The Priory, Totteridge Lane, N20 TQ 3524 6094 MOLAS (Paul Mackie) Geophysical Survey Sept 1996 Mr Nigel Wray TOG96
The results of a Ground Penetrating Radar survey indicated three major areas of ‘activity’. The most important of these may be associated with a tunnel suspected of running between the cellar of the 17th-c property on the site and St Andrew’s Church to the SE.
Erith School Site (former), Belmont Road, Erith, Kent TQ 4970 7710 MOLAS (Aidan Woodger) watching brief Mar-Apr 1996 Persimmon Homes (SE) Ltd BMT96
Above the natural gravel and clay there was evidence of prehistoric activity, including pits containing fire-cracked flints used for cooking or boiling water. There was also substantial evidence for a Romano-British settlement or farmstead established in the early 1st c. It included ditches which may represent field boundary or drainage systems. After the Roman period the site seems to have fallen into disuse, except perhaps for farming, until the post-medieval period when drainage features were recorded as well as a concentration of brick soakaways, the latter possibly part of an industrial process.
Broomhills, Old Bexley Lane, Kent TQ 5070 7300 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) watching brief Oct-Nov 1996 Berkeley Homes Ltd BMH96
Natural gravels were covered by organic topsoil typical of woodlands. Modern truncation and dumping had occurred.
Acorn Industrial Park, Crayford Road, Crayford, Dartford, Kent TQ 5185 7475 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) evaluation Nov 1996 Rich Investments Ltd CFD96
Natural gravel was overlaid by peat, above which 20th-c dumping had taken place. On the high ground to the S of the site no peat was observed, possibly because it had been truncated.
Voyager’s Quay, Copperfield Road, SE28 TQ 4730 8130 MOLAS (Graham Spurr) evaluation Mar 1996 Barratt London Ltd CPP96
Above natural gravels, silty clays contained peats dating from the mid-Neolithic - Late Bronze Age, indicating a probable series of marine transgressions and regressions. They were sealed by modern debris..
19-25 Crescent Road, & 61-65 Manor Road (land between), Erith, Kent TQ 5175 7770 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation May 1996 Merritt Developments Ltd CSN96
Two postholes and a ditch, both undated, cut the natural gravels or subsoil and were overlaid by topsoil. Two prehistoric flints of Mesolithic to Bronze Age date were recovered from the surface of the natural.
The Mount, Hazel Drive, Slade Green, Erith, Kent TQ 5270 7685 MOLAS (Steve Tucker, Paul Hutchings) evaluation May-June 1996 Quintonglen Ltd HZD96
Made-ground overlay the natural gravels, indicating that the site had been truncated.
The Former Sports Ground, Viking Way, Erith, Kent TQ 5050 7920 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Jan-Feb 1996 Hepworth Properties Ltd VIW96
Alluvial silts above the natural gravels were overlaid by 19th-20th-c made-ground.
Old Bakery and Saville Works, Croydon Road, Elmers End, Beckenham, Kent TQ 3580 6805 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) watching brief July 1996 European Springs Ltd CDO96
Waterlaid deposits above the natural sandy clay were probably associated with a prehistoric Chaffinch Brook; they were overlaid by post-medieval dumps.
Darent Scheme - the SE Area waterpipe, Farnborough Reservoir - Berry’s Green, Kent TQ 4356 6155 MOLAS (Kieron Heard) watching brief Apr-May 1996 Thames Water Utilities Ltd DRT96
Near the village of Downe, off Cudham Lane, the natural clay-with-flints was cut by two E-W ditches and the terminus of a third N-S ditch: these may represent field boundaries or stock enclosures. Nearby was a clay-lined pit, probably for water storage, and two shallow postholes. Large quantities of early Roman pottery and metal-working slag were recovered from the pit and the ditches. Other finds included fragments of quern stones, ceramic building material and a spearhead. It is likely that the features formed part of an early Roman farmstead or villa complex. Along the rest of the site natural chalk or clay-with-flints was overlaid with topsoil.
