 London Borough of Newham SFY07
Further excavations were undertaken to assess the level, nature and condition of structures on the Scheduled Ancient Monument in advance of landscaping. Specific aims were to investigate the interior of a medieval building that had been excavated and reburied in the 1970s, and to expose its exterior for consolidation and display. The building had been identified as the abbey guesthouse, but the results of a desk-based assessment in August 2007 suggested that it was the abbey gatehouse (Great Gate). This was confirmed by the discovery of hitherto unknown walls extending south from the previously recorded part of the building, suggesting that the structure once straddled the access road to the abbey (now Bakers Row). The gatehouse had been constructed in two major phases. The earliest part, to the south, was divided into two rooms that probably lay on the north side of the entrance passage. Later in the medieval period the gatehouse was enlarged by the addition of a rectangular extension on its north side. Several cut features and layers close to the building produced medieval pottery or building material and might be contemporaneous with the abbey. A stone wall to the east of the gatehouse was also probably medieval, and may have been part of the abbey precinct wall. The gatehouse was further extended and altered in the 16th/17th century, and two bricklined cesspits were built next to it in the 16th/mid 17th century and mid 17th/18th century respectively. Later features and strata included the remains of a 17th-century brick building, a drain, walls, gravel paths, moat fills and garden/agricultural soil. The latest features were the remains of Victorian terraced houses fronting onto Bakers Row, and associated features including yard surfaces, brick-lined cesspits and possible garden paths. The walls of the medieval gatehouse were not robust enough for display and were reburied after consolidation. Their outline is indicated at ground level by a modern mortar and flint capping.
Warton House, 150 High Street, Stratford, E15 TQ 38350 83720 MOLA (Andrew Westman, Bruce Ferguson) standing building recording, evaluation and excavation January, February-July 2008 Redloft on behalf of Genesis Housing Association WHU08
A standing building survey was carried out prior to partial demolition. The building, comprising a steel frame with brick walls and concrete floors on five storeys, with a flat roof, was constructed in 1937–8 (Higgins and Thomerson, architects) for Yardley and Co Ltd, manufacturers of perfume and soap. Packaging was very important to the company’s products and the building served as a factory making boxes, and a warehouse, with offices on the upper floors. The shape and exterior of the building is in an Art Moderne style, with white walls and brown ceramic window and door surrounds, since painted over, and a bowed end to the west containing nearly-continuous windows. A projecting full-height stair compartment on the south flanks the main entrance from the street, which is marked externally at 1st-floor level by a large ceramic mural of lavender-sellers, the company’s trademark. On the north the building faces the Waterworks River, a branch of the River Lea, beside which was a separate single-storey factory and warehouse, with a roof formed of successive convex shells in reinforced concrete. On the NE, Warton House contained an external goods hoist to the upper floors and, on the ground floor, a large goods entrance, possibly inserted as part of large-scale modifications including reinforcement of the 1st floor. A passenger lift had also been inserted in the north-west of the building, and glazed entrance porches added to the east. After the Yardley Company left the building in 1966, it was radically adapted for, among other things, educational uses and TV studios.
Following demolition, an evaluation was carried out, consisting of nine trenches spread evenly across the site of which two were later expanded for full excavation. This phase revealed the remains of timber waterfront revetments belonging to the original Waterworks River dating from the 17th-18th century to its backfilling and re-alignment in the 1930s. These showed evidence of large and small scale repairs and a major mid-19th century refurbishment in response to severe local flooding. A small brick-and-flint building and the base of a timber crane indicated the presence of industrial activity on the S bank and an Ordnance Survey map of 1869 showed a timber yard on the site.
The excavation phase at the N end of the site revealed natural gravels cut by Roman quarry pits, which were later truncated for the cutting of an irrigation channel during the early medieval period. This channel was truncated by another channel of possible 15th-17th century date, which suffered from flooding and silting up, leading to the construction of the timber revetments recording during the evaluation. Excavation at the S end of the site exposed the substantial brick remains of a mid-18th century pump house, navigation channel and wheel-race to the former West Ham Waterworks Company ‘Waterworks Mill’. The navigation channel displayed evidence of damage caused by a barge striking on of the brick revetment walls. The pump house and mill race showed at least one phase of re-fitting, possibly with an iron waterwheel, while the pump house also showed evidence of structural alterations indicating a change of function, possibly as a factory, although it was unclear whether the water wheel was still used. There were also signs that the 18th century pump house was incorporated into the remains of a 17th century corn mill which once occupied the site. Removal of the 17th century brick walls exposed the truncated remains of a peg tile and mortal sill-beam to a potential timber building, possibly a mill of medieval date.
Work package 7, Planning Delivery Zone 1 of the Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications, Newham E15. TQ 3800 8430 MoLAS-PCA (Tristan Adfield) evaluation October 2007-January 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-01106
Work carried out under the site code OL-01106 begun in 2006 continued in to 2008 with the evaluation Trenches PDZ1.01, 1.06/7,1.08 and 1.09. The evaluation has shown that undisturbed deposits survive beneath the 19th -20th century made ground in the vicinity of the Waterworks River wall. These comprise prehistoric land surfaces with associated occupation and evidence for a river channel, perhaps a former course of the Waterworks River, and its abandonment. The deposit sequence in the lower-lying part of the site resembles that found to the east (site OL-01507), with thick sand deposits, accumulated as sand bars within and at the margins of a former river channel forming a series of ridges, interspersed with and overlain by peaty clays and organic silts, accumulated in backwaters and marshy hollows left behind as the river migrated away from the edge of the terrace. Microfossils, and in particular pollen and diatoms, are likely to be preserved in the monolith and auger hole grab samples taken. Timber posts and timber, metal and concrete revetments, all of increasingly late 17th to 19th century date truncated the alluvial deposits. The deposits and features of archaeological interest were subsequently sealed by 19th-20th century made ground and landfill deposits covered by concrete.
Trench PDZ1.23, PDZ1 Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications, Carpenters Road, Newham, E15 TQ 3817 8396 MoLAS-PCA (Mike Bazley) evaluation August 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-01507
An isolated stepped evaluation trench was undertaken at the S edge of PDZ1, immediately E of Warton Road and N of the Great Eastern Railway viaduct. The trench recorded a sequence of natural gravels and sands sealed by 19th-20th century deposits and structures. The natural gravel was sealed by an undated weathered clay/silt, which in turn was sealed in turn by a thick deposit of re-deposited alluvium, that was alternately truncated and sealed by probable late 19th century-20th century structures and made ground deposits, including a brick and concrete basement; rubble backfill; tips of industrial and domestic dumps and lenses of coal and clinker probably derived from the nearby railway construction. The basement truncated the sequence across the northern part of the trench, into the natural gravels.
PDZ1 Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Trench PDZ1.12 Carpenters Road, Newham, E15 TQ 3812 8417 MoLAS-PCA (John Payne) excavation November 2007 - February 2008 excavation 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-01507
Excavations at the Olympic Park on the site designated PDZ 1.12 revealed several phases of archaeological activity that spans the periods from the later Middle Late Bronze Age through to the Roman period and beyond. The site was located on a low gravel terrace that was probably dry land during much its history probably a gravel island, associated with the braided river channels of the Lea Valley.
A segmented ditch system ran across the eastern and northern part of site. This contained good assemblages of Middle Bronze Age and Late Bronze Age ceramics. Two crouched inhumations may also be associated with this phase of activity. The absence of residual ceramics suggests the area was not intensively used at time of burial.
The main occupation phase comprised numerous small pits/postholes plus the partial remains of four "drip gully" features. An enclosure ditch, heavily truncated by later activity, was also recognised and is believed to be contemporary. Late Bronze Age ceramics were recovered from the enclosure ditch as well as many of the settlement features.
The remains of three larger "drip gully" features that contained ceramics of Middle Iron Age date were also present. Associated features were noticeably scarce when compared with the preceding activity. Three sides of a second enclosure ditch were present which partly truncated two of the Middle Iron Age drip gullies. This rectangular enclosure had two opposing entrances and was located at the western end of a contemporary east-west orientated ditch, which was integral with the enclosure, forming its northern boundary.
A substantial ditch partly truncated the Middle Iron Age ditch system contained small amounts of Roman material. This ditch revealed at least two phases of re-cutting. Two flexed inhumation burials are believed to be associated with this phase of activity, although unfortunately neither contained associated grave goods. One was adjacent to the Roman ditch system and orientated east-west, perpendicular to the nearest ditch cut running north-south whilst the second was adjacent to the Middle Iron Age ditch system and was orientated north-south respecting the alignment of the earlier Iron Age ditch. This second burial suggests that the Middle Iron Age ditch was still a recognised boundary in the Roman period, which possibly survived as a low bank or hedgerow. Two north-south aligned parallel ditches appear to form part of a large post-Roman field system.
Olympic, Paralympics and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications Planning Delivery Zone2 Trench PDZ2.24/25 Marshgate LaneE15 TQ 3779 8434 MoLAS-PCA (John Payne) evaluation March 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-01707
An evaluation was carried out at the W side of Marshgate Lane, where two trenches were merged due to access and depth of made ground constraints. The trench recorded of sand and gravel flood plain deposits, probed by auger to a surface height of c1.5m OD a sequence of sandy silts, likely to represent the natural migration or deliberately diverted passage of the river across the trench sealed the natural gravels. The upper part of this sequence may represent deposits associated with the adjacent Waterworks River, whilst the lower deposits may be of late or immediate post glacial origin. The top of the alluvial sequence was recorded at levels of between 2.64m OD and 2.50m OD. Thick deposits of 19th–20th century made-ground, associated with the construction or maintenance of adjacent waterways overlay the alluvium to the top of the trench.
PDZ2 Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Planning Delivery Zone 2 E15 TQ 38025 84032 MoLAS-PCA (Virgil Yendell) geoarchaeological boreholes June 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-06407
Three geoarchaeological boreholes (NBHCZ2b-700, 701 and 702) were drilled to replace proposed evaluation trench PDZ2.19, which could not be excavated owing to the thickness of made ground at its selected position. Preliminary interpretations from the borehole logs suggest that a watercourse formerly crossed close to the boreholes at c. 1m to 1.5m OD. Evidence of a later nearby watercourse was also located to the north in Trench PDZ2.24/25 (OL-01707). Although as yet undated, the watercourses might be dated by radiocarbon, as the silts and sands that accumulated on the riverbed or channel margins contain seeds and other plant remains suitable for radiocarbon dating.
OASIS ID: molas1-49038
PDZ6 work package 3, Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Planning Delivery Zone 6 E15 TQ 3761 8542 MoLAS-PCA (Alistair Douglas) evaluation May–June 2008, excavation June–July 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-06507
The evaluation was followed contiguously by a phase of mitigation works (excavation). This was carried out within a sheet steel piled cofferdam and a mechanical excavator removed a substantial thickness of modern overburden before archaeological deposits were exposed.
Natural gravel was overlain by silty sand beneath patches of clayey sandy peat deposits. Artefacts comprising flint flakes, charcoal flecks and daub contained within the peat indicate the earliest evidence for human activity within the trench, presently a generally prehistoric date. The natural deposits and peaty clay were sealed by an alluvial layer approximately 2.5m thick.
Two parallel N-S aligned lines of timber piles inserted into the alluvium formed the earliest structure, dated to 16th century (on woodwork typological grounds). Part of a timber-revetted water channel was unearthed in the S of the trench that may date to the 17th century, possibly used as a mill race or leat. The earliest brick building, which may date to the late 17th or 18th century, was also located in the S of the trench. This was rectangular and probably had an industrial purpose as an adjacent sunken brick feature probably represented a furnace. The remnants of a cobbled surface may possibly be associated with a later phase of masonry construction forming a southern building and western terrace of cottages presumed to be early 19th century. These were constructed over the demolished remains of the timber leat and associated brick structures.
Possibly in phase with the industrial structures was an ‘anchor’ for a tie-back revealed in the SW part of the trench. This would have formed part of the revetment to a water channel located beyond the W limit of the excavation. The late 17th-18th century structures described above were overlain by made ground upon which a late 18th-early 19th century phase of building and associated surfaces was constructed. This included the east side of a N-S aligned terrace of six cottages, which would have backed onto the Temple Mill Stream (as indicated on the Ordnance Survey 1867 first edition map). To the E the cottages fronted onto a stone slab pavement. The row of cottages was separated from a N-S cobbled road by an open metalled area approximately 11m wide. This Victorian ground horizon was at 4.5m OD. A revetted stream running N-S was recorded to the east of the cobbled road.
PDZ8 work package 2, Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Planning Delivery Zone 8 E15 TQ MoLAS-PCA (Sarah Barrowman) evaluation February–May 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-07807
Three trenches were excavated. One trench produced evidence of a natural depositional sequence (examined via auguring), of gravels overlain by silts, humic clay, and alluvium. This was cut by a pit, followed by a ditch, and wooden stake with associated packing cut, all dating to the late 17th to 19th century. The trench was sealed by 19th to 20th century made ground. The remaining two trenches were abandoned due to flooding and contamination concerns.
