Goldsmith Rd, former Council Depot, N11 TQ 2763 9218 MOLAS (David Saxby) evaluation Jan 1994 New Age Homes Ltd GSD94
Natural clay or gravels had generally been truncated by 20th c landscaping or terracing. An 18th-19th c brick and tile drain associated with the Priory House (18th c) was located.
1208-1216 High Rd, Whetstone, N20 TQ 2648 9377 MOLAS (Nick Elsden & Ian Grainger) watching brief Jan-Feb & July-Aug 1994 Rennie & Partners HRW94
In one area of the site natural clay had been cut by a small pit containing 17th/18th c demolition material; in other areas it was overlain by possible ploughsoil dated to the post-medieval period. These were sealed by the demolished remains of 19th c houses and modern make-up.
Howbury Park, Slate Green TQ 5283 7644 MOLAS (Bill McCann) evaluation June 1994 Bellway Homes Ltd HYP94
Natural gravels were overlain by an alluvial silt from which scattered artefacts from all except the Roman periods were recovered. The geological sequence suggests alternating warm, cold and warm periods; possibly two braided channels of an early River Thames were recorded.
Coventry Close, Kilburn NW6 TQ 2545 8355 MOLAS (Mark Birley) evaluation May 1994 Actionday Properties Ltd CCK94
London Clay was truncated by 19th/20th c cellars.
Slade Works, Sheldon Rd, Cricklewood, NW2 TQ 3285 8560 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) evaluation Mar 1994 Family Housing Association SWS94
London Clay, overlain in some areas by alluvium, was cut by 18th and 19th c brick and flint foundations associated with a farmhouse, The Slade. Residual medieval pottery was recovered from the fills of a possible natural depression. The site generally had been truncated by 20th c groundworks.
Muirhead & Twinlock Sites (former), Croydon Rd, Elmers End, Beckenham TQ 3575 6830 MOLAS (Bill McCann) evaluation Apr 1994 Tesco Stores Ltd CEB94
Three possible river channels associated with the Chaffinch Brook contained prehistoric struck flints.
High St (former Telecon Factory), Green Street Green TQ 4552 6368 MOLAS (Kieron Heard) evaluation Oct 1994 Woolwich Housing Ltd HSG94
Natural gravels were sealed by agricultural soil containing 17th or 18th c material. It was truncated by the foundations and cellar of a house of the same date, and by landscaping or terracing in the 19th c.
Jackass Lane (N end - new gas main), Keston Common TQ 4094 6418 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Nov 1994 British Gas plc JLK94
Colluvium was generally sealed by dumps, perhaps associated with previous surfaces; these dated from 17th/18th c onwards.
Place Farm Ave, Orpington TQ 4500 6645 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) watching brief June 1994 Wiseploy Ltd PFA94
A sequence of natural deposits was recorded, including clays and shell-rich deposits consistent with layers in the Woolwich and Reading Beds.
8-14 Colosseum Terrace, NW1 TQ 2880 8250 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) watching brief Apr-May 1994 Regalian Properties plc CTA94
London Clay was truncated by 19th c wall foundations and drains. In one trial pit a large mass of collapsed brickwork was exposed below topsoil; this is likely to have been a collapsed buttress or pier of the former Colosseum (built c.1824-27). A few blue and white fragments of delftware tiles were recovered from garden soil in one trial pit: they may have derived from an in situ fire-place - which retained some of its tiles - in the property at No.12.
178-182 Drummond St, NW1 TQ 2911 8247 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation Apr 1994 Universal Consolidated Group plc DRM94
A natural feature, thought to be a pond or stream channel, cut the natural gravels and was sealed by levelling dumps, wall foundations and a backfilled cellar which date to the 18th and 19th c.
32 Maryon Mews, NW3 TQ 2751 8562 MOLAS (Stuart Gibson) evaluation Sept 1994 Victorian Investments MYM94
Natural brickearth had been truncated in 20th c.
12 Queen Sq, WC1 TQ 3135 8101 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) watching brief July-Oct 1994 Institute of Neurology QNS94
Truncated natural gravel, within the limits of the standing building, was overlain by demolition debris which derived from the original 18th c buildings on the site. To the rear of the standing building, within the former garden area, gravel was overlain by a consolidation layer, into which was cut an 18th c cesspit, and sealed by garden soil.
Aldermanbury, Guildhall hydraulic bollards, EC2 TQ 3242 8134 MOLAS (Ian Blair) watching brief Aug 1994 Department of Building and Services, Corporation of London AMY94
Shallow holes exposed only modern concrete.
60-68 Bishopsgate, Hasilwood House, EC3 TQ 3317 8137 MOLAS (Richard Bluer) excavation Sept-Nov 1994 Prudential Portfolio Managers BOM93
Natural brickearth was cut by a ditch which is identified with that bordering the Roman road, Ermine Street. Clusters of large stakeholes on the W side of the ditch may represent a bridge over the ditch. It was backfilled in the late 1st c.
228-230 Bishopsgate Institute, Bishopsgate, EC3 TQ 3338 8173 MOLAS (Julian Ayre) evaluation Feb 1994 The Bishopsgate Foundation BIY94
Truncated natural gravels were, in the NE corner of the site, overlain by a dump of brickearth containing residual Roman, 12th and 13th c pottery: this may have been associated with the construction of St Mary Spital (founded in 1197) or other medieval development along Bishopsgate. Thick deposits above natural on the S side of the site are likely to be fills of quarry pits. An 18th/19th c midden was also recorded.
Bull Wharf, 16-21 Queenhithe, 66 Upper Thames St, EC4 TQ 3232 8079 MOLAS (Julian Ayre, Robin Brown) watching brief 1994 Markborough Properties UK Ltd BUF90
Enabling works and pile holes have been monitored prior to excavation in the extended Scheduled Ancient Monument area next to Queenhithe. Post-medieval cesspits, chalk foundations and road surfaces have been recorded; medieval deposits below have been observed but not excavated (see also LA 7 no 3 (1994) 199). WC
76-80 Cheapside, EC2 TQ 3252 8112 MOLAS (Peter Rowsome) evaluation May-June 1994 Spen Hill Properties BOL94
The site is situated on the W side of the River Walbrook. Natural gravels sloped down from NW to the S and E; in the SE they were eroded entirely, exposing the London Clay. Above were thick, waterlogged deposits, considered to be Roman in date, which were truncated by the basement. Deposits recovered from the boreholes contained high amounts of biogenic material, including identifiable botanical and insect remains. A wide range of seeds often found in association with cereals suggests that milling may have taken place nearby. WC
74-77 Cornhill, EC3 TQ 3294 8114 DUA/MOLAS (James Drummond-Murray, Sheena MacDonald & Stuart Gibson) evaluation June & Nov 1990 watching brief Dec 1991 & Feb-June 1992 Guardian Assurance plc COH90
A large ragstone wall was recorded, interpreted as part of the N range of the Roman basilica and forum complex, very close to its NW corner. The wall continued beyond the test pits, extending under Newmans Court; as a consequence, no.74 was retained, thus preserving in situ the archaeological deposits. In the basement of nos 75-77, test pits located against the W face of Newmans Court revealed a wall and associated floors, both undated, and a large pit which contained mid-late 1st c pottery: it therefore pre-dated the second basilica building. All other archaeological deposits in this part of the site were completely truncated.
Sir John Cass Primary School, Dukes Place, EC3 TQ 3350 8119 MOLAS (Trevor Brigham) watching brief Dec 1994 Department of Building and Services of the Corporation of London SJC94
The earliest recorded deposit was similar to dark earth; it contained brickearth lenses which may be related to the construction of the 12th c Holy Trinity Priory. Above lay made-ground which was probably deposited during the medieval period, when the area was the Prior's Garden, and added to during the post-medieval period. Human bones found within these deposits may have derived from a cemetery associated with the Priory.
87-88 Farringdon St, 2-18 St Bride St, EC4 TQ 3159 8127 MOLAS (Adrian Miles) evaluation Oct-Nov 1994 Wates Building Group Properties FRG94
A series of alluvial deposits laid down by the River Fleet was recorded; medieval pottery was recovered from the truncated horizons of these deposits. The remains of two large rubbish pits were cut by a barrel-lined domestic rubbish pit which is dated to the mid 16th - mid 17th c. Above this was a thick dump, dating to the 17th-18th c, which may have been created during the construction works associated with the canalisation of the Fleet or its arching over in 1733. This was succeeded by the remains of a brick structure which was probably part of a post-Great Fire building.
Guildhall Yard, Guildhall Art Gallery, EC2 TQ 3251 8136 MOLAS (Nick Bateman, Ian Blair, Gina Porter) excavation 1994 Corporation of London GYE92
Excavations continued throughout 1994 (LA 7 no 8 (1994) 199 etc) and have confirmed that the amphitheatre was first built entirely in timber in c.AD70 before being rebuilt partly in masonry c.AD120. More of the timber drains were recorded as they extended to the NE and more postholes of the early timber amphitheatre were observed. One timber post-pad had several stamped impressions in one face, probably relating to Roman organisation of timber supply.
The excavation of late Saxon buildings underneath Guildhall Yard was concluded. This demonstrated that the area over the former arena of the amphitheatre lay abandoned as a boggy hollow for many centuries. In the early 11th c a series of timber and wattle buildings, with various yards, alleyways and outhouses, was constructed. These were swept away in the early 12th c for the construction of Guildhall and Guildhall Yard. In one corner of the excavated area there was a churchyard with some 50 or more burials which must have been associated with the earliest version of St Lawrence Jewry.
Along the S side of the site, under Guildhall Buildings, excavations uncovered significant remains of Blackwell Hall, first built in c.1275 and, from 1395, the main cloth market in London for several hundred years. It was extensively rebuilt and enlarged in 1588, and again in 1672, though much of the original structure may have survived at its final demolition in 1820. Substantial foundations of the early building have been revealed, as well as later modifications and many phases of internal floor surfaces and architectural details, such as stone vaults with painted plaster and finely dressed greensand stone buttresses.
In the NW corner of the site more medieval masonry was recorded in a series of testpits underneath Guildhall Porch. The massive foundations of the Guildhall and its porch, built in the early 15th c by the mason Croxtone, were set over equally large foundations of an earlier structure, probably an earlier version of the Guildhall. These in turn were built against and over the remains of a large masonry building of possible 12th c date which may be part of the first Guildhall, documented in 1127. This represents the earliest evidence for the emergence of the area as the administrative centre of the medieval City. WC
King's Bench Walk, EC4 TQ 3135 8101 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) watching brief June 1994 Honourable Society of the Inner Temple KNB94
Natural gravels to the N of the site and possible alluvial deposits to the S may reflect the slope of the ground down to the river. They were sealed by ground consolidation dumps of medieval date.