Glebe House, Church Road, Keston, Kent TQ 4170 6301 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) watching brief May 1996 Bernie Hampton GLE96
Subsoil over the natural chalk was truncated by the insertion of a 19th-c brick cellar and its stairway. Modern make-up sealed the infilled cellar.
3,5,7 Kent Road, St Mary Cray, Orpington, Kent TQ 4711 6732 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation Apr-May 1996 Kelsey Housing Association Ltd KER96
Natural gravel was mainly truncated by modern pits.
Cray Valley Paper Mills (former), New Mill Road (former), now Main Road, Orpington, Kent TQ 4730 6950 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Apr 1996 Fuller Peiser NMR96
Made-ground above the natural gravels indicates that the original ground level had been reduced, probably because of gravel extraction.
Mount Vernon, Frognal Rise, NW3 TQ 2621 8590 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) excavation Mar-Apr 1996 Weatherstar Ltd MTV95
The natural hillside topography had been substantially altered by post-medieval terracing and associated dumped levelling, the latter sealing small areas of the original landscape, including hillwash. Beneath this hillwash natural sands and clays were cut by postholes, gullies and a pit which contained pottery dating to 1150-1500: these may have been the remnants of a medieval field system and associated fence lines, suggesting an agricultural use of the land during this period. The hillwash deposits above imply that natural and agricultural processes have resulted in downward soil movement. On the W side of the site, at the bottom of the slope, a platform was terraced into the hillside and a structure, initially of timber and later of brick, was built inc.late 15th - early 16th c. A cesspit was associated with the earlier structure and above it were the remains of a semi-cellar floor, the steps leading to it and walls. The structure was repaired and renewed several times, probably continuing in use throughout the 17th, 18th and well into the 19th c.
Kingsway Hall, 66-68 Great Queen Street, WC2 TQ 3055 8133 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation Aug-Sept 1996 Renoport Ltd KWH96
Natural brickearth was generally truncated by 19th-c basements but, in the SW of the site, was cut by Middle Saxon features consisting of rubbish pits and different phases of structures; a possibly contemporary soil horizon was also recorded.
151-165 Shaftesbury Ave (Dial House), WC2 TQ 3001 8118 MOLAS (David Bowsher) evaluation July 1996 Jarrah Properties Ltd SHF96
Natural gravels were, in the S of the site, overlaid by a clay layer which may have been an alluvial deposit since the area is known to have been marshy until the late 17th c. Two 17th - 18th-c drains were recorded above, one constructed of brick with a peg tile base and capping.
Holborn Town Hall (Site C), Stukeley Street, WC2 TQ 3038 8142 MOLAS (Bruno Barber) evaluation Nov 1996 Soho Housing Association Ltd STY96
Above natural gravel and the eroded remains of the brickearth slab lay a buried soil sequence. This seems to have originated through erosion of the top of the brickearth slab, subsequently modified by human activity to form a deep soil. It contained residual Roman material from its lower layers. The buried soil seems to have been extensively reworked (possibly ploughed) in the period up toc.1700, after which extensive dumping took place to raise the ground levels and the first brick structures were built. Limited evidence for post-medieval industry in the form of iron and copper working waste, glassworking waste, and a few clay pipe wasters was recovered from dump deposits.
3 Amen Court, EC4 TQ 3183 8122 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) watching brief July-Aug 1996 The Dean & Chapter of St Paul’s Cathedral AMC96
Natural was not located. A garden type soil immediately below the slab of the basement is likely to have been part of the post-Great Fire clearance layer.
Bread St/Cannon St (City Tree Project), EC4 TQ 3228 8104 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 Corporation of London CYG96
Modern concrete and backfill lay beneath the road surface.