Trench PDZ6.08,Work package 4, Planning Delivery Zone 6 of the Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications, E15 TQ 3792 8522 MoLAS-PCA (Sarah Barrowman) evaluation November 2007–January 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-07907
Natural river terrace gravels were recorded across the site at 1.77m OD and 1.95m OD. A palaeo-channel cut the gravels in the E of the site. Alluvial sequences were present across the trench, measuring from 0.6m to 1.4m in thickness. This may reflect the site’s location upon what was floodplain, or possibly the historic Leyton River. No archaeological remains were present within the alluvium. A possible 17th–19th century ploughsoil was observed above the alluvium with associated ridge and furrow features. The site was sealed by a considerable depth of made ground/ground raising placed across the site prior to construction of the recently demolished 20th century residential development.
Work package 4, Planning Delivery Zone 3 of the Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: E15. TQ 3778 8383 MoLAS-PCA (David Sorapure) evaluation and excavation December 2007–February 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-08607
All three trenches reached the level of the natural gravels. Overlying these was an alluvial sequence, indicating an environment that was subjected to numerous episodes of seasonal flooding over a long period. In Trench PDZ3.17/18 features of archaeological significance included prehistoric cuts, post holes and pits. A firm, dark-grey alluvial clay that extended over the entire trench contained fragments of prehistoric pottery, fire-cracked flints and charcoal flecks suggesting a prehistoric land surface had subsequently developed. A cremation burial has been made into this deposit. In all trenches, 19th–20th century made ground/landfill deposits sealed the sequences of archaeological interest.
A mitigation excavation was carried out in response to evaluation under same site code at Trench PDZ3.17/18. Numerous prehistoric features were identified, mainly comprising pits, post holes and ditches with evidence of occupation debris and buried soil/land surfaces. Preliminary analysis shows a possible round house structure comprising post poles, within a conjectured ditched enclosure. Supporting evidence shows sporadic use of nearby open area for rubbish disposal, unidentified structures and a single adult cremation. Radiocarbon dating shows that the features cut into Neolithic alluvial/dry land surfaces and were sealed by alluvial deposits formed from c 1200 BC. The site was flooded from the late Bronze Age with alluvial deposits stabilising to represent seasonally inundated wetland-marsh eventually used for land reclamation in the late 18th century.
OASIS ID: molas1-47674 and molas1-54173
Work Package 1 Planning Delivery Zone 12 Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: E15. TQ 3842 8363 MoLAS-PCA (Elaine Eastbury, Isca Howell) evaluation January-February 2008; excavation March-May 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-08707
A stepped evaluation trench was excavated to the south of Stratford High Street. A mitigation excavation followed after the initial results of the evaluation. The site sequence broadly consisted of a site that lay at the eastern margins of a prehistoric rivercourse and exposed gravels of late Pleistocene/early Holocene date, overlain by prehistoric and historic alluvium containing evidence for human activity. The alluvium was sealed by substantial depths of made ground. The alluvial deposit sequence present on the site records several phases of channel activity from the Neolithic to Iron Age. Interbedded sands, clays and gravels of likely prehistoric date were recorded at the base of trench PDZ12.01. These deposits accumulated on channel bars within shifting stream channels. A gravel horizon, within the sand bars produced flint debitage and a number of unabraded sherds of Neolithic pottery; an assemblage of animal remains, including horse, and a possible wooden stake structure. The sand bar deposits were truncated by a channel containing a possible dislodged/disaggregated wooden structure comprising of the remnants of at least four roundwood timbers. The remains are presently undated but are not thought to predate the Iron Age.
The active channel deposits across the base of the trench were overlain by a sequence of organic clays and peats, which are likely to represent a channel marginal backwater environment that gradually silted up. An early medieval channel consistent with a possible site of a mill works was identified in the upper part of the alluvium. Substantial gravel dumps were laid down to consolidate the ground above the alluvium prior to construction which, characterised by a range of wells, cess pits, brick walls and drains, was present in the upper levels of the sites, dated to the 17th century. A number of walls recorded in section at the northern end of the site were clearly Victorian in origin and are likely to relate to the former Christ Church known to have been located in this part of PDZ12.
OASIS ID: molas1-40627 and molas1-55513
PDZ8 work package 1, Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Planning Delivery Zone 8 E15. TQ 3804 8367MoLAS-PCA (Sarah Barrowman) evaluation December 2007–April 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-08807
Four evaluation trenches were excavated. The trenches were examined to the level of the natural gravels, with these being overlain by alluvial sequences, followed by a layer of peat, sealed by further alluvial deposits. In one trench prehistoric evidence and features were observed within and cutting the lower levels of the alluvial sequence, whilst in several trenches late 17th to 19th century features were observed either within or cutting the alluvial sequence. A possible late 17th to 19th century relict land surface was also observed overlying the alluvial sequence in one trench. All the trenches were sealed by layers of re-deposited clays or silts, overlain by 19th-20th century made ground deposits.
Work Package 6, Planning Delivery Zone 6 Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: E15. TQ 3771 8496 MoLAS-PCA (Sarah Barrowman) evaluation January–March 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-08908
Two trenches were undertaken to asses the archaeological potential of the area prior to construction work on a footbridge. Natural floodplain gravels were recorded at the base of the trenches, overlain in one trench by a possible Later Roman consolidation deposit, and later alluvial sediments. Furrows truncated the surface of the alluvium, buried in situ by late 19th-20th century levelling dumps.
Temple Mills, Planning Delivery Zone 6 (PDZ 6.01), Olympic Park, London Borough of Newham TQ 3761 8542 MoLAS-PCA (Alistair Douglas) evaluation and excavation May – July 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-08908
Natural sands and gravels were overlain by a sequence of alluvial deposits. A few sherds of early medieval pottery were recovered from the lower levels of the alluvial clay. Unearthed within the alluvial deposits were two N-S orientated parallel lines of timber piles set apparently in pairs. These piles may have been the foundations for an elevated walkway that traversed a waterlogged or marshy area and may date to the 16th c. By perhaps the late 17th or early 18th c the land appears to have been drained and a foundry or smithy established as evidence was uncovered in the S of the site for a building that enclosed a furnace and a possible mill race. In the late 18th c the foundry/smithy structure was demolished and replaced with another building that may have had an industrial purpose. A cobbled surface associated with this building was also exposed. Dating to the early 19th c on the W side of the site was a row of workers cottages a cobbled street and on the E side a stream that had a substantial timber revetment.
No fieldwork undertaken
1 Johnsons Drive, Hampton TW 12 TQ 14157 69491 MOLA (Julian Bowsher) watching brief November 2008 Elizabeth Hinds JHS08
A watching brief on geotechnical test pits revealed only natural sandy gravels overlain by modern fills and the foundations of the present 1960s building. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-51869
Amelia Street/Steedman Street, SE17 TQ 32125 78540 MOLA (Peter Cardiff) evaluation April 2008 First Base AMI08
Nine evaluation pits were excavated. One trench on the E side of the site revealed natural gravel cut by a N-S aligned boundary ditch containing undated silty fills. This was in turn cut by a later ditch on the same alignment which contained a sherd of late C18th pottery in its basal fill. The fills were sealed by layers of silty clay and silty gravel, beneath greasy black silt containing brick and mortar fragments which was sealed by modern concrete. This sequence represents a boundary ditch silting up, partly due to being next to a low-lying marshy area. Four trenches excavated on the western side of the site revealed part of an extensive marshland area. In these trenches, a dark silty deposit containing pottery dating from c.1700 to the early 19th century was overlain by undated gravel layers which were sealed by deposits of crushed and fragmented red bricks, probably representing demolition rubble from the 19th century buildings. These were covered by loose yellow gravel, concrete fragments and the modern slab. All of the trenches contained evidence of modern truncation.
OASIS ID: molas1-40654
1 Bear Gardens/2 Rose Alley, SE1 TQ 32255 80440 MOLA (Anthony Mackinder) evaluation November-December 2008 RPS Planning on behalf of Macro Investments Ltd BGU08
Six evaluation trenches were excavated. Two trenches on the west side of the site produced clay and silt deposits beneath a rubble and mortar layer associated with an N-S aligned brick wall. The wall contained some sagger fragments, suggesting that it dates from the late 17th century, when the local pottery started operation. The construction cut of the wall contained backfilled material dating from 1660-1680, as well as limb and foot bones from a brown bear. On the E side of the wall were a series of 17th/18th century dumped deposits, some including industrial waste, beneath 18th century consolidation layers sealed by a late 19th century cobbled yard surface.
A third trench near the centre of the site contained a silty waterlain dumped layer, beneath two undated dumped deposits and a layer dating from 1550-1700. An L-shaped cut in this layer may represent a robbed wall foundation, and was in turn sealed by two late 17th/early 18th century dumps which were cut by yellow brick footings probably associated with the present, 19th century, building. A fourth trench nearby revealed a mortary dumped layer beneath a silty dump with pottery dating from 1690-1710. This was also cut by yellow brick footings like those in the previous trench.
The fifth trench contained solid grey clay overlain by clayey silt dated 1690-1710 by a large pottery assemblage, which also produced an upper and a lower limb from an adult brown bear. Above this, a deposit of brick, possibly representing a floor surface, was sealed by a sandy dumped layer which included glass fragments, and was itself cut by two pits containing a large quantity of pottery dated 1840-1900 and a clay tobacco pipe of French origin. The dumped layer was cut by a rectangular yellow brick structure, an E-W aligned yellow brick wall, and similar footings to those recorded earlier. The final trench, in the NE of the site, revealed only three dumped layers. The lower two dated from 1630-1700 and 1670-1700 respectively, beneath an undated clay silt layer with coal fragment, which was sealed by the slab of the present building. Apart from the bear bones, no evidence was found for bear baiting despite the presence on the adjacent site (PSE02) of remains associated with Davies Bear Gardens, a bear baiting arena of c.1660-82.
OASIS ID: molas1-54363
218–224 Borough High Street, Southwark, SE1 TQ 32378 79717 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz) evaluation June-July 2008 The Winston Group BHV08
A single evaluation trench was excavated at the rear of the property in an area partly occupied by a concrete crane base. Natural sandy terrace gravels (which were truncated by the crane base) were overlain by alluvial silts containing residual Roman material. These were sealed by a series of make-up layers and external surfaces of 16th-18th century date. An early SW-NE aligned gravel surface followed property boundaries illustrated in the 17th-18th century cartographic record. To the SE were the remains of a brick and flint wall footing and a brick surface dating to the 18th century. These were sealed by made ground and modern deposits. The remains suggest that the trench was located to the rear of the earlier street-fronting properties which appear to have been destroyed by the construction of 19th century cellars.
OASIS ID: molas1-47109
46-58 Bermondsey Street, SE1 TQ 33160 79850 MOLA (Peter Cardiff) evaluation January 2008 GVA Grimley on behalf of GPE (Bermondsey Street) Ltd BNM07
Following work in 2007, a third evaluation trench was excavated. A red-brown peat layer was overlain by two layers of clay. Above these were two phases of 18th century walls: The earlier one had been built on an E-W alignment, while the later one consisted of the NE corner of a building represented by one N-S aligned wall and one E-W, built flush against the earlier structure. These structures were overlain by a sandy silt deposit, beneath a chalk and mortar layer, and a deposit of clay with flecks of chalk and charcoal. Modern made ground and concrete completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-37384
Camberwell Bus Depot, Warner Road SE5 TQ 32320 76770 MOLA (Bruce Ferguson) evaluation December 2008 The Go Ahead Group plc CBM08
Five evaluation trenches were excavated. In the NE of the site, the natural brickearth had been cut by two quarry pits, which had been backfilled with material suggesting a mid to late-19th century date, a period when the area saw rapid expansion in housing and the coming of the railway. The quarry pits could relate to the brick-making industry, as it is not unusual for such substantial amounts of brick needed in these types of construction to be made on site, especially in the construction of the railway viaduct which lays to the south-west of the site.
These were sealed by 20th century dumping and the modern ground surface. To the south of this area, the basements of three early 20th-century terraced houses which would have fronted onto Station Terrace were uncovered. These were constructed from yellow stock brick, with a truncated red brick stairway surviving in one basement. These remains were sealed by modern made ground. A third trench in the centre of site revealed natural brickearth cut by the remains of a brick wall (on the same alignment as the basements) beneath demolition debris and modern made ground.
A fourth trench, south of this area, contained natural brickearth beneath a dumped layer of probable early 20th century ‘garden soil’ below re-deposited clay and gravel. A granite cobbled surface and bedding were overlain by a concrete floor and a wall which were in turn sealed by modern deposits and tarmac. The last trench, at the SW end of the site revealed natural brickearth beneath a brick rubble make up layer and a concrete floor on the same alignment as that in Trench 4. The concrete floor was interpreted as the remains of a 20th century industrial building. Modern made ground and gravel sealed these deposits.