39, 40-46 King William St, Regis House, 18-20 Fish Street Hill, EC4 TQ 3288 8074 MOLAS (Trevor Brigham, Bruce Watson) evaluation Apr-May 1994 Land Securities Properties Ltd KWS94
London Clay was overlain by river gravels in the S part of the site. This evaluation confirmed that the late 1st c quay, first discovered in 1929-31 by GC Dunning (GM 248), survived intact, standing to its full height, and well-preserved due to waterlogging. It also confirmed the presence of up to 2m of Hadrianic fire debris covering the S part of the site. Below the fire debris were traces of collapsed buildings - possibly quayside warehouses. Saxo-Norman pits, a late medieval well and a number of 17th-18th c brick-built cellared buildings were also recorded. WC
5 Laurence Pountney Hill, Suffolk House, 154-156 Upper Thames St, EC4 TQ 3271 8077 MOLAS (Trevor Brigham & Bruce Watson) evaluation Nov-Dec 1994 and Jan 1995 Argent Real Estate (Knightsbridge) Ltd SUF94
This site is part of the Roman Governor's Palace, a Scheduled Ancient Monument; the aim of the evaluation was to confirm the suitability or otherwise of the testpits as locations for piles in advance of a proposed redevelopment of the site. Substantial remains of Roman masonry were encountered in four testpits, with Roman and later floors and other deposits surviving in all pits, to a greater or lesser degree. Substantial remains of medieval walls associated with the Manor of the Rose (Sir John de Bounteous House) were also recorded on the Suffolk Lane frontage, together with the more fragile remains of three early medieval sunken-floored buildings. Small areas of Roman surfaces and pit fills were removed in two testpits, clearing them for piling, with medieval deposits partially or wholly removed in five. All masonry features were left in situ, and where possible, deposits were also left in place. Substantial conservation work was carried out to protect Roman flooring, walls, and an area of Roman painted wall plaster.
Little Britain (Block G), EC2 TQ 3205 8148 MOLAS (Tony Mackinder) watching brief Nov 1994 Wimpey Property Holdings LBT86
Following a watching brief in 1990 (LA 6 no 10 (1990) 275), several underpinning holes have been observed. WC
Liverpool St (carriageway and N pavement, E and W of Old Broad St), EC2 TQ 3307 8160 - 3318 8157 MOLAS (Adrain Miles) watching brief Mar 1994 Crossrail CLS94
Modern services, pier bases and backfill were observed.
3 Lloyd's Ave, EC3 TQ 3448 8098 MOLAS (David Sankey) watching brief Feb 1994 EPR Architects Ltd LLD94
Natural gravel and brickearth had been truncated by 18th or 19th c cellars. In three areas only, natural was overlain by a dark deposit probably representing a dump and which contained a peg tile dated to 12th-17th c. It was cut by a rubbish pit.
Monument St, junction with Lower Thames St (automated public convenience), EC3 TQ 3307 8070 MOLAS (Bill McCann) watching brief Sept-Oct 1994 City Engineer, Corporation of London MPC94
Natural gravels were sealed by dumps of building debris, including painted wall plaster, which are dated to the end of the 4th c. These may have been associated with efforts to rebuild or strengthen the riverside wall. The dumps were cut by a medieval barrel-lined well, later replaced with a much larger one in stone, either in late medieval or early post-medieval times. This was succeeded by fire debris, probably representing the Great Fire, which was used as make-up for a new external surface. The well may have continued in use: its only backfill is associated with the construction of Monument Street in the 19th c; it was also partly truncated by a 19th c storm drain.
3 Noble St, Shelley House, EC2 TQ 3227 8150 MOLAS (David Sankey) evaluation Jan-Feb 1994 Royal Mutual Insurance Society Ltd NST94
Deposits associated with the Roman 'Cripplegate' fort were revealed, as was earlier Roman activity and a thick deposit of dark earth.
111-115 Old Broad St, EC2 TQ 3300 8135 MOLAS (Tony Thomas) evaluation Aug-Oct 1994 Lloyds Commercial Properties Ltd OBR94
One of a number of trial pits revealed the remains of chalk foundations which possibly formed the corner of the N wall of the choir and E wall of the little chapter-house of the mid-13th c Augustinian friary known as Austin Friars.
4 Pemberton Row, EC4 TQ 3135 8126 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) watching brief Apr 1994 Artesian Challenger plc PEB94
Archaeological investigations were restricted to a depth of 1.0m and natural was not reached. Possible late medieval or early post-medieval dump layers were cut by a large feature thought to be a rubbish or cess pit of late 16th/early 17th c date.
1 Poultry, EC2 and EC4 TQ 3258 8110 MOLAS (Peter Rowsome, Chris Thomas) assessment December 1993 evaluation March - May 1994 (Mark Burch, Julian Hill, Duncan Lees, Adrian Miles, and Peter Rowsome) excavation from July 1994 Altstadtbau on behalf of Advanta PLC and City Acre Ltd ONE94
An archaeological programme consisting of evaluation work, controlled excavation and an observe and record brief has commenced on this site, situated on the W side of the middle Walbrook valley near the Roman and medieval Walbrook crossings. Geotechnical and archaeological evaluation has shown that natural gravel slopes down from the NW to the S and E, lensing out across the centre of the site above London Clay which continued to slope downwards to the SSW and the E.
Four evaluation shafts encountered a complex depositional and structural sequence of Roman to medieval date. The sequence in the NW shaft consisted of an early Roman timber building whose earth-fast oak posts were set in postholes packed with broken quern stones, and a clay-and-timber building sequence overlain by the wall of a Roman masonry building. The late Roman sequence was truncated by intercutting medieval pits situated behind properties fronting Poultry. The NE shaft contained a sequence of early Roman revetted drains, the latest drain sealed by a timber building sequence of Roman date, briefly interrupted by a flood episode. After abandonment the area became prone to further flooding and external deposition. Intercutting wood-lined late Saxon and medieval pits and external dumps contained metalworking slag. A large chalk-lined pit completed the sequence. The S shaft contained evidence of the WNW-ESE aligned Via Decumana, a major Roman intramural street which bridged the Walbrook; a substantial post and plank drain ran along its N side. Roman timber buildings to the N were sealed by dark earth. Chalk foundations and cellars were associated with medieval properties along the N side of Bucklersbury, including that of the Merchants of Lucca. The E shaft lay directly above the main channel of the Walbrook stream: waterlain clay-silts were overlain by a N-S aligned timber revetment which formed the W side of a channel. Alluvial deposits within the channel contained large groups of 1st c ceramics and some metalwork. A bored timber conduit may have been part of a late 1st c water supply. It was sealed by Roman flood-silts and organic, peaty deposits. The sequence was truncated by double-basementing. Dendrochronological assessment of oak from the evaluation shafts has already extended the London Roman Chronology.
Service diversion shafts located in existing streets around the site perimeter revealed medieval and earlier deposits. Excavation of a shaft at the junction of Cheapside and Bucklersbury located The Great Conduit, a 13th c conduit house associated with the first organised supply of fresh water to the medieval City, by lead pipe from the Tyburn c 3 km away to the W. The Great Conduit was a vaulted cistern measuring c 7m E-W x 2m N-S internally. A carved greensand doorway in the E may have led to a stairway from the street. The Great Conduit, which originally had a castellated superstructure, fell out of use in the 17th c. It has been preserved beneath the modern road.
Area 1 excavation of the former Burial Ground of the parish church of St Benet Sherehog recorded a medieval sequence (Roman deposits will be excavated as part of a later phase of site work). The primary phase of the church of St Benet, also known as St Syth, was of 11th c date and a simple unitary construction with a square E end. N and S doorways gave direct lateral access to the nave, the S door aligned with Sise Lane. The church measured 9m x 4.5m internally (30ft x 15ft) and physically overlay the Via Decumana, whose alignment it shared. The fabric of the church was mainly reused Roman ragstone and tile, except for limestone quoins in Saxon-style long-and-short work. The church contained a primary mortar floor, with a simple altar at the E end.
A contemporary, external gravel surface lay to the S and E of the early church; it was overlain by a sequence of 11th/12th c timber buildings with mortar floors and hearths, situated directly to the S of the church but E of its S doorway. The church was successively refloored with mortar and evidence was found of altar rebuilds and a possible timber screen or railing which delineated a small chancel. No burials were found in association with the primary phase of the church, the cemetery perhaps being situated to the W. Ragstone foundations and chalk footings to the S and E of the original church were associated with its enlargement. Glazed and decorated late 15th c tiles were recovered from a floor. A small number of burials survived beneath the later floors and foundations. St Benets was destroyed in the Great Fire and not rebuilt, but its site continued in use as a subsidiary burial ground for the combined parishes of St Benets and St Stephen Walbrook until the 19th c. Over 250 post-Fire burials were excavated, all in wooden coffins, many with decoration, and a number with name plates. The remnants of two lead coffins were found. The family vault of Michael Davison Esq (d 1676) and the monument to Mayor John Maurois (d 1673) were also recorded.
Area 2a excavation of Pancras Lane between Sise Lane and Bucklersbury recovered evidence of a medieval sequence (Roman deposits will be excavated as part of a later phase of work). External deposition, possibly dark earth, was overlain by 3 phases of early medieval earth-fast timber or stave buildings. A 20m length of a W-E aligned building frontage was divided by beam-slots at 4m intervals to form internal partitions, and was bounded on the N by metalled surfaces associated with an early roadway or a more extensive open space. Later phases of building, which also contained internal partitions and brickearth floors, maintained the frontage but extended further W towards Sise Lane. The buildings were sealed by medieval road metallings and cobbled surfaces associated with Pancras Lane. Part of a stone building frontage was recorded along the S side of the street. The road sequence was sealed by Great Fire debris. WC
St Ethelburga-the-Virgin, Bishopsgate, EC3 TQ 3318 8136 MOLAS (Damian Goodburn, David Lakin, Andrew Skelton) salvage operation Mar-July 1994 St Helen's Bishopsgate PCC SEH94
Clearance of the site following extensive damage to the church by a terrorist bomb, was monitored and the debris sorted and salvaged. A wide range of material has been identified and retained including stonework, apparently earlier than the supposed date of the church, and late medieval structural carpentry timbers which are very rare in London.