Bull Wharf, Bull Wharf Lane, 16-21 Queenhithe, 66 Upper Thames Street, EC4 TQ 3232 8079 MOLAS (Julian Ayre, Robin Wroe-Brown) watching brief Feb 1996 - Feb 1997 Markborough Properties UK Ltd BUF90
Final work on this site was undertaken on ground works in the area of the proposed scheduled ancient monument. Medieval and post-medieval foundations were recorded cutting through earlier reclamation dumps; from the pattern of medieval chalk foundations, it seems that the medieval properties were sub-divided in the post-medieval period. A sequence of tile and brick floors from post-medieval tenements survived with associated cesspits.
All Hallows by the Tower, Byward Street, EC3 TQ 3337 8068 MOLAS (David Lakin) watching brief Mar 1996 The All Hallows Development Trust ALH96
Natural was not reached. Disturbed graveyard deposits, including human remains, were recorded. In the SE corner of the church offset chalk footings were exposed: presumably these are medieval in date. A 19th-c brick vault was also found on the E side of the site.
Gateway House, 25 Cannon Street, EC4 TQ 3221 8107 MOLAS (David Bowsher) evaluation Feb-Mar 1996 Scottish Amicable Investment Managers CAO96
At the N edge of the site the earliest recorded deposits were a series of dumps of mid-2nd c date which may have related to the early building sequence found on the site in 1954. They were cut by a late 3rd - 4th-c pit; Roman pit fills were also found towards the E side of the site where they cut through redeposited brickearth. The line of medieval Friday Street was established, the earliest surface being dated to late 11th to 12th c, and similarly dated pits were recorded in the W and E of the site. Fronting onto the W side of Friday Street was a medieval building, represented by a chalk and ragstone cellar wall; the cellar appears to have been partitioned or its N wall rebuilt when a brick wall was inserted in the 17th or 18th c. A later brick cellar wall was then constructed on a similar alignment and location to the medieval wall: it is dated to the 18th or 19th c and relates to Nos 16 Friday Street and 13 Watling Street. Modern sewer trenches truncated all remaining archaeological deposits.. .
Woolgate House, 10 Coleman Street, EC2 TQ 3258 8139 MOLAS (Portia Askew) evaluation Nov 1996 MEPC UK Ltd CLM96
Natural gravels were cut by an undated pit and truncated by the basement slab. One trench revealed a very substantial rubble dump containing 19th-c iron fixtures and fittings and interior wall tile fragments: these probably related to the Wool Exchange which occupied the site from 1873 until its demolition in 1964.
77 Carter Lane, 1 Carter Court, EC4 TQ 3176 8108 MOLAS (Nick Holder, Terence Smith) Standing Structure Survey Dec 1996 - Jan 1997 Dencora Homes Ltd CTE96
Medieval deposits overlay natural gravels. A brick wall that almost certainly predates the Great Fire, might have been associated with Blackfriars Priory (f. 1275), though it could have been part of a building post-dating the Dissolution. Part of the standing building dates from the 17th c, including what was an unusually deep cellar. WC
Coleman St/London Wall (City Tree Project), EC2 TQ 3265 8155 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 Corporation of London CYE96
Part of a structure built of yellow stock bricks was recorded beneath the modern road surface.
4,6,8 Creechurch Lane, EC3 TQ 3440 8116 MOLAS (Pat Miller) watching brief Apr-May 1996 Southern Properties (Kensington) Ltd CEE96
The watching brief took place in the basement of the standing building. Two Roman pits cut into the natural brickearth, one dated to the 2nd c and the other to the 2nd or 3rd c. In one area a number of medieval pits dating to the late 11th-early 12th c were sealed by deposits of the cemetery of St Katherine Cree and St Michael, both of which were chapels from 1201 and St Katherine Cree rebuilt as a parish church in 1222-48. Thirteen graves were recorded.