OASIS ID: molas1-52841
69–91 Camberwell Station Road, SE5 TQ 32213 76590 MOLA (Heather Knight, Sadie Watson) watching brief October 2008 CgMs Consulting CSZ08
Natural sands and gravels were observed at between 6.75 and 7m OD. These were sealed by modern made ground. Cartographic sources from the 18th and early 19th century show the site as open farm land. The lack of top soil would suggest this and any archaeological deposits had been stripped prior to construction of 19th century houses on the site.
OASIS ID: molas1-51219
Chambers Wharf, Chambers Street, SE16 and River Thames Foreshore, Chambers Wharf, SE16 TQ 3410 7974, TQ 34339 79806 MOLA (David Sorapure, Nathalie Cohen) standing building recording and foreshore survey August, and October 2008 St Martin’s Property Corporation CHJ06/FSW01
Following a geo-archaeological evaluation in 2006, a survey of the standing buildings was carried out prior to demolition and redevelopment of the site. The oldest structural remains on the site were to the east where the substantial remains of an 18th-19th century warehouse were visible along Loftie Street. Further 19th century wall fragments were noted in other areas of the site incorporated into the 20th century buildings. During the 1930s large cold storage warehouses were built, including a dock along the Thames riverbank. Later additions to Chambers Wharf were made in the 1950s, resulting in the series of large buildings presently occupying the site.
In order to satisfy a condition attached to planning consent, a foreshore survey was carried out on the site under the code FSW01. Features revealed during the original survey of the site by students from University College London and the Thames Archaeological Survey (TAS) were observed, and the area of foreshore both in front of and underneath the jetty was mapped. A number of new features were also recorded. In the light of further understanding of the archaeological potential of the site the report concludes that the proposed removal of the barge in front of the jetty, and the use of the area to transport material off the adjacent development site should not impact directly upon the archaeological resource, as long as vessel movements take place at high tides. Any proposed redevelopment of the jetty structure itself however would impact directly upon archaeologically sensitive areas on the foreshore site.
OASIS ID: molas1-48947 and molas1-50541
Dockhead Fire Station, Wolseley Street, Southwark SE1 TQ 34020 79754 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz, Dave Saxby) evaluation February- March 2008 Jacobs Architecture on behalf of London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority DFS08
Three evaluation trenches were excavated. In the eastern part of the site, natural terrace gravels were overlain by waterlain sands, clays and gravels. Above this, remains of possible Bronze Age activity consisting of stakeholes, struck flints, fire cracked flints, and quartz, was sealed by a peat layer containing similar material. These were overlain by an alluvial deposit which was in turn sealed by layers containing evidence of 17th century industrial activity including pottery and clay pipe beneath a clay levelling deposit. This was cut at the northern end of the trench by a wood-lined tanning pit containing 17th century pottery and kiln furniture and at the southern end by a rubbish pit containing material of similar date and an E-W aligned brick wall. Modern made ground and concrete completed the sequence.
In the northern side of the site, natural sand was overlain by a layer of very rooted grey sand cut by possible Bronze Age post and stake-holes and a N-S aligned channel or ditch containing struck flint, fire cracked flint, and charcoal. These were overlain by a sand layer containing similar finds as well as daub fragments and the rim of an Early Bronze Age collared urn. This layer was sealed by a deposit of alluvial clay beneath made ground containing a 16th-17th century drain, a brick wall, and a ditch with bricks, pottery and clay pipe of 17th century date. Modern made ground and concrete filled the remainder of the trench.
A third trench in the eastern part of the site contained natural sand, overlain by alluvial sand containing evidence of Prehistoric agricultural activity. Plough marks and an assemblage of Bronze Age pottery and flint debitage were sealed by overlapping sand layers cut by post- and stake-holes and a possible surface strewn with animal bone. These were overlain by sand and clay horizons and a peat layer at the eastern end of the trench beneath an alluvial clay deposit. These remains were sealed by made ground and features of 17th century date, including a tiled yard surface cut by a brick-lined well containing 19th century pottery. Modern made ground and concrete completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-41445
Globe Academy, Deverell Street, SE1 TQ 32665 79070 MOLA (Adrian Miles) evaluation and excavation May, June-July 2008 Capita Symonds Ltd DVL05
This work followed previous investigations since 2005. The evaluation was carried out in the area to the west of the burial ground wall. A naturally deposited grey clay layer was observed at c 1.15m OD over gravel at c 0.9m OD. This was covered by a mixed deposit containing 19th century pottery which probably represents deposits in open ground prior to the development of the area in the mid 19th century. Cutting through this was a cess pit built of re-used red and yellow bricks, the fill of which contained mid-late 19th century pottery, and probably relates to activity at the rear of the properties on Theobald Street shown on the 1872 and 1916 Ordnance Survey map. Modern make up deposits sealed the archaeological sequence.
The area of excavation was formerly occupied by a privately owned burial ground, open from c.1820-1853. Natural deposits consisted of mixed gravels and clay at approximately 1.2m OD although most of the surface of the gravel was truncated by the burial ground. A single, heavily damaged, Roman cremation urn was found on a baulk between two graves. A total of 796 burials, all in wooden coffins, were recorded, of which 784 were retained for assessment by the osteologist. Approximately 45 burials were recorded as coffins only, then immediately reburied due to the level of soft tissue survival encountered. A brick wall recorded at the western edge of the excavation area was found to be the limit of the burial ground.
Little intercutting of burials was found, except when associated with modern activity, and only a small quantity of disarticulated human bone was recovered, which was not retained. The burials were very dense, with coffins placed head to toe to maximise the use of the available space. Burials were in ‘stacks’, single grave cuts containing multiple burials, up to eight being common. Although the burials were placed in so tightly, head to foot, that they appeared to be in large pits or trenches, the differing levels of the bases of the graves showed that they had originally been dug as single graves. It appears from the traces of coffin plate found that each grave represents a single day’s burials rather then family plots. A total of 128 burials excavated provided at least some information from the coffin plates recorded. No other area deposits were recorded during the excavation. Modern deposits completed the sequence. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-46300
Empire Warehouse, Bear Gardens, SE1 TQ 32250 80460 MOLA (Anthony Mackinder) evaluation July 2008 RPS Planning on behalf of the client Macro Investments Ltd EWH08
Three boreholes were sunk within the basement of the building. Each revealed a number of alluvial clays beneath modern concrete. One borehole revealed fibrous organic clay which may represent the fill of a substantial early prehistoric channel leading to the Thames. Although undated, these are likely to have been deposited between the prehistoric and medieval periods. Seven evaluation trenches were then excavated, with the primary aim of determining whether any remains of the Hope Theatre (1614-56) survived beneath the basement. In certain areas of the alluvial clay there were concentrations of animal bones, including the remains of 10 large dogs, horses and several bear bones, which are indicative of bear baiting taking place on Bankside. The basement of the present building had truncated all deposits down to the alluvial clay and the animal remains were found in what had been the bottom of cuts which had been removed by later activity.
They probably are from either the Hope, which was a dual purpose arena, or the later Davies Bear Gardens (1660/62-82). There were no structural remains that could be identified as the Hope theatre. Remains thought to be of the Hope were found to the north of the site in 2000 (under site code NGW00). The only other features located were a pit filled with possible medieval building debris, a brick tank that probably belongs to the 18th century iron foundry and a timber drain of uncertain date. These features were sealed by the foundations of the existing building.
OASIS ID: molas1-46918
Great Suffolk Street, Lavington Street SE1 TQ 31892 80417 MOLA (Sian Anthony) excavation January-February 2008 Unite Holdings plc GLS06
Following work in 2006, a second stage of excavation was carried out. The previous stage had revealed the remains of brick-built kiln structures relating to the Gravel Lane Pottery, which covered part of the site from 1694-1748/9. The new work uncovered evidence from 1749, when the site was converted into a glass house. Two phases of activity were identified, and structures including furnace chambers, flues and possible annealing furnaces with workshops were recorded. Documentary evidence for the glasshouse is scarce, but it is known from historic maps to continue into the early 19th century. Finds indicated that its main product was domestic wine bottles, and no specialist artefacts and little glass waste was recovered. After the closure of the glass house, the site was broken up into a series of smaller yards and alleys with smaller industrial buildings and the corner of one such 19th century structure was observed in the SE corner. Modern concrete sealed the archaeological remains.
OASIS ID: molas1-44208
2 Hankey Place, Bermondsey, London SE1, TQ 32745 79570 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) evaluation April 2008 Hankey Place Developments Ltd. HAK08
Two evaluation trenches were excavated. In the northern trench, natural gravel was encountered at 0.45m OD and sealed by a silty sand deposit containing chalk brick fragments and pottery dated 1835-1860. Decomposed remnants of wooden planks/platform were visible in section on the surface of the deposit. These were too fragile to recover. Above this, a poorly preserved, possible 19th century, brick wall founded on a layer of crude cobbles was observed. This was sealed by layer of brown-grey sandy "garden" soil followed by a modern make-up ground layer, comprising mainly of modern building material mixed with sand. In the southern trench, natural brickearth was seen at 0.4m OD covered by a deposit of fairly compacted silty sand, a layer of sandy "garden" soil and modern make up. Although the sequence was very similar to the northern trench, no finds were recovered from these deposits.
OASIS ID: molas1-41707
Bankside 4, Holland Street/Hopton Street, SE1 TQ 31877 80360 MOLA (David Saxby and Antony Francis) evaluation and excavation May 2008 Land Securities HLS08
Seven evaluation trenches were excavated, of which five revealed only natural floodplain gravels beneath modern truncation. The other two trenches revealed positive archaeological remains and were enlarged to form one large excavation trench within the untruncated area at the northern end of the site.
The excavation revealed a sequence starting in the prehistoric period, when the Thames was much wider, shallower and slower-flowing than it is today. The Southwark bank was a marsh with channels between gravel islands of higher, dryer ground. The site was located on the S side of one of these ‘eyots’, where previous evidence of prehistoric activity had been found (at 47-67 Hopton Street under the site code HPT94. A possible Neolithic/Bronze Age land surface was recorded, with ard (plough) marks scattered across an area of about 75 sq. m., and the land surface cut by a number of N-S aligned ditches which may represent either boundaries or water-management activities. Stuck flints were recovered from the basal fill of one of these ditches.
Following the prehistoric period, the area was subject to continued flooding from the Thames, and alluvium was deposited during this time. There appear to have been attempts to drain the area during the medieval period by cutting a series of N-S aligned ditches, and a carved wooden ball of 11th-13th century date was recovered from one of these. The alluvium was overlain by walls of four 17th-century buildings, of which one may have been an inn. A ditch some 40m long was associated with these buildings, and appears to have been cut in the 16th century, lined with wooden posts and planking (re-used from Thames boats and other vessels) during the 17th century and continued in use into the 18th. A number of finds of 17th century date were recovered from the ditch, including delftware pottery, a German stove-tile, a pewter candlestick, wine bottles, fine glass vessels, clay tobacco pipes, several iron knives with bone handles, and a bowling ball.
After the ditch was backfilled, a number of brick-lined cesspits were constructed over it, with other cess pits constructed nearby. Material dumped in these cesspits included many pieces deposited almost whole, indicating an episode of house clearance. Among these were sherds of English tin-glazed pottery (c.1675-1725) including several near-complete decorated plates, two stoneware tankards inscribed ‘Henry Bayle att y Paul Head in St Lawance Lane’, two pewter tankards, and over twenty chamber-pots. Further cess pits were dug during the 19th century, including some dated to 1820-30 and possibly associated with the adjacent Falcon Glassworks. The archaeological deposits were sealed by modern hardcore and concrete.
OASIS ID: molas1-49158
7 Holyrood Street, Southwark, SE1 2EL, TQ 33206 80028 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) evaluation April 2008 Bollingbrook on behalf of In The Marketplace HYO08
One evaluation trench was excavated and two geotechnical boreholes were observed. In the W part of the trench, natural clay was recorded at a depth of 2.57m OD was sealed by modern make up layers. In the remainder of the trench, the clay was cut by a natural or artificial channel/gully which was used as a drainage ditch. The presence of several poorly preserved wooden stakes may indicate the presence of an associated platform or revetment. The ditch contained a clayey backfill including animal bone, poorly preserved wooden stakes and pottery of late-16th century date, although the channel may be earlier. This could be associated with land reclamation.
Overlaying this were an organic soil layer containing large amounts of decaying wood beneath a gravel layer (probably representing a late medieval path) truncated by three wooden stakes. Above this ran an E-W aligned roadside brick drain with traces of decayed wood, possibly a plank, on the outer side of the feature. A spread of broken roof tile dated after 1480 was recorded at the southern end of the drain along with a solitary Roman brick, and a row of four large postholes and three small stake holes flanked it to the south. These all were covered by a clayey sand deposit containing copper alloy waste, a stone hone and a worn Low Countries imported floor tile dating to 1480–1600, all of which was overlain by a thin layer of ashy material.