St Martin's le Grand, EC2 TQ 3213 8136 MOLAS (Simon O'Connor-Thompson) watching brief Apr-June 1994 British Telecommunications plc STG94
Most deposits were destroyed or disturbed by 20th c works but in one hole possible dark earth was recorded, above which were the remains of c.18th c cellars or cesspits. These were overlain by 19th c deposits associated with their use.
18-40 St Martin's le Grand, Armour and Union Houses, EC2 TQ 3217 8138 MOLAS (Tony Mackinder) evaluation Dec 1994 St Martins Property Corporation Ltd MLG94
A number of testpits were investigated, most of which revealed modern made-ground or concrete foundations. Excavations in 1914 had revealed Roman pits, but in only one testate was a Roman pit identified.
St Paul's Cathedral, West Crypt, EC4 TQ 3205 8115 MOLAS (Tony Thomas) watching brief May-Oct 1994 Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral SPL94
The watching brief took place in the N and S aisles, the refurbishment works in the S aisle being more limited than those in the N. In the N aisle natural or redeposited brickearth was cut by a series of NE-SW aligned linear features and stakeholes, either Roman or early post-Roman in date. Above this were the remains of two large foundations that may have formed part of the medieval cathedral: one was circular and, lying beneath one of Wren's internal piers, may itself have formed part of a pier construction; the other was the remains of a corner wall, reused by Wren as part of his foundation, though on a slightly different alignment. Prior to the construction of the Wren Cathedral, the whole site seems to have been cleared down to brickearth level. In some areas foundations were constructed in shallow cuts, in others directly upon the brickearth. After the foundations and primary walls were built a large internal timber scaffold was erected on the E side of the site. The area was levelled by a series of mixed dumps; above were the traces of two early successive floors composed of crushed chalk, mortar and brickearth. In the S aisle, recorded within the floor, were 22 grave ledger stones, at least one of which sealed an underground brick vault with lead coffins. Following completion of the Wren cathedral, the N and S aisles underwent a number of alterations, including a large trench down the central part of the crypt which in some places cut through in situ graves.
20-21 Wormwood St, 105-107 Bishopsgate, EC2 TQ 3318 8145 MOLAS (David Sankey) evaluation May-June 1994 Haselmere Estates WOM94
In no.20 a medieval quarry pit and a section through the post-medieval city ditch were examined. In no.21 a post-medieval rebuilt masonry wall was recorded on the line of the outer face of the City wall, now forming the N wall of the basement.
22 Wormwood St, EC2 TQ 3317 8145 MOLAS (David Sankey) evaluation May 1994 Prudential Portfolio Managers Ltd WOD86
A section of the clay and flint foundations of the Roman City wall with a post-medieval rebuilt masonry wall on the line of its outer face was recorded. The basement had truncated archaeological deposits but a 1st or 2nd c quarry pit and post-medieval features were revealed.
23-24 Wormwood St, EC2 TQ 3316 8146 MOLAS (David Sankey) evaluation May 1994 Downing College Cambridge WOE94
A section of the Roman City wall, which had been incorporated within the structure of the building, was revealed. The basement had truncated archaeological deposits but a wattle-lined rubbish pit, dated to the 1st-2nd c, was recorded as well as a post-medieval well from which was recovered a set of Waterloo teeth (dentures).
Booth Rd, Croydon TQ 3184 6553 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief Apr 1994 Salvation Army BOO94
A watercourse, dating to 16th - 19th c and which is known from cartographic evidence, cut through gravel deposits representing either subsoil or earlier fills. It was sealed by a 19th c soil profile with modern topsoil and demolition deposits above. Besides post-medieval pottery, residual medieval and Roman pottery, and a single struck flint, were also found.
Coulsdon Inner Relief Rd - Brighton Rd/Lion Green Rd, Station Approach, Coulsdon TQ 301 598 - 294 584 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Mar 1994 Acre Consultants Ltd PIG94
Natural Chalk was generally overlain by colluvial with topsoil above. In some trenches the Chalk was covered by dumps which were probably associated with the construction of the London to Brighton Railway and in one trench, the arched foundation brickwork of the demolished Coulsdon North Station was found. No remains were found of the Croydon, Merstham and Godstone Railway which existed from 1802 to 1839.
Heavers Farm School, Tennison Rd, SE25 TQ 3360 6780 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Feb 1994 London Borough of Croydon HVF94
Natural clay and subsoil was sealed by topsoil, though there was an additional buried topsoil in one of the trenches; the site therefore appears to have been open land. The waterlogged nature of the ground surface did suggest, however, that the location of the medieval Heavers Farm buildings would have been on dry, higher ground, possibly to the N of the site.
3-11 High St, Croydon TQ 3235 6553 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) evaluation & excavation May 1994 Yate's Wine Lodges Ltd HSC94
A shallow soil horizon containing medieval pottery sealed the natural gravels and was succeeded by a number of post-medieval features, including two sections of flint wall footings and two probable quarry pits. The quarry pits were backfilled with domestic refuse, in particular, a good range of 16th c pottery, with examples of both English and imported wares.
Residual prehistoric flints, Roman pottery and 12th-15th c locally manufactured pottery were also recovered.
Mayday Hospital, London Rd, Thornton Heath TQ 3163 6713 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Sept 1994 Mayday Hospital MDH94
Most of the stratigraphy had been heavily truncated as part of building works for the surrounding hospital. A few residual finds of medieval and post-medieval pottery were recovered.
Units 5 & 6, Mill Lane, Waddon TQ 3083 6534 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation May-June 1994 Multibright Ltd MLC94
The natural terrace gravels contained a peat layer, indicating a climatic change during its deposition. Cutting into the gravels was a silted river channel which presumably represents an earlier course or stream of the River Wandle. Both the channel fill and the earlier deposits were sealed by a sequence of alluvial deposits.
Old Palace Rd, Croydon TQ 3195 6538 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief Aug 1994 The Whitgift Foundation OPL94
The site was located within the probable late medieval S range of the archbishop's palace, below the Long Gallery. A silt deposit containing one sherd of possible 13th c pottery was the earliest layer exposed. This was cut by the construction of a flint and chalk wall foundation which may have formed part of the original Long Gallery. Two probably early post-medieval floors overlay the foundation and were in turn succeeded by 19th c made ground and features.
Regina Coeli School, Columbine Ave, South Croydon TQ 3191 6337 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) evaluation Mar 1994 Kelsey Housing Association Ltd RCS94
Subsoil above the natural clayey silt colluvium contained prehistoric struck and burnt flint and a baked clay object - possibly an Iron Age or Roman spindle whorl. The colluvium had been continuously reworked up to the present day; it was sealed by modern topsoil.
Scarborough Rd & Church Rd, Croydon TQ 3215 6523 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Phase II Feb 1994 Kier London Ltd SRC93
Natural gravels were overlain, in one trench, by a soil which contained a few prehistoric struck and burnt flints. In other trenches it was cut by a linear feature containing 17th-18th c pottery or was overlain by made-ground and then cut by an 18th-19th c linear feature. The walls of basements or cellars were also recorded.
2-12 Whitgift St, Croydon TQ 3227 6525 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Dec 1994 D Moore WHG94
Above natural gravels were the remains of a chalk and flint block wall, possibly Roman in date. After its abandonment there followed a gradual build-up of soil which contained 13/14th c pottery. This was truncated by a gravel quarry, backfilled with material dating between the 13th and 17th c, and followed by a red brick arched foundation which was associated with a 19th c outbuilding, a pathway and a garden wall for a known 19th c house with garden.
The County School, Oaklands Rd, W7 TQ 1590 7980 MOLAS (David Lakin) watching brief Aug 1994 London Borough of Ealing ORH94
Early Saxon burials with accompanying grave goods had been recovered from the site of the school in the late 19th c and during the Second World War. The groundworks were not deeply excavated and only modern ballast and landfall deposits were encountered during the watching brief.
Paramount House, 71-75 Uxbridge Rd, W5 TQ 1737 8060 MOLAS (Nick Elsden) evaluation Jan 1994 Confederated Life Insurance Ltd PAH94
Natural gravels contained two worked flints which probably date from the paleolithic period. The gravels were overlain by brickearth, sealed by modern make-up.
Acton Close, Edmonton, N9 TQ 3432 9377 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation Mar 1994 Servite Houses Ltd ACL94
Natural gravels were cut into by alluvial features thought to be ponds associated with the Salmon's Brook.
Forty Hall Farm, Forty Hill, Enfield TQ 3360 9865 MOLAS (Gordon Malcolm) evaluation Nov 1994 Capel Manor Horticultural & Environmental Centre FOF94
Natural brickearth was overlain by modern make-up.
3 Chance Close, Edmonton, N9 TQ 3410 9330 MOLAS (Robin Brown) evaluation Nov 1994 Habinteg Housing Association Ltd CCE94
Natural brickearth was, in one trench, overlain by a layer of disturbed brickearth which produced prehistoric finds; in another trench it was cut by a pit of probable prehistoric date, as well as post-medieval features. These were sealed by modern topsoil.
720 Great Cambridge Rd, Enfield TQ 3435 9717 MOLAS (Stuart Gibson) evaluation Oct 1994 MIWA Ltd AFX94
Above the natural brickearth a layer of reworked material, ploughmarks and a row of stakeholes were all possibly 18th c in date. The stakeholes appear to be the remains of a field boundary.
298 Croyland Rd, Lower Edmonton, N9 TQ 3412 9441 MOLAS (Stuart Gibson) watching brief June 1994 JJ McGinley Ltd CYR94
A thick deposit of modern make-up overlay natural gravels, suggesting that the natural brickearth, known to overlie gravels in this area, had been removed, probably through quarrying in the 19th c.
Royal Naval College (Queen Mary Block), Roman Rd, SE10 TQ 3853 7790 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Nov-Dec 1994 Buildings and Properties Facilities Management RNC93
In the courtyard of the Queen Mary Block, 18th c levelling courses were revealed. Most of the material recovered was 18th c in date but there were a few fragments of earlier stonework, perhaps associated with the demolition of the Tudor complex.
112-116 Kingsland Rd, E2 TQ 3351 8357 (Bruno Barber) evaluation Jan 1994 Networld Designs Ltd KID94
Natural brickearth over gravels was truncated by mid 17th-18th c quarrying. The quarries were backfilled in the first instance by residues from brick firing and then by domestic refuse. Upper dumps and small pits cut into them contained discarded stoneware bottles relating to the Batey's ginger beer works, documented from at least 1872. The bottle types recovered suggest production may have started as early as 1833-41. The factory remained in production into the second half of the 20th c and foundations of this structure were observed.