Creechurch Lane/Creechurch Place (City Tree Project), EC3 TQ 3342 8124 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Feb 1996 Corporation of London CYL96
The site lies within the Great Court of the precinct of the 12th-c Holy Trinity Priory. The earliest recorded deposits were a series of demolition dumps which appeared to have been medieval in origin. They were cut by pits containing late medieval or early post-medieval material, overlaid by further dumps.
Garrard House, Haberdashers Hall, 31-45 Gresham Street, EC2 TQ 3230 8144 MOLAS (Liz Howe) excavation Aug-Sept 1996 watching brief Nov-Dec 1996 Wates City Of London Properties GAH95
A gully of possible prehistoric date cut the natural brickearth in the SE of the excavated area and another possible prehistoric feature was revealed during the watching brief in the basement of Garrard House. The gully was sealed by an extensive Roman levelling deposit, succeeded by stakeholes and floor deposits associated with a possible 1st-c clay-and-timber building. To the N were more postholes and a gully, probably of another building. Located in the NW of the area was a robbed foundation trench which contained fragments of moulded purple sandstone similar to that in the gate of the Cripplegate fort to the N of the site. Parallel to this, but further E, was a gully. The buildings were sealed by the gravel deposits of a N-S Roman road which lead to the S gate of the fort: this was a minimum of 9m wide. Several pits of Roman date truncated the road and, in the NW, it was cut by the postholes and beamslots of another Roman building. A number of medieval features were excavated including pits, one of which contained several near complete vessels, and a chalk and ragstone foundation. A large post-medieval pit, chalk-lined well and cesspits were also recorded. WC
Guildhall Art Gallery, Guildhall Yard, EC2 TQ 3251 8136 MOLAS (Nick Bateman, Gina Porter) excavation 1996 Corporation of London GYE92
Excavations continued from previous years (LA 8 Supplement 1 (1996) 4 etc). In an area immediately N of the E entrance into the amphitheatre, new information was forthcoming on the principal phases of the bank which provided the foundation for the amphitheatre’s seating. Recording of the sides of a new drain running directly down the centre of the arena revealed more of the arena surfaces and significantly added to information on the size and shape of the amphitheatre. The main excavation took place in the area immediately S of the Guildhall and underneath Guildhall Yard. Here a sequence of thick, organic spreads and dumps was cut by pits and, in particular, a huge wattle-lined ditch several metres wide and about 1.5m deep. Interpretation of the latter as a drainage and boundary ditch corroborates previous suggestions (LA 7 no 13 (1995) 336) that early 11th-c re-occupation of the amphitheatre arena area encountered considerable problems with water. The site was then bisected by a N-S road provisionally dated to the 11th c; it was later to be enlarged as Guildhall Yard. In the Saxo-Norman period, the road was flanked by buildings on both sides: several phases of two buildings on the W and at least one large 11th-12th-c wattle-and-post building, with internal partitions, hearths and doorways, on the E. Underpinning of Dance’s Guildhall Porch continued and many more moulded stones from the original medieval porch frontage were recovered. They had been discarded when the porch was rebuilt in the late 18th c and reused in Dance’s new foundations. The stones include parts of the decorated blind panelling of the frontage, canopies and plinths for recessed statues, and at least one ogival hood mould from the decorated screen which connected the porch to Guildhall Chapel. During monitoring of underpinning to the E, two ashlar blocks were found at the base of the 15th-c Guildhall Chapel N aisle wall: each had an inscription, painted in black letter Gothic script characteristic of the 15th c. The names of Thomas Knollys and Henry Frowyk can be identified, both of whom are known historical figures of importance in the history of the Guildhall and, in particular, in the rebuilding of Guildhall Chapel. The stones appear to have been laid as ‘invisible’ dedicatory stones.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 68-71 Fenchurch Street, EC3 TQ 3343 8099 MOLAS (Dick Bluer) evaluation Oct 1996 excavation Dec 1996 Lloyd’s Register of Shipping FCC95