Sealing this was another clayey soil layer containing building material and charcoal, which was truncated by a construction cut filled with loose soil and the remains of a brick wall, possibly representing part of the foundations of a demolished building or property wall constructed from reused red bricks of probable 15th/16th century date. This layer was also cut by a deep rounded pit filled with organic burnt material, brick, chalk and a layer of decomposed wood. This may have been used to dispose of waste from industrial activity. Sealing this was a sandy mortar layer containing brick and tile fragments. Overlaying this was a layer of silty sand containing a piece of Hessian crucible (a particularly heat-resistant metallurgical vessel of probable 15th-16th century date) which, along with the copper alloy waste, suggests that metalworking was taking place on or near the site. This was sealed by modern made ground, concrete slab and tarmac.
The two boreholes drilled on site revealed a layer of clay with peaty lenses (representing periods of flooding) below modern made-ground and the basement slab.
OASIS ID: molas1-51118
Thameslink, Jubilee Market, SE1 TQ 3258 8030 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) watching brief October-November 2008 Network Rail JBM08
Pile probing and the excavation of six pile caps was monitored, revealing only 19th century made ground below 20th century and later concrete and tarmac. However, the limited depth of the pile cap excavations does not preclude the survival of earlier archaeological deposits below. Natural deposits were not seen. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-61000
St Michael’s Catholic School, John Felton Road, Bermondsey SE16 TQ 3422 7967 MOLA (Michael Tetreau) evaluation August-September 2008 Atkins Ltd JFN08
Augering indicated the existence of one or more buried palaeo-channels in the N and centre of the site, where natural sand and gravel were overlain by alluvial silts. In the SE corner, a rise of higher sandy ground had not been silted over, and this was interpreted as an eyot. The sand was cut by a pit containing Roman pottery, including a mortarium stamped SOLLUSF, a product of the potter Sollus, active in the Verulamium region from c.AD70-100. To the N and W of the eyot, alluvial silts were overlain by 17th-to-19th-century deposits. A late-17th- or early-18th-century, timber-reinforced ditch was found running N–S near the southern boundary of the site (to the W of the eyot) and a series of 18th-century cuts was found at the W margin of the eyot and may relate to a fish pond shown on an 18th-century map. These features were truncated by 18th and 19th-c brick foundations, superseded by brick and concrete foundations of19th and 20th-c industrial buildings. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-48145
London Bridge Phase 1a, St Thomas Street/Bermondsey Street SE1 TQ 33162 79939 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief September-October 2008 Network Rail LBS08
A single trench was monitored during the excavation of a goods lift base in the S part of the site. Natural grey clay was overlain by a brick floor of possible 16th century date. This was covered by a layer of ash and burned mortar and three demolition layers suggesting that the building was destroyed by fire. The other deposits in the trench were disturbed by construction of the 19th century viaduct, but three fragments of 17th – 19th century walls and a single drain were found. Layers of 19th and 20th century date completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-54099
London Bridge Tower (The Shard), 32 London Bridge Street SE1 TQ 32895 80110 MOLA (Bruce Ferguson) evaluation July-September 2008 Mace on behalf of Teighmore Ltd LWE07
Following work in 2007, an evaluation was carried out under the service ramp of the former London Bridge Hotel from Joiner Street to London Bridge Station. Natural brickearth was recorded beneath a peaty layer, probably indicating that the area was originally a floodplain or marsh. This was sealed by a sequence of dumped layers, with the earliest containing a substantial quantity of Roman building material of 1st-3rd century date. This included fragments of box-flue tiles, suggesting that a demolished Roman building (possibly a bath-house or a building of some status) may have been located near the area of development. A cut feature, either a boundary ditch or irrigation channel, of probable medieval date was sealed by further phases of dumping, possibly during the middle to late medieval period. These layers were cut by cellars of 18th century date and by the remains of mid-19th century buildings relating to the original London Bridge Station ticket office and waiting rooms. Modern made ground and concrete completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-48583
Miskin’s Yard, Stoney Street, SE1 TQ 32520 80215 MOLA (Sasathorn Pickering) evaluation April 2008 Paul Beck on behalf of Wineworld MKY08
Five evaluation trenches were excavated. The first revealed a dumped layer of probable 18th century date beneath a bedding layer supporting an internal wooden parquet floor of 19th century date, sealed by 20th century demolition debris and concrete. The second contained a similar dumped layer to the first trench, beneath a concrete floor and a levelling layer to support an external brick yard surface of 19th century date. The existing concrete slab had been laid directly onto this feature.
In the third trench, on the W side of the site, a layer of demolition rubble was observed beneath a N-S aligned brick wall probably representing part of the footing for the nearby railway viaduct constructed in 1862. The wall and rubble were sealed by modern concrete. The fourth trench contained two dumped layers of probable 18th/19th century date, with the upper layer cut by a construction cut for a 19th century drain. The drain and its backfill were sealed by a layer of sandy mortar, which in turn was covered by a layer containing evidence of burning, a cobbled floor, and the modern concrete slab.
The last trench contained a dumped layer of early-mid 18th century date beneath a deposit of decayed mortar and silt of similar date, which was cut by a N-S aligned ditch or drain. This cut was filled by a sandy silt deposit including a pipe bowl dated 1680-1710, and sealed by a demolition layer which in turn was cut by a 19th century drain on the same alignment as the earlier cut, which was sealed beneath a brick yard surface of similar date. The W side of this surface was truncated by the construction cut for a 19th century yellow stock brick wall, which was covered by a concrete bedding layer for another brick floor surface, which in turn was sealed by modern concrete.
OASIS ID: molas1-42720
Churchyard Row, 86-88 Newington Butts, SE11 TQ 3180 7879 MOLA (David Sankey) evaluation October 2008 First Base NBU06
A single trench was excavated in gardens to the rear of 86-88 Newington Butts and in front of the former London Park Hospital. Natural brickearth and gravel had been truncated by a quarry pit, which had been backfilled with pottery including Staffordshire Combed Slipware (1680-1800), industrial slag, and a piece of residual Roman pottery. The backfill had been cut by a red-brick well and the back wall of a terraced house – both of probable 18th-early 19th century date – which had in turn been truncated by 19th-20th century cellars and drains.
OASIS ID: molas1-49347 see also OASIS ID: molas1-34098
Union Works, 60 Park Street, SE1 TQ 32230 80440 MOLA (Paul Thrale) evaluation and watching brief May-July 2008, December 2008-January 2009 CgMs Consulting PSE02
Following work in 2002, an evaluation was undertaken to assess the archaeological impact of a proposed office development on the site of Southwark’s last Bear Baiting arena located at the southern end of Bear Gardens.
Davies’ Bear Garden was built in 1662 and was used for animal-baiting as well as prize-fighting and fencing. It was regularly visited by the diarist Samuel Pepys and by John Evelyn. It only lasted for twenty years before it was pulled down in 1682. Afterwards the site was used for the production of glass from 1693 until the early 18th century.
The evaluation revealed remains of the structure of the 17th century Bear Gardens, including parts of the brick wall foundations. These were truncated by brick structures associated with 17th-18th industrial activity, beneath 19th-20th century foundations. A watching brief on pile probing, piling and the removal of the concrete slab revealed further remains of 17th-19th century date.
Rose Court, Winchester Square, Clink Street, Southwark, SE1 TQ 32575 80390 MOLA (Sian Anthony) watching brief February-May 2008 Winchester Walk Properties Ltd SIK07
Following work in 2007, foundation demolition and ground beam trenches were monitored in support of Scheduled Monument Consent for development on the medieval Palace of the Bishop of Winchester. Natural ground was not observed. Alluvial deposits were observed beneath Roman reclamation and dumping, and a small amount of Roman building material was recorded in the SE of the site. Above the Roman layers, medieval remains associated with the stages of development of the Bishop of Winchester’s Palace were recorded, including the western range buildings, and an entirely new medieval structure which was identified as a possible stair foundation. Despite extensive levels of truncation, some 18th-19th century features were located, including a brick-lined rubbish pit and a layer of burnt material which may represent debris from a fire in 1814. Modern material completed the sequence.
OASIS ID: molas1-59873
Thameslink (Borough Market Viaduct), SE1 TQ 3251 8017, TQ 3262 8021, TQ 3277 8027 MOLA (Aleksandra Cetera) watching brief April-August 2008 Network Rail TLK08
A watching brief was undertaken on limited geotechnical investigations, comprising trial pits, slit trenches and boreholes. Work took place in three main locations: To the rear of the Hop Exchange Building, Southwark Street; at Borough Market/Green Dragon Court; and on Railway Approach. A number of trenches were not of sufficient depth to reach stratified archaeological deposits and only revealed modern material.
In those interventions which did reach archaeological strata, untruncated natural river terrace gravels were recorded on the western part of the Hop Exchange site, in the centre of site at Borough Market, and in a borehole on the eastern side of Railway Approach. A sequence of up to 1.5m of horizontal deposits of probable Roman date was recorded over a limited area at the rear of the Hop Exchange (including possible occupation surfaces).
The location of some of the pits and boreholes adjacent to the railway viaduct meant that extensive truncation had removed earlier deposits. In the boreholes at the rear of the Hop Exchange (west of site) as well as in the Market area (centre of site), archaeological deposits likely to be of 18th/19th century date were recorded. Brick structures pre-dating the viaduct were observed in two of the trial pits in the west of the site; these were probably of 18th century date and included a drainage culvert. The top of a brick vault apparently of similar date was exposed beneath the pavement of Green Dragon Court. A series of slit trenches on Railway Approach all revealed 19th-century brick vaults. Dating on material from some of these sites is pending.
183-203 Union Street, Southwark, SE1 TQ 31930 80000 MOLA (Nikki Rahmatova) evaluation May 2008 Blair Associates Architects UNL08
Three evaluation trenches were excavated. No natural was observed in the westernmost trench, the earliest layer being a sandy, clayey silt dumped deposit. This was overlain by a 17th-19th century consolidation layer containing charcoal, glass, pottery and animal bone. Above this was an 18th-19th century yard surface of halved red bricks and broken stone slabs which may be the part of the original yard associated with the current warehouse building. Sealing this was a mass of rubble, pottery and 19th century glass bottles under modern concrete.
In the basement at the centre of the site re-deposited brickearth of possible Roman origin was found to be truncated by two construction cuts with post holes, the first being truncated by the second. Pottery within the cuts was of probable 17th-19th century date. The top of the brickearth and construction cuts were truncated horizontally and also vertically to the west by modern foundations.
On the NE side of the site, a possible re-deposited brickearth layer was overlain by a dump or consolidation deposit of silty clay. Truncating this was a construction cut with a partially exposed foundation, possibly a 19th-20th century column. Its backfill consisted of sandy silt containing building material fragments. In the SW corner of the trench, the dumped deposit was cut by the NE corner of a 19th-20th century brick foundation or cellar wall. Demolition rubble fill was present on the inside of wall while a consolidation layer on the sides concealed any construction cuts. This was sealed by modern rubble and made ground.
OASIS ID: molas1-43495
20-30 Wilds Rents, SE1 TQ 33065 79350 MOLA (Heather Knight) evaluation February 2008 Vision Homes Limited WRX08
Three evaluation trenches were excavated. Truncated natural sands and gravels were observed in auger holes in two of the trenches. In the first trench, three timber-lined tanning pits were discovered. These appear to have been constructed at the same time (probably during the 18th century) and to have been contemporary with an internal working floor and external cobbled yard surface. The corner of a brick-built structure of probable 19th-century date was recorded in the southern part of the trench and may represent the base of a wooden drying shed (for leather) or similar building. This structure had been demolished in the late 19th/early 20th century and the area and tanning tanks backfilled with a sandy silt deposit containing large amounts of building material, and a residual clay pipe bowl dated 1700-1740.
In the second, a large area of horn cores was found, tightly interlocked together over a bed of quick lime and were roughly aligned north-south indicating that they had been deliberately placed rather than randomly discarded. The horn cores were probably within a pit but this is not certain. This deposit was truncated by two small pits of similar construction to those in Trench 1 and contained pottery of 18th century date. They may have been used for colouring the tanned leather. A cobbled yard surface associated with these tanks suggests that they were originally in the open, while a N-S aligned C19th wall indicates that they were later enclosed within a building. An internal brick floor had been constructed over an open drain, which was replaced with a new square brick one inside the building. Eventually, the open tanks were backfilled and a layer similar to that in Trench 1 was dumped across the area. A fragment of a Bristol glaze shouldered jar (1830-1900) was recovered from this layer.
In Trench 3 a layer of quicklime, sealing horn cores was found in the northern half of the trench. These were tightly packed within a timber lined pit which extended beyond the area of excavation. They had been laid over a sandy silt layer containing pottery of 17th century date, below which was a second deposit of quicklime over horn cores, which in turn covered a sandy silt layer with fragments of mussel and oyster shell. The pit appeared to cut through a layer of clayey silt associated with two more timber lined pits similar to those in the other trenches. These had been backfilled with material including pottery of 19th century date. The archaeological remains were covered by 20th century and modern make-up layers and concrete.