Park Cresc, Spensley Walk, N16 TQ 3348 8098 MOLAS (David Sankey) evaluation Sept 1994 New Islington & Hackney Housing Association PCR94
Natural brickearth was overlain by garden soil.
Clapton Park Estate, Mandeville St, E5 TQ 3617 8592 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) evaluation Mar 1994 Newlon Housing Trust CLP94
The natural gravel was overlain by alluvium until the post-medieval period, when the site was part of a waterlogged or marshy environment. Sealing the alluvium was agricultural subsoil dating to the 19th c; this is consistent with the cartographic evidence that indicates the site was within an area of fields before construction took place. Victorian features overlay and truncated the agricultural horizon and modern dumps and demolition debris sealed the sequence.
Beeton Close, Hatch End, Pinner TQ 1324 9055 MOLAS (Stuart Gibson) evaluation Dec 1994 National Housing Association BTO94
Natural clay was overlain by topsoil. Prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval pottery was recovered from both the topsoil and its interface with the clay.
Bridge St, Pinner, Middx TQ 1216 8960 MOLAS (Peter Durnford) watching brief Jan-Feb 1994 London Borough of Harrow PBP94
Two phases of bridge reconstruction were recorded. A core of brickwork, probably associated with the 1809 bridge construction, was sealed within brickwork relating to the 1895-1896 enlargement. Timbers lying on the natural clay and below the earlier brickwork are interpreted as support-work and foundations for the 1809 bridge.
Manor Court, Church Hill, Harefield TQ 0513 9010 MOLAS (Alison Steele) watching brief Sept-Oct 1994 Ruddy Construction Ltd MCH94
Natural gravel in the N of the site was cut by a chalk-lined well, possibly medieval in date. Elsewhere chalk foundations and associated surfaces probably represent garden or terracing features dating to the 19th c. These were sealed by topsoil, apparently imported, because it contained 12th and 13th c pottery.
Cranford Lane, Harlington, Middx TQ 0920 7740 MOLAS (Mark Birley) evaluation and excavation June-Dec 1994 Henry Streeter (Sand & Ballast) Ltd and English Heritage CFL94
A settlement, comprising a rectangular structure and a dispersed group of pits, was excavated. It is dated to the Middle Neolithic period by a pottery assemblage in the Plain Bowl tradition. From a shallow pit inside the structure an amber bead was recovered. There is also evidence for clearance of primary woodland in the form of a pit cutting or infilling the top of a tree bole which produced a burnt polished stone axe. This period was succeeded by three discrete settlements and their associated field system, of which the earliest is characterised by Deverel Rimbury pottery. The field system was then modified - apparently in response to pressures imposed by settlement - on an increasing scale throughout the Late Bronze Age until its character was lost and it had ceased to define the settlement boundaries. Distribution of the latest pottery groups - latest Bronze Age/earliest Iron Age - bore little relation to the field system; the groups are also markedly larger and have more variety than those associated with the field system settlement sequence. A change in water procurement, from the use of sumps fed by field or settlement boundary ditches, to the use of wells, is also evident. The Bronze Age settlement was followed by a complex series of enclosures clustered around the S and W sides of a very large rectilinear enclosure. These are interpreted as being for stock management and are dated to the later Roman period, AD250-400. As yet no firm evidence of a settlement has been found, though there is an increase in the quantity of finds towards the SE of the excavated area which would suggest that it lay to the E and S of the present site. During the medieval and post-medieval periods the site was solely used for E-W aligned ridge and furrow cultivation. The strip fields are about 15m wide but so far there has been no sign of end boundaries. WC
9 Elmbridge Close, Ruislip TQ 102 883 MOLAS (Mark Wiggins) watching brief Mar 1994 Bugler Developments Ltd ECR94
A probable tree bole intruded into the natural clay and was overlain by topsoil.
London Bible College Lecture Theatre, Green Lane, Northwood TQ 0860 9160 MOLAS (Aidan Woodger) evaluation Dec 1994 Bell and Webster Construction Ltd BIB94
The site was on a S facing hill sloping down to the S and W. London Clay, overlain by a mixed silt clay, interpreted as hillwash, possibly built up after clearance, was sealed by topsoil. A posthole associated with the recent cricket nets was cut into the upper horizon.
Longford Bridge Car Park, Northern Perimeter Rd, Heathrow, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0525 7680 MOLAS (Carrie Cowan) watching brief Nov 1994 BAA plc LBL94
Natural gravel and brickearth was overlain by post-medieval alluvium, probably derived from nearby watercourses. A buried channel of the canalized Duke of Northumberland's river was observed, its backfill containing what is interpreted as late 19th c sluice gates.
Long Lane Playing Fields, Ickenham, Middx TQ 0780 8523 MOLAS (David Lakin) evaluation Sept 1994 Acton Housing Association LLP94
Cut features in the natural brickearth seem to represent a mixture of structures and boundary ditches of at least two phases of an early Roman settlement. The majority of finds suggest a date before AD160. The features were shallow and overlain by topsoil.
Staff West car park 3, 4, 7 Northwood Rd, Northern Perimeter Rd, Heathrow TQ 0575 7675 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) evaluation Sept-Oct 1994 BAA plc & Heathrow Airport Ltd NPR94
Natural brickearth was cut by several boundary or drainage ditches which extended into the adjacent site (NRH94). They may indicate a field system which was only datable to between the Iron Age and the 16th c. It was superceded by a braided stream channel or channels, dated to the 17th or 18th c and associated with flood deposits over the entire site.
HeathrowAirport, Staff West multi-storey car park 2, land to N of Northolt Rd, Longford TQ 0585 7690 MOLAS (Nicholas Elsden) evaluation Sept 1994 Heathrow Airport Ltd NRH94
Natural brickearth was cut by three field boundary or drainage ditches, possibly of prehistoric date, and forming two phases of activity. Two pits also seem to be of prehistoric date. Three other ditches probably represent parts of field systems of prehistoric, medieval and another, unknown, date. A large number of undated and undiagnostic features, possibly associated with a 19th/20th c orchard, was recorded
Cargo Transit Shed, Shoreham Road East, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0648 7451 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) evaluation Dec 1994 Heathrow Airport Ltd and Lynton plc SRE94
Modern dumped deposits overlay the natural brickearth.
Chiswick House gardens, W4 TQ 2080 7740 MOLAS (Mark Birley) evaluation phase II Mar-Apr 1994 English Heritage CHG93
Following a first phase of work (LA 7 no 8 (1994) 206), a second phase took place on the Western Allee and the Grove to the N of the villa. A second path, aligned directly on the Classic Bridge, was revealed and it is concluded that the first path was marked out by the gully but not completed before being realigned on the site of the bridge. A further path, heading W from the obelisk area, appears to date from the remodelling of the gardens in the late 1780s by Samuel Lapidge. In the Grove N of Burlington's Villa, restoration of a central path in the 1950s seems to have destroyed evidence of the original.
Corney Reach, Pumping Station Rd, Chiswick, W4 TQ 2146 7742 MOLAS (David Lakin) evaluation & excavation Aug-Sept 1994 Ideal Homes Southern Ltd PSR94
Natural brickearth was cut by a number of scattered features: two possible field boundaries of mesolithic - Middle Bronze Age date, two probable rubbish pits, one Late Bronze Age and the other Roman - c.1st or early 2nd c in date - and undated gullies and a posthole.
Ferry Lane, Brentford TQ 1806 7751 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief Sept 1994 Argyle Properties SA RSB94
Natural gravel rose steeply in the NE of the site. In the lower-lying areas the gravel was partly overlain by a peat layer, up to 1m thick, of possible Roman or early medieval date. Deep alluvial clays and silts were found over a large part of the site, indicating marshy and/or periodically flooded land. The upper levels contained some 17th and 18th c material and were sealed by made ground and surfaces of largely 18th c date.
180 Jersey Rd, Osterley, Middx TQ 1432 7735 MOLAS (Ian Grainger) evaluation Mar 1994 The Michael Shanly Group JRO94
The weathered surface of the natural brickearth produced a number of prehistoric flints, Roman and medieval pottery and material of post-medieval date. It was overlain by topsoil from which further finds of flint artefacts were found.
Hounslow Police Station, Montague Rd, Hounslow TQ 1373 7573 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) evaluation Mar 1994 Metropolitan Police Service HPO94
Natural gravels were overlaid by probable 17th c agricultural or garden soil, pits and the fragmentary remains of a brick wall (thought to be associated with Hounslow Manor). These were sealed by modern make-up layers. Earlier activity on the site may be indicated by residual medieval pottery dating to the period when the site was occupied by a Trinitarian priory (founded in 1211).
Syon Lane, Isleworth, Middx TQ 1600 7760 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) evaluation Feb-Mar 1994 Tesco Stores Ltd SLI94
Natural brickearth was truncated by bedding pits and a bedding trench of a post-medieval date. These were covered by redeposited brickearth cut by later post-medieval postholes, stakeholes, pits and field drains. Above lay modern dumps and topsoil.
1-7 Albion Place, Clerkenwell, EC2 TQ 3171 8196 MOLAS (Ian Grainger) excavation Apr-July 1994 CPWB Ltd ABP94
This site lies within the outer precinct of the medieval Priory of St John of Jerusalem. The excavation followed earlier investigations on the site (LA 6 no 11 (1991) 303 JAN90). Natural gravels were cut, in the Roman period, by a ditch, two possible ditches, a number of quarry pits and some possible agricultural trenches. Quarry pits continue to have been dug during the medieval period, as well as rubbish pits. One particularly large quarry had been backfilled with waterlogged material, probably in the 15th and 16th c. The early post-medieval period was characterised by garden features, including bedding trenches, shallow rubbish pits, dumps of soil and brick-lined cesspits. A number of garden walls and part of the rear of the S wing of a building, constructed in the 17th c, are identified as part of Berkeley House (b 17th c). These walls contained a large amount of residual bricks of 16th c date. From the mid 18th c onwards the site was occupied by a number of tenements; brick-lined pits associated with these produced some large, late finds groups.
54 Clerkenwell Close, EC1 TQ 3155 8215 MOLAS (Barney Sloane) watching brief Oct 1994 Mr P Marshall CLC94
The site lies in the former precinct of St Mary Clerkenwell, an Augustinian nunnery founded in 1144. Refurbishment of the basement walls had revealed a number of chalk, ragstone and greensand features: these were photographed (by English Heritage) and recorded before being re-covered. One wall is thought to belong to the former gate-house of the nunnery, others are considered to be 15th c or later, on account of the presence of Flemish-type floor tiles within their builds.