Further evaluation and then excavations followed the 1995 work (LA 8, supplement 1 (1996) 4). In the S of the site, recorded above the natural brickearth, was a structure represented by a N-S foundation of rammed pebbles with flint packing at its corners, suggesting a superstructure of timber; it dates to the Roman period. This was replaced with a structure on the same alignment, but whose substantial walls were based on piled foundation trenches. In another area a sub-floor associated with a hypocaust was recorded and nearby burnt material, which contained a 4th-c coin, was probably rake-out from the flue system. In the W of the central area a concrete sub-floor of a hypocaust was cut by robber trenches of three sides of a masonry building, and sealed by a thick dump containing much opus signinum. On the W of the site organic waterlogged deposits may have been associated with dumps behind a revetment bounding the E bank of a stream (possibly that referred to in medieval times as the ‘Lorteburn’). Roman consolidation dumps over these deposits contained brickearth which may have derived from a demolished building. To the S of St Katherine Coleman churchyard a masonry wall, associated opus signinum floor and burnt demolition debris was recorded, as were medieval graveyard soil and burials. Elsewhere for the medieval period, only pits, robber trenches and wells survived truncation. Two pre-Great Fire cesspits and a brick-lined cesspit, traces of the 18th-c East India Company warehouses known to have occupied the site, and 18th-c walls represent the post-medieval survival. WC
85 Gracechurch Street, EC3 TQ 3305 8105 MOLAS (Mark Birley) excavation Jan-Mar 1996 Scottish Amicable GRC95
The earliest recorded deposit was a dump of alluvial silt above which lay a collapsed and burnt brickearth walled building. The wall was aligned N-S, approximately parallel to the first forum/basilica (c.AD 75), and was associated with a yard surface. Occupation in the vicinity seems to have continued after the destruction of this building for it was overlaid by a levelling deposit containing painted wall plaster, probably an indication of other collapsed or demolished buildings nearby. Above was the gravel surface of a N-S road first recorded in 1934. To the W an E-W ditch or gully had been cut. The road and ditch were then sealed by two series of courtyard surfaces of the second forum (c.AD 100-400), the surfaces composed of mortar and the series separated by rubble make-up. They were cut by medieval features - a chalk walled cesspit, a N-S ditch and a posthole - before all were truncated by the modern floor slab.
1-4 Great St Helen’s, EC3 TQ 3314 8124 MOLAS (M Edwards) evaluation Apr-May 1996 Greycoat plc GSH96
Natural brickearth was truncated by the construction of the basement and sub-basements; one pit, of Roman date, survived.
Equitable House, 47-51 King William Street, EC4 TQ 3288 8080 MOLAS (Tony Thomas) evaluation Apr 1995 and Mar-Apr 1996 Postel Property Services Ltd ETL91
Three test pits were monitored which indicated a possible Roman masonry wall in the S of the site and a post-medieval well in the N.
Suffolk House, 5 Laurence Pountney Hill, 154-156 Upper Thames Street, EC4 TQ 3271 8077 MOLAS (Aidan Woodger) excavation and watching brief Apr-Oct 1996 Argent Real Estate (Knightsbridge) Ltd SUF94
The natural terrace gravel, capped to the N by brickearth, sloped down to the pre-Roman Thames channel to the S. A contour survey of the London Clay and Thames gravels suggests that the site may have been situated on a natural inlet in the riverbank. A peat marsh developed in the low lying areas between the Early Neolithic and Iron Age (3900-3350 BC to 260-30 BC). In the SW of the site, a pair of timber structures, dated to late 1st c, were recorded: these were probably tiebacks for a N-S revetment, possibly the return of the E-W revetment under Upper Thames Street which may have stretched about 120 m W to the mouth of the Walbrook. To the E an E-W post-and-plank revetment, constructed in about AD 100-120, was built from reused building timbers. Further reclamation probably took place in AD 128 when a box-drain was inserted into the top of the post-and-plank revetment extending to the S past the limit of excavation. Later in the 2nd c a system of hollowed, quartered oak pipes drained to the W. Recorded to the E and W of the site were elements of Roman masonry buildings of the 1st to 4th centuries with opus signinum and brickearth floors, and walls decorated with painted wall plaster still adhering to them. Those in the W may have belonged to a high status Roman town house attached to the ‘Governor’s Palace’ recorded in the 1960s. Part of the drum and capital of a Roman Tuscan order column, first observed in 1994 (LA 7 no 13 (1995) 336), was recovered this year from a medieval pit in the area of the town house. The buildings were apparently constructed on terraces overlooking the river.