OASIS ID: molas1-40075
16 Winchester Walk, SE1 TQ 32560 80390 MOLA (Sian Anthony) evaluation April-May 2008 Winchester Walk Ltd WSQ02
Further evaluation work took place consisting of cleaning and recording following on from earlier evaluation in 2002. The work clarified the results of the earlier fieldwork and showed that there are further potential Roman and medieval building foundations, surfaces and deposits surviving. A single slot was excavated through 18th and 19th century deposits to reveal several potential Roman features such as ditches or pits, with a burnt deposit also indicating a potential hearth area. Other Roman features were recorded including lime surfaces and structural debris.
Masonry identified in 2002 was further cleaned and proved to extend further to the north and west, this is now identified as an early medieval building aligned NW-SE. The alignment is unexpected and does not accord with the known medieval southern range of the Winchester Palace complex which suggests that this is an earlier foundation reflecting a different alignment prior to the main palace. A packed chalk and ragstone feature was recorded in the southern basement which cuts Roman deposits and is thought to represent a medieval garden path in the exterior courtyard of the Palace rather than a structural wall.
No fieldwork undertaken.
Aldgate Union, 35-47 Whitechapel High Street, E1 TQ 33950 81360 MOLA (Andy Daykin) evaluation February 2008 Tishman Speyer ALU08
Six evaluation trenches were excavated in three Victorian basements at the NE corner of the site while a seventh was excavated to provide the site engineers with information on the existing foundations
In the first trench, natural sand and gravel was truncated by Victorian wall footings beneath modern rubble and concrete, while the second revealed a clay sandy silt soil horizon cut by a small medieval pit filled with humic sandy silt, overlain by levelling deposits and the basement slab. Victorian wall footings occupied one end of the trench. The third trench contained natural sand and gravel cut in one corner by a medieval pit and in another by a red-brick well of probable 18th-19th century date. A brick wall of 18th century date was also observed. The trench had been disturbed by modern services, and modern make up and concrete sealed the sequence.
A fourth trench contained natural sand and gravel below a dumped deposit containing medieval pottery which was cut by a red brick wall of probably 18th century date. On the south side of the wall, a charcoal layer (possibly a burnt wooden surface) was sealed by dumped deposits including fire debris which was sealed by the modern basement slab. On the north side, a silty sand layer was covered by a medieval rubbish deposit sealed by modern concrete. The fifth trench revealed natural deposits which were cut by a series of medieval pits backfilled with sandy silt deposits. The remainder of the trench contained Victorian wall footings and disturbance from the insertion of a drain. Modern concrete completed the sequence.
Trench six contained gravel, beneath a series of dumped layers sealed, by a demolition deposit containing tile fragments. This deposit was sealed by further dumped layers and the modern basement slab. On the west side of the trench, a sandy silt layer was cut by a N-S aligned chalk wall (of probable medieval date) which was truncated by an E-W aligned red brick wall forming part of an 18th century cesspit or soakaway. A later yellow and red brick wall of 18th-19th century date was built up against this. Victorian wall footings and modern concrete occupied the rest of the trench. The engineers test pit contained a series of dumped deposits below the modern slab. A full analysis of the results and finds assessments are pending, subject to the development programme. Although the site lies close to a known Roman cemetery, no burials were observed
Goodman’s Fields, Alie Street, E1 TQ 34075 81200 MOLA (Paul Thrale) evaluation September 2008 Mourant Property Trustees Ltd and Mourant and Co. Trustees Ltd ALW08
Five evaluation trenches were excavated prior to redevelopment. One trench on the N side of the site contained natural gravel truncated by a series of red-brick cellar walls probably representing buildings of 18th century date shown fronting onto Little Alie Street close to the corner of Rupert Street on Horwood’s map of 1813. These had been backfilled with material of 16th-19th century date, probably during demolition. Two yellow stock brick walls, probably late 19th/early 20th century rear additions to these buildings were also recorded. These were sealed by a 20th century levelling deposit and topsoil of the present grass surface.
A second trench in the NW corner revealed natural sand and gravel truncated by quarry pits, which had been backfilled with silty clay including pottery of 1270-1500. These were sealed by undated consolidation deposits and dumped layers beneath a deposit containing pottery and glass dating from 1670-1690. Toward the N of the trench, an E-W aligned wall was recorded, probably representing a cellar wall of a property shown fronting Leman Street on the 1873 Ordnance Survey map. The cellar had been backfilled with rubble and sealed by modern levelling layers and topsoil.
A third trench in the SW corner contained natural sand and gravels beneath a probably quarry backfill, which was in turn sealed by a mixed make-up layer containing pottery of Roman, medieval and 17th century date. Above this, a dumped deposit containing pottery dated to 1580-1700 was cut by a series of probable 18th century brick wall footings for a building fronting onto Rupert Street. These had been truncated by 20th century brick and concrete foundations, modern make-up, concrete and tarmac.
The fourth trench, in the SE corner, had been extensively truncated by modern services. Limited excavation revealed clayey sand, possibly representing an ancient channel, overlain by re-deposited clay, sand and gravel, sealed by modern makeup, concrete and tarmac. The final trench, in the NE, contained natural gravels, truncated by a 20th century concrete feature, and sealed by modern levelling, concrete and tarmac. Although the site lies within a known Roman cemetery, no burials were observed and these may have been removed by extensive brickearth quarrying up to the 16th-17th century.
OASIS ID: molas1-48981
Bow Baptist Church, 1 Payne Road, E3 TQ 37720 83046 MOLA (Sarah Ritchie, Adrian Miles) watching brief and excavation September, November-December 2008 TEAM Limited BBP07
Following an evaluation in 2007, a watching brief was carried out on two geotechnical test pits and a single borehole. The test pits revealed natural gravels beneath brick rubble (possibly associated with the demolition of the 1866 church) and topsoil. The borehole detected a possible grave cut into natural gravel beneath the brick rubble and soil.
An excavation was carried out on an area of the burial ground to the N and NW of the former church. A total of 83 burials were recorded and retained for analysis by the osteologist. All were aligned E-W with the skull at the W end. Two brick burial structures were also recorded. The majority of burials from the site were in wooden coffins, with two lead coffins in the general burial area and two from the vaults. The burials were laid out in rows running north-south. No intercutting of burials was found, although evidence was found of burials having been disturbed by later interments in the same grave. From the coffin plates which were recordable it seems that at least some the graves represent family plots. No other archaeological deposits were recorded during the excavation.
1-19 Cuba Street, E14 TQ 3718 7988 MOLA (David Sankey) evaluation April 2008 Environ CBZ08
Two evaluation trenches were excavated. Both contained natural terrace gravels beneath an alluvial sequence fining up from clayey sand to sandy clay. Within these were gravel spreads and overbank deposits (which included washed-in fire-cracked flint). Above these deposits, the trench on the W side of the site contained 19th century coal ash, nightsoil and dumping cut by a Victorian concrete foundation while that on the E side revealed a similar sequence, but cut instead by two 19th-century pits containing cessy fill, pottery and clay tobacco pipe. Modern concrete completed the sequence in both trenches.
OASIS ID: molas1-41414
82 West India Dock Road and 15 Salter Street, E14 TQ 36989 80858 MOLA (Gemma Stevenson) evaluation June 2008 Aitch Group EID08
Two evaluation trenches were excavated. The first, in the N part of the site, revealed natural sand and gravel cut by a series of pits of 18th century date. These were overlain by a layer of made ground. An east-west aligned ditch observed in section may be the ‘Black Ditch’ common sewer, which was known to have existed in the vicinity of the site and ran from Stepney through Poplar and into the Thames up to the 19th century. A late 19th century brick-lined drain had been inserted into the top of the backfill of the ditch, running on the same alignment, and this was sealed by modern make up and rubbish. The second trench, in the SW corner of the site, contained natural sand and gravel into which a N-S aligned palaeo-channel had been cut. This feature was filled with alluvial clay, which was truncated by 20th century concrete piles and overlain by modern make up layers.
OASIS ID: molas1-43653
Humanities Building, Queen Mary College, Mile End Road E1 TQ 36165 82365 MOLA (Andrew Westman) standing building recording January-March 2008 Queen Mary College HQM06
Following work in 2007, a stretch of wall 108m long and 2-3m high was recorded before its partial demolition for the construction of a 'Humanities Building' for the university. The wall, statutorily listed grade II, was originally built to enclose the 'Betahaim Novo' (New Cemetery) of the Spanish-Portuguese Jews' Congregation. The western part of this stretch of wall, originally in the south-east corner of the cemetery, probably dated from the establishment of the cemetery in 1726-33; the plain wall ended in a gate pier for one of the two cemetery gates, since rebuilt, and bore traces of a structure abutting its internal face, probably a documented mortuary chapel, removed in the 1960s. The cemetery was enlarged to the east in 1849-53, and the boundary wall extended as a panelled wall with a ridged brick coping. The external face of this extension was partly abutted at first by small houses and gardens, and later, after they were demolished and probably after the cemetery went out of use c.1936, by a four-storey office building, a workshop and a garage (both the latter recently demolished). Part of the cemetery, with c.2000 burials, survives, forming an open space within the college grounds, and much of the boundary wall also survives around the grounds.
OASIS ID: molas1-40011
Limehouse DLR Station, Ratcliffe Lane, E14 TQ 36180 81083 MOLA (Aaron Birchenough) watching brief June 2008 DLR LIA08
During pile probing activity on the east side of Branch Road, a large wall of 19th century date was exposed by the contractors. Natural gravels had been cut by the cement foundations of this structure. Constructed in English bond pattern from dark red and purple/red bricks and lime-rich mortar, it abutted the nearby Grade II listed viaduct structure and, while broadly contemporary with it, represented a different phase of construction. It may have functioned as a retaining wall while a corridor was being excavated for the construction of the viaduct itself. No other archaeological remains were observed.
Viaduct of the former London and Blackwall Railway, Mansell Street / Royal Mint StreetE1 TQ 33933 80849 MOLA (David Sorapure) standing building recording June-July 2008 Mason Properties MNE08
The railway viaduct and an associated hydraulic accumulator tower were recorded prior to demolition in advance of redevelopment of the site. The area covered by these structures measured approximately 148m of E-W and 60m from N-S, consisting of a series of abutting viaducts on an E-W alignment. All were constructed of pink and yellow London stock bricks, and the supporting walls and vaults for the viaducts formed a series of twelve continuous arches on a N-S axis, in a continuous line E-W The earliest part of the viaduct represents the approach to Minories station, which was constructed in 1841 and stood on the W side of Mansell Street. The viaduct was successively widened throughout the 19th century to accommodate the growing volume of passenger and freight traffic. The goods yard which was located on the present site was owned by the Midland Railway and opened in 1862.
The hydraulic accumulator tower was constructed at the W end of the site in at least two phases at some time between 1894 and 1913, when it was surveyed for the 3rd edition of the Ordnance Survey map. It held a large tank of water which was put under pressure by a weighted piston. The pressurised water was forced through pipes to provide power to operate machinery such as turntables and a lift to move wagons on and off the viaduct. The depot closed in 1949 and the buildings on the site, with the exception of the accumulator tower and the viaduct, were demolished.
OASIS ID: molas1-56219
Railway Viaduct adjacent to Shadwell DLR Station, Martha Street, Shadwell, E1 TQ 35030 81000 MOLA (Emma Dwyer) standing building recording January-July 2008 Taylor Woodrow Developments and George Wimpey South London Ltd MVI08
A survey was carried out on the railway viaduct, which had been constructed as part of the London & Blackwall Railway. This opened in 1840 and ran from Minories (on the eastern edge of the City of London) to Blackwall, via Stepney. It was constructed in three phases: The earliest was the southern side of the viaduct, visible in Shadwell Place; It was subsequently twice widened to the north, initially prior to 1870 and again prior to 1914, when the Ordnance Survey map shows that houses in Martha Street have been demolished to make way for it. The piers of the viaduct were constructed from red stock bricks, and cast iron ‘weepers’ had been built into the piers during the second phase of construction to drain off rainwater from the deck above. At the time of the survey, the southern end of the viaduct had been clad with corrugated iron sheeting, and the northern end of the arch had been infilled with a wall constructed from yellow stock bricks and containing a roller-shutter door for access. An iron tie had been inserted into the vaulting in the SE corner of the arch, indicating some repairs to the structure, but no evidence was seen for transverse arches connecting this arch to its neighbours.
OASIS ID: molas1-47688
EDF substation (formerly Whitechapel power station), 27 Osborn Street, E1 TQ 3395 8153 MOLA (Peter Cardiff, Valeria Boesso, Andrew Westman, Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief, standing building survey and evaluation July–December 2008 EDF Energy OBN08
A municipal power station was built from 1899, initially by Whitechapel Board of Works, later absorbed into the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney. Surviving original fabric included a turbine hall, of red brick faced internally with white-glazed brick, blue-grey-glazed brick piers and blind arcading, and a steel-truss roof. Adjoining to its S was a boiler-house in orange-red brick on two and three storeys above ground, which were supported by composite riveted steel-plate star-section stanchions in a double-depth basement, the latter housing up to seven boilers. Further S, a brick gateway from Gunthorpe Street, to the W, led into a shed where coal was shot to basement-level bunkers. Brick-faced flues on two levels under the turbine hall, and the base of the original chimney to the E, also survived. Buildings fronting on to Osborn Street had contained offices and an electrical appliances showroom, open by 1906. Although the turbine hall, boiler house and coal shed were extended to the E, documented between 1903 and 1913, Stepney constructed a bigger riverside power station at Limehouse from 1903, which began generating in 1909. Whitechapel power station was wholly converted into a substation by 1918, the former turbine hall being extended further to the E to house transformers. The chimney was demolished and a floor inserted subdividing the boiler-house basement. In 1954, after partial demolition of the coal delivery shed, transformers were installed to the S and the former turbine hall, now empty, was used as a vehicle park. The boiler house is to be demolished and the substation modernised.