Drayton Park, N5 TQ 3138 8586 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) evaluation Oct 1994 Arsenal Football Club DRA94
London Clay, which sloped down to the N, was overlain by an alluvial deposit dated to the 17th - 19th c: the site is located on the periphery of Hackney Brook and the area was marshy up to the 19th c when the area was drained and the ground consolidated.
122-128 Old St, EC1 TQ 3243 8236 MOLAS (David Sankey) evaluation July 1994 Kwikfit Properties Ltd OLS94
In the area of the basement natural brickearth was truncated by the basement; to the E was a large late 17th or early 18th c landfall dump.
52-54 Cale St, SW3 TQ 2712 7841 MOLAS (Adrian Miles) evaluation Apr 1994 Ewbuild Ltd CSK94
Natural sands and gravels were overlain by ploughsoil which contained a flint flake and burnt flint, and tile fragments dating to 13th - 16th c.
St Mary Abbot's Hospital, Marloes Rd, W8 TQ 2567 7916 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) evaluation July-Sept 1994 St Mary Abbots Ltd MAK94
Alluvium above natural gravels was cut by Roman ditch systems, pits and post/stakeholes, most of which are dated to before AD160, with a number dated to AD0-50 and containing pre- or immediate post-conquest pottery. Amongst the latter was a curvelinear ditch, possibly representing an enclosure. Several probable posthole alignments and linear cuts with associated post/stakeholes may represent structures. At least six different ditches, several of which intercut, are likely to represent property or field boundaries. These features were sealed by a deposit of alluvium/colluvium containing Roman and prehistoric artefacts. Above was evidence of post-medieval agricultural activity and foundations associated with the hospital (post-1848).
The Cedars, Telegraph Cottage, Kingston-upon-Thames TQ 2063 7063 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief Aug 1994 N Naaman WRK94
Natural sands and gravels were overlain by an undisturbed soil profile.
29 Church Rd, Kingston-upon-Thames TQ 1873 6927 MOLAS (Carrie Cowan) evaluation Oct 1994 Inner Feelings Ltd CCD94
Natural brickearth was overlain by ploughsoil from which 13th and 18th - 19th c pottery was recovered. Two linear features, interpreted as bedding trenches, cut into the brickearth. Above the ploughsoil lay topsoil, followed by modern make-up.
Seething Wells former waterworks site, Portsmouth Rd, Surbiton TQ 173 672 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Jan 1994 & evaluation Mar-Apr 1994 Thames Water plc SWP94
Scattered worked and burnt flints and 13th-16th c pottery were found in brickearth deposits and subsoils. Ploughmarks, dated to the 18th c, represent the earliest activity on the site; cultivation seems to have continued until the mid 19th c when the site was developed by two water companies.
British Aerospace Site, Richmond Rd, Kingston-upon-Thames TQ 1765 7135 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) evaluation July 1994 Arlington Securities plc BHE94
Floodplain sand and gravel was cut by several undated features filled with alluvium, including small gullies and at least one large channel over 100m wide. The latter was approximately parallel to the River Thames and may once have formed part of the braided course of this river. The alluvium was covered by soil containing 17th or 18th c pottery, indicating that by this time the site had been reclaimed, probably for agricultural use. Two prehistoric struck flints were recovered.
Birch Grove, Warren Rd, Kingston-upon-Thames TQ 2070 7014 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief Oct-Nov 1994 Mr & Mrs E Visram WRR94
A soil horizon above natural sands and gravels contained prehistoric struck and burnt flint; a possible cut feature produced further burnt flint. Modern topsoil sealed the site.
8 (adjac), Clapham Manor St, Cubitt Terrace, SW4 TQ 2943 7591 MOLAS (Penny Bruce) evaluation Mar 1994 Metropolitan Housing Trust Ltd CBT94
Natural gravels were sealed by ploughsoil containing a broad date range of finds from prehistoric struck flint and Roman tile or pottery to post-medieval pottery. The ploughsoil was cut by post-medieval pits and garden features, the earliest being 17th c in date.
Lambeth Palace Gardens, Lambeth Palace Rd, SE1 TQ 3072 7926 MOLAS (Barney Sloane) evaluation July 1994 Channel 4 'Time Team' LEG94
Natural sands and gravels were, in the W trench, sealed by a worked soil horizon. This was cut by a posthole and a pit which produced abraded Roman pottery. They were sealed by garden soil into which was built a brick terrace wall, possibly associated with a 17th-18th c ornamental garden layout. In the E trench, garden soils above the natural gravels were cut by a deep ditch or moat, the fills of which are dated to the post-medieval period. Further garden soils and the turf line sealed the ditch.
Tulse Hill School, Upper Tulse Hill, SW2 TQ 3100 7350 MOLAS (Penny Bruce) evaluation May-June Aug 1994 South London Family Housing Association UTH94
Prehistoric flintwork and Roman pottery were recovered from ploughsoil or weathered natural above the natural gravels. Towards the W side of the site two Saxon sunken-featured buildings, and possibly two others, were cut into the ploughsoil; they are provisionally dated to 450-600. On the lower, N side of the site, a layer of alluvium overlay natural sand, possibly representing flooding; reclamation dumps above it are dated mainly to the 19th c. The Saxon features were sealed by post-medieval garden soil which was associated with an 18th c outbuilding, and garden features of 19th c date.
6-10 Wynne Rd, SW9 TQ 3112 7518 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) watching brief Aug 1994 Care Homes Ltd WYN94
Natural sand and gravel was overlain by ploughsoil; in the centre of the site it was truncated by the basements and foundations of late 19th c buildings.
Thames Water Pumping Station, Brookmill Rd, Deptford, SE8 TQ 3710 7651 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Oct 1994 Thames Water plc BKR94
Small areas of natural clays and sands have been observed below 19th c truncation. WC
28-40 Croft St, SE8 TQ 3613 7886 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Aug 1994 Wandle Housing Association CRF94
A sequence of peat deposits and timbers, dated to the turn of the BC/AD millenium, were overlain by sands and alluvial deposits.
Millwall Football Club, The Den, Cold Blow Lane, New Cross, SE14 TQ 3570 7760 MOLAS (Tony Thomas) watching brief Apr 1994 Fairview New Homes plc MFC94
Modern make-up above natural sand was revealed in two trenches. In the other two, possible natural clay was overlain by dumps of mixed alluvial silts, sands, brickearth and fairly modern stoneware sherds which seem to have formed part of a common horizon.
Sharratt St, Ilderton Rd, SE15 TQ 3527 7781 MOLAS (Kevin Wooldridge) evaluation Oct 1994 Leathams Larder plc SHT94
Natural gravels contained a small number of worked flints, probably redeposited through geological action. They were sealed by a clay deposit, which may be representive of flooding, and this was overlain by 19th c ground consolidation.
Deene City Farm Buildings, Batsworth Rd, Mitcham, Surrey TQ 2685 6908 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) evaluation Oct-Nov 1994 Willmott Dixon Housing (Southern) Ltd DEE94
Rubbish and gravel quarry pits, dating to the 18th c or later, cut alluvial silt.
Caistor Rd, Balham, SW12 TQ 2862 7358 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) watching brief June 1994 Courtney Builders Ltd CAI94
The site had been severely truncated by modern intrusions.
Dearn Gdns, land adjacent to nos 42-44, Mitcham TQ 2741 6894 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) watching brief Dec 1994 M & A Developments DAR94
Made ground of late 19th/early 20th c date overlay sterile alluvium above natural gravels.
Unit 9, Deer Park Rd, SW19 TQ 2625 6929 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) evaluation Apr 1994 Sunlight Services Group Ltd DPR94
A sequence more than a metre thick of undated waterlain deposits was revealed, above which lay several dump layers containing late 19th/early 20th c industrial debris. Following demolition of factories on the site, the ground was levelled in modern times.
Windlesham & Sunningdale Allotments Site, Haslemere Ave, Mitcham TQ 2652 6928 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Sept 1994 Willmott Dixon Housing (Southern) Ltd HMM94
Within the natural gravels was evidence of a silted stream channel which, during the last post-glacial period, had flowed, and flooded, across the N part of the site towards the nearby River Wandle. To the E of the channel were two ditches and, to the S, a number of shallow intrusions which are dated to the 2nd c or later. Analysis of their silt fills indicates a damp or waterlogged environment, suggesting that the area was marshy.
Holmes Rd, Colliers Wood, SW19 TQ 2643 7020 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Aug 1994 Hanover Housing Association HLM94
Natural clay, in the S central area of the site, was overlain by gravels of the River Wandle with a subsoil above, indicating a period of stability. This was followed by waterlain deposits, almost certainly the result of flooding, which were covered by a bedding foundation for construction activity of late 19th c date.
Queen's Rd, Ashcombe Rd, SW19 TQ 2529 7099 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) evaluation Mar 1994 Threshold Housing Association QRA94
Above London Clay, late 19th c made-ground was sealed by surfaces associated with railway siding and depot construction in the mid 1890s.
Haslemere First School, Roslyn Close, Mitcham, Surrey TQ 2672 6920 MOLAS (Ian Grainger) watching brief Sept 1994 London Borough of Merton HSM94
Natural gravels were overlain by a soil horizon; one trench contained backfill - probably of a large quarry pit marked on a 1911 OS map.
Royal Wimbledon Golf Club, 29 Camp Rd, Wimbledon, SW19 TQ 2282 7113 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) evaluation Oct 1994 Royal Wimbledon Golf Club GLF94
The site lay just to the E of Caesar's Camp, a scheduled Late Bronze/Early Iron Age hill-fort. One trench produced evidence of two possible prehistoric features in the form of shallow linear cuts in the natural sands and gravels, associated with a number of struck and burnt flints. Other soil horizons and cut features related to the development of the site in the 19th and 20th c.
Wimbledon Football Ground, Plough Lane, Wimbledon, SW19 TQ 2595 7156 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief July 1994 Safeway Stores plc WFC94
Natural clay was overlain by fairly deep deposits of modern made-ground, the original soil horizons having been removed.
St John's Hospital, Amyand Park Rd, Stafford Rd, Twickenham, Middx TQ 1645 7365 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) evaluation & excavation Mar-May 1994 Richmond, Twickenham & Roehampton Health Authority APR94
Natural brickearth was truncated by prehistoric - possibly Iron Age - pits, postholes and ditches containing pottery, flint implements and burnt flint fragments. Truncating these was a series of intercutting pits, postholes and ditches, including what is thought to have been an enclosure ditch, dated to the late Roman period AD350-400. Interpretation of these features suggests the presence of a small farmstead and, although no structures could be identified, the numerous amounts of pottery and metal artefacts recovered indicate that occupation occurred within the vicinity, possibly centred under what is now Strafford Road, adjacent to St John's Hospital. The Roman features were overlain by ploughsoil, in which bedding trenches and pits, ash pits, and postholes of post-medieval date were recorded and interpreted as features associated with the gardens of Amyand House (b 1760), which occupied the site prior to the hospital. Above lay a layer of garden soil, modern dump deposits and topsoil.