A watching brief on the replacement of the electrical sub-station was monitored, consisting of five test pits and a series of boreholes. Three test pits within basement level 1 contained a brick-lined well\sump of probable 18th century date and an area of grey clay pit fill (including a sherd of 18th century pottery) beneath modern made ground and concrete. Two boreholes within the Turbine Hall revealed natural sandy gravel beneath modern made ground and concrete. The other investigations revealed only modern material.
During the evaluation, four test pits were excavated within the standing building. Two in a basement corridor revealed only natural gravels truncated by modern concrete. A third test pit, located in a service corridor running under the N side of the Turbine Hall contained natural gravel and sand under 19th century rubble and the concrete floor of the standing building. The fourth, in the basement under warehouse structures to the S of the Turbine Hall revealed natural brickearth, beneath an undated deposit which was cut by a small pit containing pottery dated c1480-1550. This was covered by the concrete slab.
OASIS ID: molas1-50212
Spital Square E1 TQ 3348 8195 MOLA (Tim Braybrooke, Heather Knight, Malcolm McKenzie) evaluation May and September 2008, watching brief September and October 2008 London Asset Management and Spitalfields Development Group SQR00
Following work in 2007, three evaluation pits were excavated in the modern roadway to ascertain archaeological survival prior to a proposed lowering of the road to meet the requirements of the adjacent building (Eden House). The site lies within the Scheduled Ancient Monument of St Mary-without-Bishopsgate. Nothing was found relating to the priory. A brick yard surface dating to the 17th century is probably that which ran between Spital Square (west) and White Lion Yard (now Folgate Street) and which can be seen on Ogilby and Morgan’s map of 1676. This was sealed by material related to the construction of the existing roadway. A watching brief on two shallow slots only revealed similar make-up deposits associated with the construction of Spital Square.
OASIS ID: molas1-43141
DLR Upgrade, South Quay Station, E14 TQ 37689 79792 MOLA (Virgil Yendell) geo-archaeological watching brief April 2008 SQS08
A geo-archaeological survey consisting of two boreholes was carried out. The first borehole, to the SE of site, revealed natural sandy Pleistocene gravels beneath a fine sand. This was sealed by a layer of blue grey silty clay with dark organic bands, representing probable mudflats and waterlogged marshland environments. A series of sand and gravel layers with pockets of clay, probably relating to the formation or dredging of quay, were sealed by modern made ground and backfill.
The second borehole to the SW of site contained natural sandy Pleistocene gravels beneath an organic clayey sand. This was sealed by a layer of low energy channel margin deposits and dark brown peat, representing a waterlogged near channel and marshland environments, beneath a deposit of silty clay indicating a possible flood event or the presence of a nearby river channel. The upper alluvial layers show signs of possible stabilisation and soil development and were sealed by 17th to 18th Century and modern made ground and backfill. This is part of on going work as the results of dating and environmental analysis of the sediments have not yet been synthesised.
Tower House, 38-40 Trinity Square, EC3 TQ 33580 80780 MOLA (Robin Wroe-Brown, Agnieszka Bystron) evaluation and standing building survey August, September 2008 City Offices LLP TRH08
Following work in 2007 under the site code TYQ03, an evaluation was carried out. Three test pits were excavated. In two of these, in the S part of the site, modern rubble and concrete sealed the foundations of adjacent buildings. The third test pit on the N part of the site revealed natural gravels beneath an undated silty deposit, which was sealed by modern material and concrete. During the next phase of work, part of the Roman city wall was exposed when the modern building on the site was demolished. The exposed section of N-S aligned Roman wall was 8.3m long, a maximum of 2.5m high and in good condition although having sustained some ancient damage at the northern end where there were signs of possible rebuilding. A standing structure survey was carried out including elevation drawing, photographic record and survey work.
OASIS ID: molas1-48717
East London Line Project: Central Section, Wapping Station, 125-129 Wapping High Street, Cinnamon Street, Clare Street, Wapping, E1 TQ 34993 80238 MOLA (Sian Anthony, Mike Morley) watching brief July-August 2008 Transport for London WPO08
A targeted watching brief was carried out to the north of Wapping Station where two new escape stairway shafts (located on either side of the existing railway line and ventilation shaft) were excavated. Geo-archaeological investigation revealed Bronze Age peat beneath layers of alluvium indicating a marshland environment. Later alluvium was cut by a small mid 17th-century revetment and ditch, suggesting that attempts were being made to drain Wapping Marsh prior to habitation of the area. The ditch was truncated by a large pit of late 17th/early 18th-century date, beneath a series of dumped soil deposits. Above these, the remains of buildings of 17th to 18th-century date were recorded, including brick-lined cess pits and drains, a brick yard surface, and walls of unfrogged red brick. These buildings probably post-date the 1682 fire of Wapping which destroyed much of the area, and finds from the site included three delft wall tiles of this period, displaying evidence of burning. The corner of a 19th/20th-century building was located in one shaft. Modern deposits, including some associated with the construction of the railway, completed the sequence. These results are complemented by previous standing building recording of the late 19th/early 20th-century warehouses on the site, carried out under site code ELE07.
OASIS ID: molas1-49997
Work package 1, Trench PDZ4.17; Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Planning Delivery Zone 4 E15. TQ 3740 8457 MoLAS-PCA (Paul Thrale) evaluation November 2007– January 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-06807
The evaluation trench revealed a phase of water management dating to between the 19th and early 20th centuries. This consisted of an open timber lined channel and later additions of a large brick culvert and large cast iron pipe. These features may be associated with the 19th century East London Waterworks Company reservoir to the south constructed c 1847-1848 and also to later drainage systems.
The features and dumped deposits both truncate and overlie a series of alluvial clay, organic and sandy gravel deposits recorded across the site. The sandy gravel deposits were present at c 0.8m to 2.4m OD across the north-west of PDZ4 and were overlain by a thin layer of organic material which was sealed by an alluvial clay sequence (ranging from 0.85m to1.90m in thickness), suggesting that much of the area was waterlogged marsh environment or subject to flooding over time. In one trench a possible ancient channel or tributary cutting the natural gravels and sealed beneath the alluvial clay deposits was recorded. The organic fill of this feature may represent the silting or ponding of a river channel that had become isolated from the main water courses in the area. Approximately 3.5m of 19th-20th century contaminated industrial and commercial waste was present across the site above the earlier deposits.
OASIS ID: molas1-40623
PDZ4, work package 3; Olympic, Paralympic and Legacy Transformations Planning Applications: Planning Delivery Zone 4 E15. TQ 3762 8444 MoLAS-PCA (Paul Thrale) evaluation January 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-06907
The evaluation trench PDZ4.08 provided information on the position, construction and survival of the 19th century East London Waterworks Company reservoir that covers most of PDZ4. The pier bases for the reservoirs sluice gate and also a section of its eastern wall was recorded along the east side of the zone. The trench also provided information that suggests that, although partially truncated during its decommissioning, the 19th century East London Waterworks Company reservoir remains generally intact. The backfill of the reservoir consists of late 19th century commercial and industrial waste.
OASIS ID: molas1-40689
Chimney east of Roach Road, E3 TQ 3731 8426 MoLAS-PCA (Kari Bower, Patrizia Pierazzo) standing building recording January 2008 Capita Symonds and the Olympic Delivery Authority OL-07107
The structure comprised a red brick chimney with blue brick dressings and iron straps to strengthen the structure when it was subjected to thermal expansion. The chimney was located within a factory site on the west side of the Lea Navigation, south of the Hertford Union Canal. From map evidence the chimney appeared to date from between 1893 and 1896, when the site was leased by the Gas Light and Coke Company. The chimney had an E-facing opening at its base, with a triple rowlock set arch, probably housing a flue which connected the chimney to a building containing the furnace, located immediately to the east. This building was later demolished and the site redeveloped; at the time of the survey the chimney was situated within the premises of a shoe factory.
OASIS ID: molas1-46832
No fieldwork undertaken.
No fieldwork undertaken.
Arundel Great Court, London WC2, TQ 30920 80905 MOLA (Antony Francis) watching brief and excavation August–December 2008 Land Securities AGU07
The watching brief continued from 2007, developing into an excavation that revealed a surviving part of the Tudor riverfront wall beneath modern overburden. A 9.6m length of this 2.15m wide wall was exposed, on the expected E-W line of the riverfront wall constructed in the 1550s. The wall survived highest at its E end, becoming lower and more truncated further W.
The S (riverward) face was built almost completely in stone, although a small area of later brick patching was observed. The better preserved E end was built from large, but relatively roughly finished, stone blocks and was likely to be a later rebuild. A drain (with the date ‘1847’ punched into its lid) was inserted through the wall here. The likely original lower part of the wall was built from finer grained and better worked stone, with closely fitted joints, resting on a timber baseplate. The wall core consisted of brick and stone, the proportion of stone increasing lower down in the core where chalk, greensand and ragstone had been used. The lower part of the wall was preserved in situ.
The N face of the wall was built almost completely in brick, although some stone had been used. At the E end, the original face and part of the wall have been removed to accommodate a later brick wall with springing for two arches. This was part of a mid 16th–17th century vaulted brick cellar located N of the river wall. Parts of the river wall had been removed to build two alcoves, one on either side of the later wall. Other walls relating to the cellared building were also identified, suggesting the cellar was at least 11.6m (N–S) by 3.2m (E–W) in plan. Walls forming the corner of a second brick building were identified in the N part of the excavation area. Probably dating to 17th–18th century, this building was at least 4.0m by 1.6m in plan.
OASIS ID: molas1-41577
1-5 Berwick Street and 4-5 Peter Street, W1 TQ 29572 80994 MOLA (Louise Wood) watching brief May-August 2008 Berwick Street Properties Ltd BWJ07
Following work in 2007 which revealed deposits representing the backfilling of quarry pits prior to the initial construction of Berwick Street in c.1680, a watching brief was carried out. Natural sand and gravel were observed at c.21m OD in the southern part of the site, overlain by a brickearth deposit at c.22m OD. General 17th-19th century dumping was recorded and it is possible that at lower depths these may be the remains of backfilled quarry pits. However other features recorded were generally later in date than those recorded in the evaluation. These included a 19th-century well, a mid 18th-century well and a probable 18th-century cesspit. Finds from the site include a small pottery and clay pipe assemblage from the backfill of the mid-18th-century well.
OASIS ID: molas1-51369
The Connaught Hotel, Carlos Place, W1 TQ 28495 80650 MOLA (Sadie Watson) watching brief March-April 2008 Blair Associates CGO08
A watching brief was carried out on ground reduction prior to construction of an extension to the existing building. Natural London Clay beneath truncated natural gravels which were overlain by modern deposits and the present basement slab. No archaeological remains were observed due to modern truncation.
OASIS ID: molas1-41109
City of Westminster College, Paddington Green Campus, W2 TQ 26722 81843 MOLA (Nikki Rahmatova , Heather Knight, Bruce Watson, Tim Braybrooke ) evaluation, excavation and watching brief June, July, September-October 2008 Knight Frank LLP on behalf of City of Westminster College CIU08
Two evaluation trenches were excavated in the centre of the N and S halves of the site. In the former, natural sandy gravel was truncated by modern piles.
The second trench revealed a single row of bricks (dated 1450-1550) which were probably reused as a path or yard surface during the early 18th century. Above these was a wall foundation probably related to the large house built by the Hon. Charles Greville in 1807. Immediately to the W and on the same alignment was an unlined cess pit containing pottery mainly dated to 1830-40 (plus a few 18th-century sherds and a residual medieval sherd). Above this, a layer of gravel and topsoil possibly related to a 19th/20th-century garden was sealed by modern rubble and tarmac.
A later excavation to the S of this area recorded natural gravel cut by a posthole containing a single 17th century sherd and a small pit filled with brick rubble and early 19th-century domestic refuse. Above this on the S side, a thin plough soil layer lay beneath a deposit of demolition debris. This was sealed by a clay and brickearth external surface containing 17th-century pottery, beneath a layer of garden soil containing peg tile and clay tobacco pipe. Set into the top of this layer were the remnants of a paved area, which was subsequently covered by garden soil including pottery dated 1820-1840.
These deposits were cut by a series of shallow brick structures, probably representing garden buildings. One ran N-S across the W half of the excavation and dated to the 19th century. This was subsequently demolished and a garden path constructed, which was then truncated on the W side by another wall footing. A third wall footing was found to the W of this. In the SE area were the remains of a rectangular brick structure possibly representing a 19th-century ancillary building to the rear of a house fronting Paddington Green. This structure was associated with a nearby garden wall and brick floor surface with mortar bedding containing a George III 1807 halfpenny. A layer of charcoal above the brick floor suggests the building had been used as a coal cellar prior to demolition in the 1950s.
No evidence was found to confirm the presence of the exotic and tropical plants, known to have been grown by Greville, in the environmental samples taken and it is likely that the glasshouses in which these plants would have been grown were situated further to the N in the area now occupied by Cuthbert House.
A watching brief in the area N of the excavation revealed natural gravel cut by two adjacent brick walls of probable 19th-century date. A brick-lined well was observed in the SW quadrant, its backfill containing one fragment of a tin-glazed ware plate dating from 1680-1800. A wall parallel to the site’s W boundary was constructed with 18th-century bricks similar to those from the well, both of which were truncated during the construction of the 1960's college buildings. Masonry structures, including walls, basement walls and floor, were found in the N and SW portions of the site, and are probably related to the 19th-century terraced houses and associated gardens fronting Paddington Green. Pottery sherds dated to 1830-1895 were found in the NW side of the site. In the north-central portion, water-lain silt deposits were was observed, containing 19th-century pottery, clay pipes and glass. This may have been part of the ornamental lake created by Greville in 1807.
The results of the fieldwork indicate that the northern area of the site was part of Hon Charles Greville's gardens dating to the 19th century, with the southern area of the site occupied by terraced houses and associated gardens fronting Paddington Green.
OASIS ID: molas1-44456 and molas1-54257
1-5 Dryden Street, WC2 TQ 30360 81160 MOLA (Louise Wood) evaluation February 2008 Robson Warren Architects on behalf of London Film School DDN08
Ten geotechnical test pits located at basement level were monitored. Three of these were enlarged to enable an archaeological evaluation of the deposits present. Brickearth was recorded above natural terrace gravels. The construction of the standing basements had removed all horizontally stratified deposits, but cut features of probable Saxon date were revealed in two of the pits. These contained fragments of animal bone and residual fragments of Roman tile but no material of definite Saxon date.
OASIS ID: molas1-37815
Bourdon House, 2 Davies Street, W1 TQ 2867 8073 MOLA (David Sankey) watching brief January-August 2008 Dunhill Ltd DVE07
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was carried out on two trenches. The first, an external trench in the area north of Bourdon House, revealed natural terrace gravels, which were unexpected: British Geological Survey maps predicted London clay in that area, rather than Lynch Hill Gravels with potential for prehistoric material.
These were cut by a brick wall consisting of purple-red bricks in lime mortar. It appeared to have been cut through by the construction of Bourdon House (1723-4) and may represent a garden wall associated with the first phase of this building and subsequently truncated by an extension to it between 1737 and 1779. Joining onto the north wall of Bourdon House was an external vaulted cellar which would have been accessed by its own stairs or ladder from the north side. This part of the structure probably also dates to the later 18th century.
The west wall of Bourdon House had been underpinned, faced and extended northwards to form part of the St George’s Baths, an iron-framed structure built during the 1850s. A concrete wall and a tile-faced wall which formed part of the plunge pool of these baths were also recorded. The bottom of the plunge pool was formed from cream coloured glazed bricks often used in 19th century lightwells. A series of cast iron stanchions and columns associated with the baths were also observed.
The second trench, excavated inside the building, revealed natural terrace gravels beneath modern fills (which included re-worked and older deposits). Finds from among these include the bases of two 17th-18th century wine bottles and a tobacco pipe dated 1610-40 (consistent with it having been lost during the construction of nearby Civil War Defences). These were found near the end wall of the vaulted cellar observed in Trench 1 and presumed to have been part of the later 18th century extension but which did not align with the stairwell wall above it. The weight of the stairwell was taken by a central brick pier. The cellar had a single layer of bricks laid as a floor, then the walls and pillar truncating natural gravel.
OASIS ID: molas1-37964
5 Hanover Square, W1 TQ 28950 80095 MOLA (Heather Knight) watching brief July and October 2008 Stanhope plc HVQ08
During the first phase, six test pits were monitored of which only one contained archaeological remains. Natural gravel was observed beneath modern deposits in several of the test pits. There was no evidence of brickearth which may have once capped the gravel in this part of Westminster. In the north central area, a test pit revealed a bedding layer supporting a small section of brick foundation of 18th century date beneath modern concrete. This may be part of the foundations of the Hanover Square Rooms (built by Sir John Gallini c. 1774, demolished 1900) but since only two courses remained it is unlikely that substantial remains of the building survive within the current basement.
During the second phase, observations were made of 18th century basement walls and associated vaults which were revealed when modern concrete walls were broken out. These show that the remains survive along the west perimeter of the site to c. 2m beyond the modern walls. One vault extends over 2m beyond but the full extent is not known due to blockage by rubble.
The breaking out in the central and southern parts of the site also revealed basement walls and a brick foundation which appear to be late 19th or 20th century in date. A drawing dated 1845 of the Queen’s Concert Rooms, shows the building along Hanover Street with a separate house facing Hanover Square. It is probable that the basement wall and vault on the west side are part of the basement of the early 18th century house shown still standing on the site in the mid 19th century. As the Concert Rooms were demolished in 1900 it is likely that the basement wall and vaults on the southern side of the site and the 20th century tiling within the vault on the western side of the site date from this phase of redevelopment.
5-6 St James’s Square, SW1 TQ 2952 8046 MOLA (David Sankey) evaluation February-March 2008 Cushman and Wakefield JMS08
London Clay was found at 9.9m OD to the north of the site - where it was truncated by modern basements - and reworked terrace gravels below this level on the south and west of the site. No archaeological remains were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-39867
St James’s Church, 197 Piccadilly, W1 TQ 29400 80500 MOLA (Kirk Roberts) watching brief June-July 2008 RLF Construction and Property Consultants on behalf of St James’s Church JCP08
A watching brief was carried out on twelve trial pits which were excavated to assess the underground structure of the church and determine the location of burials within the churchyard. The majority revealed 20th-century rubble and concrete, including some underpinning carried out to consolidate the church after wartime bomb damage. Excavations in the church courtyard, the coffee shop courtyard and near the entrance from Jermyn Street revealed in-situ burials of probable 18th-19th century date beneath modern made ground and paving. These were left in position and reburied. Two test pits excavated in the church hall basement revealed natural silty clay below the modern concrete slab.
Crown House, 51 Aldwych/1 Kingsway, WC2 TQ 30682 81061 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron, Tim Braybrooke) evaluation and watching brief February, November 2008 UKI (Kingsway) Ltd KNA08
Seven evaluation trenches were excavated. Six of these contained natural gravels beneath 20th century deposits and the modern concrete slab. In one trench, the gravels were cut by a brick wall of early 20th century date, beneath modern material and concrete. The watching brief monitored two test pits excavated following the demolition of the existing (1919-21) building. Natural gravel and clay were truncated by 20th century brick, steel and concrete foundations, beneath modern made ground and the basement slab. No archaeological deposits were observed.
OASIS ID: molas1-42351 and molas1-52511
2 Little Smith Street, SW1 TQ 29980 79265 MOLA (Julian Bowsher, Alison Telfer, Virgil Yendell) evaluation October 2008 Rolfe Judd Planning, on behalf of Little Smith Street (GP) Limited LSZ08
Three trenches were excavated and a geo-archaeological borehole survey was carried out. These investigations revealed marshy deposits beneath 17th century consolidation layers, which in turn were cut by brick walls and floors of 17th/early 18th century date. Pottery and clay tobacco pipes of similar date were also recovered. These remains were truncated by 19th/20th century foundations associated with the present building. Work continues.
20-22 Shelton Street, WC2 TQ 30150 81060 MOLA (Agnieszka Bystron) watching brief June 2008 The Mercers Company MCC01
Work on new lift pits was monitored. The trenches revealed only modern and possible 19th century concrete and brick foundations. Natural deposits were not seen.
OASIS ID: molas1-52946
Middlesex Guildhall, Broad Sanctuary, SW1 TQ 30023 79601 MOLA (Tim Braybrooke) watching brief January-February 2008 Kier MXG06
Following work in 2007, a watching brief was continued during the refurbishment of the building for use as the UK Supreme Court. Two horse bones were recovered from an alluvial deposit of uncertain date in the northern part of the site, which may relate to the northern channel of the Tyburn river. Elsewhere, truncated natural gravels were recorded beneath the basement slab. No evidence was found for the medieval Belfry or other structures associated with nearby Westminster Abbey.
OASIS ID: molas1-41836
Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1 TQ 29275 81660 MOLA (Sian Anthony, Peter Cardiff, Andrew Westman) evaluation and standing building recording August 2007-August 2008 Gardiner & Theobald LLP MXH07
Further to the work recorded in 2007, it was determined that the oldest existing building dated from the early 1870s, in the centre-west of the site. Originally a nurses’ home, of grey brick on five storeys, this was later converted to wards when larger nurses’ accommodation was built elsewhere. The W end of the medical school, rebuilt in 1897, also survived in the NW corner of the site, subsequently converted to wards. These buildings were demolished early in 2008.
Four evaluation trenches were also excavated within the northern internal courtyard. Three revealed natural sandy gravel beneath a homogenous silty sand made ground deposit, containing fragments of concrete, ceramic building material, and 19th-20th century pottery. In the second trench, a defunct cast iron water pipe was recorded in the SE corner and a construction cut for the existing buildings was recorded on the W side. In the third trench, the made ground was overlain by lenses of demolition debris, including a dump of red frogged bricks in the N facing section.
In the fourth trench, close to the main entrance, natural sand and brickearth were overlain by a thin layer of (probably natural) clay. These layers were cut by two N-S aligned cuts, probably representing field drains which were sealed by a reddish-brown sandy silt layer of probable 18th-19th century date, containing fragments of charcoal, tile and brick. Above this, a layer of silty sand was truncated by a large pit containing silt, mortar and demolition rubble, which in turn was sealed by a sandy silt and a clayey silt layer. These were in turn overlain by a demolition\levelling layer beneath modern concrete and tarmac.
In the N half of the trench, a late 18th century N-S aligned brick built vaulted cellar was recorded. It was constructed from red bricks with mixed white and yellow mortar laid in a stretcher bond. It was surmounted by a short chimney stack, built from yellow and red bricks and heavily scorched internally indicating that it was used to expel smoke. This structure represents the terminus of a basement vault probably belonging to an early phase of the hospital. The chimney is a later feature added when the use of the basement changed, perhaps, when a boiler or furnace was installed in the vault, creating the need for a chimney. Sealing the roof of the cellar were several sealing or dumped deposits which were truncated by the modern concrete slab.
OASIS ID: molas1-47110
North House, Great Peter Street, SW1 TQ 30082 79197 MOLA (Louise Wood, Sasathorn Pickering and Richard Hewett) watching brief March, July-November 2008 Ian Ritchie Architects on behalf of Lord and Lady Sainsbury of Turville NOU08
The excavation of two geotechnical test pits was monitored during March. In the first, natural alluvial clay associated with the ancient Tyburn River was observed beneath a 16th/17th-century dumped deposit. This was truncated by the construction cut for a brick wall of 17th-century date, which may have been associated with buildings on the site owned by Sir Thomas Marsham, later Earl of Romney. The wall was sealed by modern made ground and concrete. In the second test pit, natural deposits were not observed. A cellar of probable 18th- to 19th-century date, backfilled with 19th-century material, was overlain by modern make-up and concrete.
During the second phase of work, ground reduction in the central courtyard and basement area was monitored. During the excavation of a new lift pit, natural sand was observed beneath an alluvial clay deposit that contained a flint Mesolithic tranchet adze. This was sealed by alluvial clay and levelling deposits, the latter probably dating to the 18th century. The levelling deposits were truncated by an 18th-century wall and floor, sealed by mid to late 18th-century deposits. These in turn were overlain by modern made ground and concrete. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-39603
Peabody Buildings, Peabody Avenue, Turpentine Lane & Lupus Street, Grosvenor Road, SW1 TQ 2882 7807 MOLA (Michael Tetreau & Andrew Westman) standing building survey October 2008 Peabody Trust PBA08
This working-class housing estate originally comprised 26 tenement blocks ranged N–S in two continuous terraces fronting on to a central road, Peabody Avenue. Successive blocks from N to S were identified by letter, ‘A’–‘M’ on the E, constructed in 1874–6, and ‘N’–‘Z’ on the W, constructed c.1876–7 (architect, H A Darbishire). Several detached blocks were added to the S c.1887, at Peabody Close. Two blocks, ‘X’ and ‘Z’, recorded before their proposed demolition, were constructed of yellow brick with white brick dressings, under slated roofs. ‘X’ was on five storeys and a basement, like all other W blocks except ‘Z’, which was on four storeys and a basement, like the E blocks. Each block was symmetrical about a central entrance in a shallow rusticated porch, bearing a light fixture and wrought-iron 1870s-style identifying letter. The entrance led to a stairwell originally with stone steps and landings, wrought-iron balusters and handrail, and a refuse flue. Each floor contained at least 10 rooms, most with fireplaces, with brick partition walls. Rooms could originally be variably connected by opening or blocking doorways to suit differently-sized households. Latterly each floor housed 2–4 flats. After Second World War bomb damage, blocks ‘K’–‘M’ and ‘Y’ were demolished and replaced by a playground, garages and garden; the stairs in ‘X’ were remade in concrete. A possible boiler house and pram sheds, added later to the W, were also recorded.