Howlett's Boat Yard, Willoughby Rd, Twickenham TQ 1754 7454 MOLAS (Jane Siddell & Ken Pitt) watching brief Nov 1994 Fleetwood Developments Ltd HBY94
River gravels and waterlain sand silt were overlain by redeposited London Clay, the latter considered to be levelling derived from the construction of the London underground. Modern rubble and topsoil lay above.
22 George St, Richmond TQ 1788 7484 MOLAS (Mark Birley) watching brief Mar 1994 National Westminster Bank plc GEO94
Above natural sand and silt the remains of two 18th c buildings and an intervening mortar-surfaced yard were recorded. Documentary evidence suggests that they were built before 1726 by the Collins family and survived until at least 1866.
Lancaster Mews, Richmond Hill, Richmond TQ 1803 7448 MOLAS (Gillian King) evaluation Feb 1994 Riverglen Estates Ltd LMR94
Natural clay was overlain by modern make-up; a residual prehistoric flint flake and medieval and post-medieval pottery were recovered.
55 Lebanon Park, Twickenham, Middx TQ 1673 7341 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) watching brief Sept 1994 Jeanette Arreger LPT94
Natural sand was overlain by garden soil, sealed by a turf layer.
Mortlake School (Phase II), Lower Richmond Rd, Mortlake, SW15 TQ 2020 7575 MOLAS (Barney Sloane) evaluation Feb 1993 Laing's Homes & Guiness Trust MRT90
Natural gravels and subsoil were overlain by agricultural soil which contained a piece of Border Ware pottery dated to 1550-1700 and, near the top, mid-18th c clay pipe fragments. Series of bedding trenches within this soil are dated to 19th c; these were ploughed out and covered by 19th c agricultural soil which was sealed by modern levelling.
Parkshot House, 10-12 Parkshot, 5-21 Kew Rd, Richmond TQ 1802 7522 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief Nov-Dec 1994 DY Davies Associates PHK94
Natural gravels were, in one trench, overlain by a possible subsoil, later reworked, in which prehistoric struck flint and one sherd of Roman pottery were found. Struck and burnt flints were also found residually in later deposits. In the S natural gravels were cut by a large 12th c pit and associated gully, sealed by reworked material dating to the 12th - 14th c. To the N, the natural ground surface dropped away and was sealed by possible waterlaid deposits of 12th/13th c date, followed by a soil horizon and a number of features which probably related to the 18th c gardens documented in this area.
8-20 Strafford Rd, Twickenham TQ 1646 7372 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) evaluation Sept 1994 Nearart Building Ltd SRT94
Natural gravel and subsoil were overlain by post-medieval agricultural or garden soil and cut by an undated ditch, 19th - early 20th c pits and a brick soakaway.
Bacon Grove, SE1 TQ 3355 7905 MOLAS (Bill McCann) excavation Nov-Dec 1994 London Building plc BCN94
A possible Roman clay and timber building was erected on levelling above the natural gravels. After its destruction by fire a substantial new building was constructed a little to the N on a new alignment; one of its walls was buttressed. The destruction of this building was followed by a period of pitting, apparently dating to the 2nd c, and then a series of large postholes on a new alignment which may represent a new substantial structure. The Roman levels were sealed by ploughsoil into which the chalk floor of a building - probably early post-medieval in date - had been set. At least three phases of use were identified and a number of postholes associated with one of these phases appeared to contain in situ fire debris. The final disuse of this building may have been relatively recent.
Borough High St, SE1 TQ 3271 8022 MOLAS (James Drummond-Murray) excavation and watching brief Mar-Apr 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) BSE94
A watching brief on sewer diversions in Borough High Street and St Thomas Street uncovered the remains of Roman buildings in several locations. A stretch of masonry wall was revealed at the junction of the two streets and part of an opus signinum floor outside Barclays Bank. A small excavation outside the Post Office produced a sequence of two clay and timber buildings and a large masonry building, all dating to the late 1st/early 2nd c. Fragments of moulded stone proved to be the first recorded use of Reigate stone in a Roman context.
29-39 Borough High St, SE1 TQ 3269 8015 MOLAS (James Drummond-Murray) excavation June and Oct 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) BUG94
A series of underpinning pits revealed that natural sands and gravels were sealed by make-up for a series of 1st and 2nd c clay and timber buildings fronting onto the Roman road on the approximate alignment of modern Borough High Street. There were at least two phases of buildings. At the E of the site there was a post-medieval cellar re-using an earlier medieval property boundary along the modern boundary, between 39 and 41 Borough High Street.
Druid St, SE1 TQ 3360 7960 MOLAS (Richard Bluer) evaluation Apr 1994 London Underground Ltd DRD94
Above the natural sands and gravels of the Horsleydown eyot (island) were probable waterlain deposits overlain by garden soil. This was sealed by mortar make-up for a wooden platform of late 18th-early 19th c date.
Ilderton Rd, gas pipe trench, SE15 TQ 3523 7777 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) watching brief Sept-Nov 1994 British Gas South-Eastern ILD94
A series of natural river terrace sands and gravels were intercut by at least one post-glacial stream. This, and other possible streams, were sealed by waterlain clays, suggesting that the area was under water for a long period of time.
4 Jamaica Rd, Phoenix Wharf, SE1 TQ 3379 7996 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Aug 1994 Willmott Dixon Housing PHW88
Foundation work was monitored to ensure that prehistoric ard marks and other features discovered during excavations in 1988 (LA 6 no 3 (1989) 78), remained undisturbed in situ. Archaeological strata were preserved by about 0.30m of the original backfill remaining in situ.
Lavender Wharf, St Paul's Steps, Rotherhithe St, SE16 TQ 3629 8050 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) watching brief Jan-Sept 1993 and Apr-June 1994 Barratt London Ltd LAD92
Natural was not observed and made-ground covered the site. Large concrete basements and a number of softwood piles were observed towards the E end of the site: these had probably been associated with the previous Lavender Wharf.
9 Leathermarket St, SE1 TQ 3311 7962 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) evaluation July 1994 Oakmayne Properties Ltd NLS94
Within a series of waterlain silts and clays, two layers of peat were revealed, indicating that a period of regression of the River Thames had taken place. Environmental analysis of the peats resulted in the identification of two channels which cut through or disturbed the lower peat as renewed inundation took place. One of these was sealed by the upper peat deposit. Roman pottery was found above the lower peat in the waterlain sequence on a foreshore-like deposit: it may have derived from water action or been dumped into an area of periodically standing water. Further waterlain deposits were succeeded, on the W of the site, by a large dump of 17th/18th c pottery and kiln waste of Lambeth origin and, on the E side of the site, by a timber-lined drain or pit. This drain was then cut by a horn-core and wattle-lined tanning pit which was partially demolished and backfilled during the late 17th c. Other timbers survived though it was not possible to define any structures. Many upright timbers occurred in and around a large shallow cut which was possibly backfilled in the 17th c: it could have been a natural channel associated with the timber-lined features.
London Bridge St, corner of Joiner St/Tooley St, SE1 TQ 3292 8026 (James Drummond-Murray) evaluation Dec 1994 - Jan 1995 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) LBH94
Monitoring of pile holes revealed a line of elm piles with a horizontal oak beam across them; these formed the foundation for a ragstone wall and are dated to 14th - 18th c. WC
21-35 Marlborough Grove, SE1 TQ 3420 7810 (P Bruce) excavation Jan-Feb 1994 Wandle Housing Association Ltd MAG93
Following an evaluation (LA 7 no 8 (1994) 212) excavation and recording in greater detail of the prehistoric horizon between the alluvium and the natural sands was undertaken. It confirmed that there was a definite prehistoric horizon; the flintwork was recovered mainly from the weathered sand, with a few struck flints from the overlying alluvium. Cutting through the weathered sand in one trench was a linear feature, possibly a ditch or small river channel, which contained struck and burnt flint.
96-120 Massinger St, Old Kent Rd, SE1 TQ 3314 7876 MOLAS (Kieron Heard) evaluation Dec 1994 - Jan 1995 Lanham Developments Ltd MSG94
Natural sand and gravel was sealed by a layer of alluvial clay silt which was cut by several ditches and a pit of Roman date. Above was a soil horizon which also produced Roman material; it was truncated by a medieval rubbish pit containing pottery dated to 1300-1500, and by extensive agricultural trenches dated to the late 18th and 19th c.
O'Meara St car parks grouting shaft, SE1 TQ 3239 8012 MOLAS (Aidan Woodger) excavation Oct 1994 London Underground Ltd OMS94
Natural sand of an eyot (island) sloped down to the S, reflecting a stream channel flowing approximately W-E across the excavated shaft. A line of stakes parallel to the bank was driven into the initial silting of the channel and sealed by further silting and eventual infill. It was overlain by a gravel surface containing Roman pottery. Above, and on a similar alignment to the stakes, lay the corner of a brickearth sill, part of a structure which had been partially eroded away, presumably by flooding. This was succeeded by occupation layers overlaid by a demolition deposit containing wall plaster, suggesting a further period of Roman occupation. The sequence was then truncated by the graves and burial pits of a cemetery in use by 1666, belonging to the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Evidence was found of the earliest burials and of the exhumation works of 1860, when the land was compulsorily purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works for the construction of New Southwark Street and the London Bridge and Charing Cross Railway.
Redcross Way, Grouting Shaft, SE1 TQ 3247 8011 MOLAS (Aidan Woodger) excavation May-June 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) RWG94
Natural sand of an eyot S of the main channel of the River Thames was overlain by an undated brickearth floor and occupation layer, with a possible metalled surface above. To the S two successive timber box-frame wells were constructed in a possible metalled yard, dated to c. AD160-200. Also of this date was a masonry building, apparently hexagonal in shape, with wall plaster, opus signinum and marble. It was robbed in the 4th c when the wells also became disused and dark earth formed above. Further soil accumulation was cut by two inhumation burials aligned approximately N-S and one of which was crouched: these are likely to be late Roman in date. Above were a series of late 17th c mortar surfaces and levelling dump which may have been associated with a large masonry structure represented by a robber cut. These were succeeded, in c.late 18th-19th c, by a brick-lined cesspit and drain.