OASIS ID: molas1-52918
Clydesdale Block, 210-217 Piccadilly, 27-37 Regent Street, 14-23 Jermyn Street, 3-4 Eagle Place, W1 TQ 29515 80757 MOLA (Tim Braybrooke) watching brief November 2008 Buro 4 Project Services PRJ08
Two test pits were excavated in the basement of 23 Jermyn Street. Natural sand and gravel was truncated by 19th/20th century foundations and concrete. No archaeological features were observed. Work continues.
Upper St Martins Lane, WC2 TQ 30090 80990 MOLA (Louise Wood, Ruth Taylor) watching brief January-February 2008, excavation and watching brief July-December 2008 Longmartin Properties Ltd USM06
Following excavations in 2007, work took place in three areas of the Upper St Martins Lane site: East Slingsby place (comprising 1-2 Slingsby Place and 127-131 Long Acre), the NCP site and 10-14 Upper St Martins Lane. At East Slingsby Place the monitoring of underpinning works at basement level continued from the previous year and was completed in February.
Work on the NCP site commenced in July and at 10-14 Upper St Martins Lane in September. At the NCP site four excavation trenches were located at ground level and eight at basement level, and in addition the excavation of drain runs located at basement level was also monitored. At 10-14 Upper St Martins Lane an archaeological excavation took place across the site. This was largely from basement level, but in two unbasemented areas the excavation commenced at current ground level.
The underlying drift geology of the site comprises river terrace gravels overlain by a layer of brickearth, which was not encountered during the excavation. However, the remains of two clay-filled palaeo-channels were encountered, one crossing the NCP site approximately east-west, and a second much larger channel crossing 10-14 Upper St Martins Lane approximately N-S. No features of confirmed prehistoric date were recorded, although the terminus of a ditch running E-W excavated on the NCP site is potentially pre-Roman. Residual Roman finds were recovered from features at both the NCP site and 10-14 Upper St Martins Lane.
The most substantial remains were of Saxon date. In areas of the site where modern basements had been constructed these were limited to cut features such as gravel quarry pits, rubbish pits and wells, but in untruncated areas the remains of floors, buildings, hearths and external yard/alley surfaces were also recorded. The finds and environmental assemblages from the site are currently being assessed, but it is hoped that they will add considerably to our understanding of the Middle Saxon settlement of Lundenwic.
In unbasemented areas the Saxon features were sealed by a layer of soil which contained both medieval and post-medieval pottery, and by later (17th-18th century) dumped deposits. The remains of cellars, well and cess pits relating to the development of the area from the 17th-19th centuries were also recorded. Work continues.
Westminster School, Busby’s Yard Redevelopment, Phase V, 17 and 18 Dean’s Yard, London, SW1 TQ 300 793 MOLA (Antonietta Lerz, Mary Ruddy) watching brief August-September 2008 Ptolemy Dean Architects Ltd on behalf of the client Westminster School WEU08
A watching brief was maintained on structural works to Nos. 17 and 18 Dean's Yard. The underpinning trenches revealed a sequence of alluvial deposits overlying the natural terrace gravels, attesting to the location of the site on the periphery of Thorney Island. During the 11th -14th centuries, successive efforts were made to reclaim the land involving a series of drainage ditches and ground raising deposits. These efforts were followed by the foundation of a timber framed building, probably dating from the 14th century, when it is known that a programme of rebuilding and renovation was carried out by Abbot Litlyngton following a fire in the cloister area of the Abbey in 1298. A range of timber framed rooms with mortar and beaten clay floors built against a large pitched tile hearth suggests that the kitchen area was located in the central part of the site. A smaller hearth and traces of mortar floor were recorded to the north and west and the remains of a chalk and ragstone wall, in alignment with the medieval walls recorded at No 18 was identified in the west part of the site. These were demolished in the 17th century when the site is well documented as the private residence of a canon. The remains of external and internal walls were recorded, most of which correspond to the early 18th-century plans of the property. The present buildings on the site were constructed in the 19th century and, with later re-modelling, remain in use today.
A visit was made by a geoarchaeologist to contribute to the interpretation of the sedimentary profile and the development of environmental conditions on the site, which is located on the now buried Thorney Island, a large gravel eyot formed by the division of the lower reaches of the River Tyburn into two channels. This large gravel feature, modelled from previous borehole logs and archaeological excavation, would have occupied an upstanding position on the Thames floodplain and therefore has good potential for the discovery of archaeological remains and features.
The sediment sequence generally comprised three main types of deposit: gravels, sands and clays. The flint-rich gravel in a coarse sand matrix at the base of the sequence of the surface of Thorney Island fines upwards to a coarse sand with some sub-horizontal sub-parallel, wavy clay beds. The gravel and sand forms part of the first Thames (Shepperton) terrace deposited during outwash at the end of the last glaciation (the Devensian, 15 to 10 thousand years ago). The terrace is overlain by thick sandy deposits which were cut by a large feature that extends outside the confines of the test pit. A layer of naturally deposited blue/grey silty clay alluvium overlay the sand. It appears the lower clays remained waterlogged, becoming increasing weathered up-profile with orange brown gritty patches indicating root penetration from above. A deep, vertically-sided pit feature is clearly cut through all described deposits. The upper fills of the pit and overlying historic land levelling comprised firm, brown grey silty clay matrix with patches of sand, grit and abundant inclusions of chalk, charcoal, brown leathery/organic material and shell.
OASIS ID: molas1-57377
Tottenham Court Road Station Upgrade, WC1/WC2 TQ 29810 81349 MOLA (David Sankey, Jez Taylor) watching brief February – October 2008 London Underground Ltd TCZ07
Following work in 2007, a series of watching briefs were carried out on sites around Tottenham Court Road underground station in connection with upgrading works. The main archaeological investigations were:
Work on a manhole at the junction of the Charing Cross Road with Manette Street revealed natural terrace gravels cut by large scale quarrying pits. These had been backfilled by probable 15th- early 17th century landfill dumps, which were cut by two later structures: A brick arched foundation (of possible 15th-17th century date) was recorded on the side nearest to the centre of the modern road, representing either the foundations of buildings pre-dating the 19th-century widening of the Charing Cross Road or a structure such as a Tudor culvert. To the S of this foundation, the dumped deposits were cut by an 18th century brick cellar on a slightly different alignment, which extended E beyond the area of excavation. Modern deposits formed the upper part of the sequence. A second manhole in the same area uncovered no archaeological remains but exposed natural at a similar depth. A deep service trench on the W side of the Charing Cross Road from Manette Street to Old Compton Street revealed only modern layers.
In Manette Street, excavation at a manhole near the junction with Orange Yard exposed natural laminar terrace gravels which had been truncated by widespread quarrying, backfilled with a grey ashy (nightsoil) deposit and sealed by modern layers. Work on a manhole on the W side of Greek Street, opposite the junction with Manette Street, produced a similar sequence, as did three manholes/shaft excavations across Soho Square from the junction with Greek Street, on the SE side of Sutton Row, and on the E side of the square N of the junction with Sutton Row.
At the junction of St Giles High Street with Andrew Borde Street, a large trench to divert services exposed natural terrace gravels which had been truncated by quarrying and backfilled with grey ashy nightsoil deposits. However, the quarry pit respects the line of a series of building frontages located directly to the N, indicating that these were standing when they were dug. These 18th century buildings, which may have been built on 17th century originals, included a lightwell to a deeper (unexcavated) coal cellar and cut through the natural gravel. A clay tobacco pipe dated 1640-1680 was recovered from the fills of the quarry pit, which appears to have been dug in the historic St Giles High Street. It is possible that this indicates disruption at the time of the Civil War and corresponds with the construction of forts and artillery emplacements to the north. The upper layers of the quarry were overlain by alternate layers of gravel and sand, presumed to be the bedding for a road or pavement. A trench located N of the junction with Denmark Street and another running from Earnshaw Road to 16-21 St Giles High Street both exposed only modern intrusions.
A manhole excavated on the W corner of Tottenham Court Road exposed natural terrace gravel beneath modern truncation. Another, on the E corner, at the junction of New Oxford Street, natural gravel was recorded beneath truncation by a series of sewer pipes and water mains. One, in the SW corner, was constructed from red unfrogged bricks and lime mortar and probably dates to the late 18th/early 19th century. The others were of 20th century date.
OASIS ID: molas1-55796
Centre Point, 101-103 New Oxford Street, WC2 TQ 29848 81345 MOLA (Emma Dwyer) standing building recording October 2008 Transport for London GCI08
A survey was carried out to record the Centre Point Pool and Plaza, a set of steps that led from the plaza to the 1st floor of Centre Point, and the subway, public lavatories and Centre Point Snooker Club that were located below the pool and plaza. These are to be demolished in order to expand Tottenham Court Road Underground station, and the archaeological investigation and a subsequent report were required as a condition of planning consent for the redevelopment. The pool, plaza, subway, public lavatories and the premises now occupied by the snooker club were constructed along with Centre Point between 1963 and 1967, as part of the redevelopment of the junction of New Oxford Street, Charing Cross Road and St Giles High Street; the original intention of the development was to construct a new road junction and one-way system, but these plans did not come to fruition. The Centre Point office block remained empty until the late 1970s. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-53406
DLR Upgrade, Delta Junction Station, Aspen Way E14 TQ 3748 8056 MOLA (Virgil Yendell) geo-archaeological watching brief June 2008 DJD08
A geo-archaeological survey consisting of three boreholes was carried out. The first borehole located to the central part of the site located, revealed natural sandy Pleistocene gravels. These were sealed by layers of silty clay and brown peat, representing probable mudflats and waterlogged marshland environments. This was sealed by deposits of blue grey silty clay indicating overbank flood events of a nearby river channel. The upper alluvial layers show signs of possible stabilisation and soil development and were sealed by 17th-18th century and modern made ground and backfill.
The second borehole to the E of the site, encountered a significant depth of sands and silts with tuffa rich deposits to the base that may represent Early Holocene fluvial deposits. These deposits were sealed by a wood peat indicating marshy semi- terrestrial conditions. Overlying these deposits was a silty clay with organic pockets indicating possible overbank flooding of a channel margin environment where limited waterlogged conditions and peat formation was occurring. The upper alluvial layers were sealed by 17th-18th century and modern made ground and backfill.
The third borehole located to the W of site, recorded Pleistocene gravels overlain by sands and silts with tuffa rich deposits to the base that may represent Early Holocene fluvial deposits. These deposits were sealed by higher energy overbank flood deposits possibly result from a major flood event. Overlying these deposits was a weathered silty clay showing signs of stabilisation and soil formation. The upper alluvial layers were sealed by 17th-18th Century and modern made ground and backfill. This is part of on going work as the results of dating and environmental analysis of the sediments have not yet been synthesised.
DLR Upgrade, Blackwall Station, Aspen Way, E14 TQ 38399 80663 MOLA (Mike Morley) geo-archaeological watching brief October 2008 DLR APE08
A geo-archaeological survey consisting of two boreholes was carried out. The first borehole revealed natural sandy Pleistocene gravels beneath an organic clayey sand. This was sealed by a layer of orangey-brown peat, representing a waterlogged marshland environment, beneath a deposit of silty clay indicating a possible flood event or the presence of a nearby river channel. A series of alluvial layers, probably relating to mudflats, were sealed by modern made ground and backfill.
The second borehole contained a sequence consisting of natural Pleistocene gravels beneath alluvium and clay silt suggesting the presence of a nearby fluvial channel. Above this, a peaty clay silt layer and a deposit of organic clay with plant inclusions indicating a marshland environment were sealed by a further alluvial layer and a deposit of made ground. Above this, a layer of silty clay, probably representing mudflats, was present beneath modern made ground with some reworked alluvium.
East London Line Project, Dalston Western Curve, Boleyn Road N16/E8 TQ 33460 84960 MOLA (Mike Morley, Emma Dwyer) geo-archaeological watching brief and standing building recording June and September 2008 Transport for London DJS07
Following work in 2007, a photographic survey was carried out on the railway cutting walls and bridges, and a number of nearby buildings were recorded prior to demolition. These were numbers 10-16, 18, 20-34 and 25-31 Kingsland High Street; 18 was the former Kings Head public house, while the remainder were shops, mainly dating to the 1860s-70s but with some as late as the 1950s.
A geo-archaeological watching brief was also carried out. No deposits with potential for Palaeolithic remains were observed within the Hackney Terrace Gravels during ground reduction at the base of the existing railway cutting. The foundations of a retaining wall from the original 1860s cutting were present. Work continues.
OASIS ID: molas1-54043