271-281 Tooley St, SE1 TQ 3773 7977 MOLAS (Bruce Watson) evaluation Feb 1994 Goldcrest Homes Ltd TOY94
Natural gravels were cut by a stream channel and sealed by a further fluvial build-up. Cutting this were two rubbish pits and a possible postpit, one of which contained an early Roman penannular brooch. The upper portions of these features had been destroyed by biological reworking of the overlying subsoil which contained Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age pottery, flint flakes and fire-crazed flints, Roman and medieval pottery. Such evidence suggests prehistoric and early Roman settlements. The subsoil is interpreted as part of Horselydown Common, which was communal grazing land until the 18th c. Several ditches were cut into it, possibly for drainage or water supply, and pits, both dating to the 18th-19th c. They were truncated by a series of cellared buildings which were demolished and infilled in the 1950s.
Tower Bridge Rd, Long Walk, SE1 TQ 3332 7932 MOLAS (Portia Askew) watching brief July-Oct 1994 Countryside Properties plc TWB94
The site is part of Bermondsey Abbey, a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Natural gravels in the SW area were cut by two undated pits or ditches, overlain by a spread of burnt daub and dumped deposits. A NW-SE medieval wall was constructed above, associated with a series of dumps and capped with a chalk floor surface. Further dumped deposits were probably levelling after the demise of the building. In the S area, an E-W chalk wall is interpreted as part of the S side of the abbey's Great Drain which was found in 1986 on the S side of the dorter, leading into the rere-dorter (LA 5 no 10 (1987) 276).
Union St (Grouting Shaft), SE1 TQ 3230 8006 MOLAS (Tony Mackinder) exc Aug-Sept 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) USG94
Natural sands were cut in the S by a possible natural channel. This was succeeded by a N-S grave, containing disarticulated human bone dating to the Roman period. A soil horizon above the grave was cut by a large robbed feature filled with building debris.
Wolseley Street SE1 TQ 3397 7975 MoLAS (James Drummond-Murray) evaluation Apr 1994 Goldcrest Homes Ltd WOY94
Natural sand was cut by a criss-cross pattern of marks typical of those made an ard, a prehistoric plough. There were associated flints and pottery dating to the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age period. This is only the second site in London to have produced these ard marks and thus of great significance. The prehistoric land surface was sealed by over two metres of waterlain silts laid down by the Thames and there was no evidence for subsequent occupation until the 19th c.
Bute Rd, Wallington TQ 2912 6479 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation June 1994 R Durntnell & Sons Ltd BTE94
The natural chalk and sand was cut by a feature, possibly the remains of a tree bole, which contained residual finds of prehistoric pottery and flintwork. It was sealed by hillwash deposits and modern made-ground.
312 Croydon Rd, Wallington TQ 2920 6503 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Apr 1994 South London Family Housing Association CRN94
Natural Chalk and sands were overlain by silty sands from which residual finds of prehistoric flintwork, a sherd of Late Bronze Age pottery and a sherd of possible medieval pottery, were recovered. Modern topsoil lay above.
29 Willow Lane, Mitcham TQ 2760 6729 MOLAS (Michael Shea) evaluation May 1992 JS Deeds & Sons WLE92
Above alluvial deposits of the ancient bed of the River Wandle were possible remains of a structure. This was sealed by a dump or make-up for a chalk-founded brick wall which may have formed part of the tanning works known on the site in post-medieval times. In another trench river deposits were cut by a timber barrel which appeared to be a vat for the curing of leather.
East Ferry Rd, Glengall Grove, (Bristow/Cairns Triangle Site), Isle of Dogs, E14 TQ 3796 7937 MOLAS (Bruce Watson) watching brief Oct 1994 ERF94
Earliest deposits consisted of a series of Holocene fluvial deposits, probably the result of a period of transgression of the River Thames. They were interrupted by a period of erosion, represented by a stream channel, which was infilled by the renewed build-up of fluvial deposits. A period of regression followed when an undated wood peat developed. All later deposits were of modern date.
Atlantic (Free Trade) Wharf, The Highway, E1 TQ 3585 8080 MOLAS (Ian Grainger) watching brief Nov 1994 Regalion Homes Ltd FTW94
Natural gravels were overlain by alluvial deposits; these had been truncated during the construction of the 19th c and later river walls and basemented buildings.
Lamb St, Spitalfields Market, E1 TQ 3355 8195 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) evaluation May 1994 St George's plc SQU94
On the W side of the site, within the area of the precinct of the Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital, a possible pond of medieval date cut through redeposited and natural brickearth. Other medieval features included pits, ditches and stakeholes. The NE corner of a timber building of late medieval or early post-medieval date was also recorded. To the E, within what had been fields and known in the later medieval period as Spitalfields, truncated natural brickearth was cut by quarry pits and a well and overlain by refuse dumping, all dated to the late 16th and early 17th c. Both areas were sealed by buildings of the late 17th and 18th c, and substantial dumps.
Lime Kiln Dock, St Vincent's access road (Area A), E14 TQ 3679 8064 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) evaluation July 1994 LDDC LKD94
The lowest levels of excavation revealed alluvial deposits which were probably of late medieval to early post-medieval date. There was much evidence for activity from c.1600, including substantial remains of a brick cellar, dated to c.1650, and a large number of cut features, some of which related to timber structures. A considerable number of finds were produced, notably 17th c pottery.
London Hospital Medical College, Newark Building, New Rd, E1 TQ 3456 8153 MOLAS (Tony Mackinder) excavation Oct-Nov 1994 London Hospital Medical College NRN92
Following an evaluation in 1992 (LA 7 no 4 (1993) 108), what is almost certainly the Civil War ditch was investigated further. It was 5.5m wide and 1.4m deep, filled with waterlain silts, the earliest dating to the 17th c, and backfilled in the late 18th c. An undated drainage channel was also recorded, succeeded by two postholes which may have formed part of a fence and been associated with a rutted gravel surface that post-dated the infilling of the ditch. A large amount of post-medieval redware sugar cone moulds and collecting jars was recovered from the infill of the ditch and later levelling of the site.
Old Sun Wharf, Narrow St, E14 TQ 3617 8081 MOLAS (Richard Bluer) evaluation Aug 1994 Galliard Homes Ltd OSW94
The remains of a late 16th c revetment, built onto the Thames foreshore, were found. They consisted of a number of timbers, including a morticed baseplate and several tenoned uprights. Following construction of the revetment, the ground level was made up with infill dumps of broken bricks and crushed chalk prior to the construction of brick buildings. These were represented by a complex of walls, floors, pits and drains, interpreted as the rear of two separate buildings which would have fronted onto Narrow Street; they had been modified several times until the 18th c. One of the three trenches contained only modern backfill.
Kiosk at Tower Hill, Tower Place (opp), EC3 TQ 3344 8062 MOLAS (David Sankey) watching brief Aug-Sept 1994 Mrs M Sherwood TOH94
A 16th or 17th c brick foundation and a cut feature were found, as well as late 17th or 18th c demolition debris with a cobbled surface above.
Wright's Rd, Bow, E3 TQ 3659 8346 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation Oct 1994 London Borough of Tower Hamlets WRB94
Natural sands and gravels were cut by an 18th c quarry pit above which were Victorian foundations and garden features and modern make-up. Natural brickearth was also located, overlain by post-medieval ploughsoil.
78-83 Battersea Church Rd, Battersea, SW11 TQ 2698 7700 MOLAS (Bruce Watson & Helen Jones) watching brief Mar 1994 Stanton Estates BCH94
Natural gravels were cut by 18th-19th c quarry pits and undated pits or ditches; they were sealed by ploughsoil, finds from which included a prehistoric flint blade.
224 Garratt Lane, SW18 TQ 257 734 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Dec 1994 Identity Design Partnership GTL94
London Clay was overlain by sands and gravels of the River Wandle floodplain.
Gwendolen Ave, SW15 TQ 2375 7458 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Nov 1994 - Jan 1995 Thames Water plc GWR94
Clay horizons, probably colluvium, were truncated by the modern road though in one small area c.18th c ploughsoil survived.
Huntingfield Road School, Huntingfield Rd, SW15 TQ 2235 7465 MOLAS (James Drummond-Murray) evaluation Nov 1994 Servite Homes HFP94
Natural silts were sealed by post-medieval ploughsoil which contained several field drains.
Bishop's Wharf, Ransome's Dock, Parkgate Rd, SW11 TQ 2737 7721 MOLAS (Helen Jones) evaluation Mar 1994 Connaught Developements Ltd RAD94
Natural sands were overlain by modern rubble or truncated by a concrete floor.
Strathville Rd, SW18 TQ 2570 7317 MOLAS (Ken Pitt & Sharon Gerber-Parfitt) evaluation May-July 1994 Antler Homes SVR94
This site is thought to be adjacent to the ancient course of the River Wandle. The sedimentary sequence - including peat, tufa and alluvial clay silts - was sampled for environmental analysis; radiocarbon samples have been dated to the Early Mesolithic period.
10-14 Bedford St, Lading House, WC2 TQ 3024 8073 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) watching brief Apr 1994 Trafalgar House Developments LHB94
Natural brickearth was cut by a pit or natural depression above which lay a possible subsoil. The latter was cut by four of five pits dated to the middle Saxon period and which contained pottery, animal bone, burnt clay loomweights and daub, and Roman tile fragments. Two undated cut features and an 18th c brick culvert and soakaway system were also located.
30-31 Berkeley Sq, W1 TQ 2869 8071 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) evaluation Nov 1994 Prudential Portfolio Managers BSQ94
London Clay was truncated by the basement.
Eland House, Bressenden Place, SW1 TQ 2903 7934 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) watching brief Dec 1993 and evaluation Jan 1994 Ove Arup and Partners END94
Sand floodplain deposits were cut by two, undated, channels which may have been tributaries of the River Tyburn. Waterlain deposits filled the channels, the uppermost of which contained early post-medieval material. It was cut by possible bedding trenches dated to the 17th-18th c; above lay dumped material of late 17th - 18th c date, truncated by 19th and 20th c groundworks, possibly including the foundations of a 'Poor House' constructed in c.1900.
Bridge St, SW1 TQ 3021 7970 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) excavation Aug 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) WSS94
Deposits survived in only one area, towards the S end of the site. Natural sand was cut by five postholes, possibly forming part of a structure, and a large pit. Sealing these was an alluvial sand which contained pottery, probably of Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age date, and struck flints, including a Neolithic axe. Further layers of alluvial silt sealed the sand, the upper parts of which contained pottery of 12th-14th c date. The silt was cut by a medieval pit and a 16th c ditch.
Carlton Gardens, SW1 TQ 2957 8019 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) watching brief Oct 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) CGA94
Above natural brickearth were garden soils, the upper levels of which contained a single sherd of 18th c pottery.
8-18 Charing Cross Rd, WC2 TQ 2985 8070 MOLAS (Kevin Wooldridge) evaluation Mar 1994 Peabody Trust CXR94
Natural brickearth was generally truncated by Victorian wall foundations and basement slabs but in one trench it was cut by two pits, possibly Saxon in date; one of these was then cut by a post-medieval drainage ditch.
9 Conduit Street, W1 TQ 2905 8096 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) watching brief Nov 1994 Kent International Airways plc CNS94
Natural gravel and possible London Clay were overlain by post-medieval dumps, cut by late 19th or early 20th c wall foundations and sealed by a concrete slab.
7 Duke St, SW1 TQ 2936 8033 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) watching brief July-Oct 1994 The London Library DUE94
Natural gravel in the W of the site was cut by 18th-19th c brick foundations and elsewhere, within the limits of the standing building, was overlain by demolition debris. To the rear of the standing building, at the SE corner of the site, was atruncated 17th - 18th c well.
Elverton St, SW1 TQ 2971 7898 MOLAS (Pat Miller) evaluation and excavation Jan-Feb 1994 Network Housing Association ELV94
The natural sand and subsoil was overlain by post-medieval ploughsoil and then dumps. One medieval and two early post-medieval middens and a post-medieval ditch were recorded. One trench contained five horse burials provisionally dated to 12th-13th c. Because of their early date, this area of the site was further investigated during the excavation and the remains of another approximately 23 individual horses and two dogs (totalling 30 animals) were excavated from twelve burial pits. Additional finds, including two horseshoes, have dated the group to the 14th-15th c.
18 Great St Peter St, SW1 TQ 2989 7924 MOLAS (Gordon Malcolm) evaluation Sept 1994 Salvation Army SAL94
Natural gravels were sealed by alluvium, overlain by clay silts and a peat deposit which is dated to the Late Bronze Age - Iron Age. A cut feature in the peat may indicate human occupation in the area during the Iron Age. It was filled and overlain by more alluvium before dumps of material raised the ground level. Within this was a number of cut features, including rubbish pits and one brick-lined cesspit, many of which contained large quantities of pottery dated to 1550-1770. In two testpits the structural footings and drains of 17th c buildings were noted.
1 Kemble St, Bruce House, WC2 TQ 3060 8110 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) excavation Mar-May 1993 Peabody Trust BRU92
Weathered brickearth, cut by a few small features, was overlain in some areas by mid-Saxon (c.650-850) occupation levels, including dump layers and eroded surfaces or paths. In other areas mid-Saxon features mainly comprised isolated truncated rubbish and cesspits and wells. Artefacts recovered included fragments of pottery, loomweights, burnt daub and quernstone, copper alloy objects and a sceat. Bone and antler offcuts were fairly common which suggests that bone-working was carried out on or near the site. Charred plant remains have been identified as mainly cereal grains, dominated by bread wheat and six-row hulled barley. Among waterlogged or mineralised plant remains were the seeds of apple/pear, fig, elder and blackberry/raspberry/strawberry. Animal bone collected was dominated by domesticed species. The Saxon deposits were sealed by dark earth which accumulated between the abandonment of Lundenwic in the 9th c and the urban development of the area in the late 16th or early 17th c. The dark earth was cut by a ditch and its recut, apparently of medieval date; three isolated, truncated pits were probably also medieval in date.
Brick walls, wells, cess and rubbish pits and dumps related to the post-medieval urban development of the site.
1-5 New Bond St, W1 TQ 2908 8062 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) watching brief Nov 1994 Stanhope Properties plc NBD94
Natural gravel was truncated by modern concrete foundations and slab.
New Palace Yard (NW corner), Palace of Westminster, SW1 TQ 3018 7964 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) excavation Sept 1994 London Underground Ltd NPE94
In the natural sand the remains of a tree root were found which yielded a radiocarbon date of 1745-1510BC. From the foreshore sand above were recovered prehistoric struck flints and pottery, possibly of Bronze Age date. This was sealed by undated alluvial deposits which were cut by a medieval channel or ditch; residual Roman building material was recovered from the ditch. More deposition of alluvium occurred before and after dumping took place, the latter dated by pottery to the 2nd half of the 11th c. Above lay a sequence of medieval deposits, including the possible remnants of a metalled surface, presumably representing the Yard which was first enclosed in 1287; it was also at a similar level to a series of 14th c surfaces found during excavations to the E in 1972-74. A number of medieval postholes or small pits was also found: these probably represent temporary timber structures such as the halls that were erected in the Yard for Edward II's coronation in 1307. The basement walls of post-medieval houses built on the N side of the Yard when Bridge Street was laid out in the 1740s were recorded, as was the building debris following their demolition in 1854.
6-7 Old Palace Yard, SW1 TQ 3016 7940 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) watching brief May-Sept 1994 Parliamentary Works Directorate OPY94
This work also included the examination of a test pit to the S of the Jewel Tower, against the precinct wall of Westminster Abbey. Medieval garden soil from the Jewel Tower garden was noted at the base of the sequence, sealed by levelling dumps on the E side of the site. At the N end of the site a W and N medieval ragstone wall possibly formed the SE corner of a building. A series of floors and occupation deposits, recorded on the W side of the site within a 17th c building, was probably part of the Parliament Office, demolished in the 1750s. The top of the Westminster Abbey drain was revealed in the test pit to the S of the Jewel Tower.
Palace of Westminster, Old Palace Yard, SW1 TQ 7939 3023 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) watching brief Dec 1994 - Jan 1995 Parliamentary Works Directorate PWV94
Ongoing works at the Palace of Westminster (LA 7 no 4 (1993) 109, PWC92 and below) have revealed natural sand sealed by waterlaid sediments of the R Thames, truncated on the S side by the concrete foundations of the mid-19th c Victoria Tower.
Palace of Westminster, St Stephen's Chapel, St Margaret St, SW1 TQ 3023 7950 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) watching brief Nov 1993 - Mar 1994 Parliamentary Works Directorate PWC92
Ongoing works at the Palace of Westminster (LA 7 no 4 (1993) 109) revealed futher evidence of the construction of the chapel. Marsh layers and a channel cutting through the natural sand were also recorded; along the edge of the channel was a series of decayed timber stakes which formed a revetment. The marsh layers were cut by some heavily disturbed human burials.
Parliament Sq (W side), Canning Green, SW1 TQ 3004 7966 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) excavation Sept-Oct 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) PSQ94
Alluvial sands and clays were cut by a natural channel which was sealed by a layer of greensand chippings. This was cut by a ditch, a pit and a posthole before a gravel surface was laid and a possible structure -represented by five postholes - erected in the 12th or 13th c. A drainage or boundary ditch of 13th c date was subsequently dug, possibly dividing properties fronting onto King Street. Dumping levelled up the ground and a new ditch was dug, on either side of which were numerous rubbish pits. Further dumping took place prior to the digging of more rubbish pits and two new ditches in the 16th c.
Parliament Sq, Churchill grout shaft, SW1 TQ 3015 7965 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) excavation July-Aug 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) PLS94
A series of alluvial sands and clays was cut by a number of features - including a gully and two postholes - and sealed by waterlain silts containing early medieval pottery. Features such as ditches cut the silts. A wide E-W wall was cut into alluvial clays and survived to more than 1m above construction level: this was probably the N boundary wall to New Palace Yard. To its S was added a buttress and a number of predominantly gravel surfaces were laid over the silts; to its N was a wood-lined cesspit which contained leather shoes and the bases of barrels and wooden vessels. Over the cesspit were internal surfaces and a cobbled stone hearth surrounded by bricks. In the 18th c a drain was built from reused medieval masonry and bricks; buildings were constructed over it.
St James's Palace, State Apartments, Pall Mall, SW1 TQ 2936 8005 MOLAS (Bill McCann) watching brief Aug 1994 Buckingham Palace SJM94
The earliest recorded deposits were an external surface above levelling, both dated to the late 11th/early 12th c. This was succeeded by sill beam supports for the NE corner of a building with brickearth floors and an external surface of crushed Reigate stone, identified as the leper hospital of St James the Less. Levelling deposits above the demolished building contained 13th c pottery, which accords with the documentary evidence for the destruction and rebuilding of the hospital. This site was not rebuilt for there then occurred a succession of surfaces, the first of which is likely to have been an open area within the hospital enclosure. The second surface, composed of crushed red brick, was probably the original surface of Colour Court, part of the Tudor Palace of St James. The remaining surfaces must represent the courtyard surfaces from then until a fire in 1809 destroyed the SE range of the palace, after which the present building was constructed and incorporated part of the S side of the courtyard.
St Stephen's House, Westminster Underground Station, Bridge St, SW1 TQ 3027 7971 MOLAS (Bob Cowie) excavation Oct 1994 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) SSE94
Excavation followed an evaluation in 1992 (LA 7 no 4 (1993) 109 (WUS92)). Natural gravels were overlain by alluvial clays in the surface of which were three hollows containing undated peaty material. A sequence of alluvium and cut features, dated to 13th - 14th c, then followed, with further alluvial clays and sands above. One of these produced a substantial portion of a 15th c cooking pot. Above the alluvium was a thick dump of sand for reclamation, dated - by reference to a corresponding layer in the evaluation - to mid-16th - 17th c. Several post and stakeholes which cut into the alluvium are apparently post-medieval in date.
21-29 Victoria St, SW1 TQ 2970 7930 MOLAS (Ian Grainger) evaluation Jan-Feb 1994 Land Securities Properties Ltd VSW94
Above the natural gravels was a sequence of waterlaid clays and sands associated with floods caused by relative rises in the sea/river level in the lower Thames Valley in the prehistoric, Roman, or early medieval periods. A distinct band of peat, associated with a relative drop in sea level and a marshland environment, was found and there was some evidence for a buried shoreline in the W part of the site. There was no evidence for human occupation before the 17th c when the marshland was reclaimed by the large scale dumping of soil over the area and tenement housing was constructed.
Whitehall, Outside the Banqueting House, SW1 TQ 3015 8007 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) watching brief Aug 1994 English Heritage BHW94
A partially backfilled brick well, which continued below the base of the hole, was exposed. A plan of 1680 appears to show the well, suggesting that it was in existence by this time, and associated with Whitehall Palace. No other archaeological deposits were exposed.