To the E of the site the brickearth floor of a Saxo-Norman building was recorded, cut through by later 12th-c rubbish pits. To the N an 11th-c cesspit contained disarticulated, slumped human remains, possibly from the pre-Fire burial ground of St Laurence Pountney church. Medieval chalk walls and foundations were recorded in the E along the Laurence Pountney Lane frontage and S of Rectory House and in the W on the site of the Manor of the Rose or Pountney’s Inn. To the SE a N-S chalk and gravel foundation on cleft beech piles is of a type found from the late 11th or 12th c. A 15th or 16th-c chalk-lined well and a chalk-lined cesspit may have been infilled following the Great Fire. Finds from the waterfront dumps consisted of a group of late 1st to mid-2nd-c pottery which included an unusually high proportion of imported wares; an Iron Age coin of Eppillus and a pre-Conquest coin of Augustus/Tiberius; leather objects including shoes, sandals and cobbling waste; metal objects including fragments of tinned bronze mirror, iron needles and three copper alloy brooches; and wooden objects including a double-sided comb and a stopper still in the neck of a glass bottle. Two crucibles of a type sometimes used for working precious metals are of special interest in view of the evidence for gold smithing reported by Marsden in 1975.
Great Eastern Hotel, Liverpool Street, EC2 TQ 3323 8156 MOLAS (Adrian Miles) watching brief July-Aug 1996 Alan Baxter & Associates LPS96
Modern backfill overlay natural gravels.
Lower Thames St/St Mary at Hill (City Tree Project), EC3 TQ 3308 8068 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 Corporation of London CYI96
The earliest recorded deposit was a thick silt; above it lay modern concrete.
Mark Lane/Hart St (City Tree Project), EC3 TQ 3332 8087 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 Corporation of London CYJ96
Modern service pipes lay beneath the road surface.
1-4 Middle Temple Lane, EC4 TQ 3114 8110 MOLAS (David Bowsher) watching brief Jan-Mar 1996 (John Taylor) Standing Structure Survey Apr-Sept 1996 The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple MTE96
Recording work took place on this building which was constructed in two phases. The principal 1684 gatehouse is constructed of brick and masonry but is believed to have been a rebuild of a Tudor gateway: in the basement area evidence was indeed found of a possible earlier construction. In the roof the timber, carpentry and iron fittings conform to late 17th-c practices and dendrochronological dates for the principal roof timbers indicate a felling date of 1683. The construction date of 1684 for the gatehouse is therefore confirmed. A national tree ring chronology for the whole of the 17th c has been established from the roof timbers. The internal panelling of the building has also been recorded and suggestions can be made of the likely social hierarchy of the individual room. Removal of external weatherboarding and render has exposed the later rebuild of 1693, consisting of a softwood wall frame - a typical example of post-Fire building - and some window framing (possibly the only surviving example of this kind in the City). Reused timber has been recorded in all the wall, floor and roof frames. From a watching brief on groundworks, part of a 17th-c teapot and some rough 17th-c brickwork similar to that in the basements, were recorded.
Shelley House, Noble Street, EC2 TQ 3228 8153 MOLAS (David Lakin, Tony Thomas) excavation Feb-July 1996 London Mutual Insurance Society Ltd NST94
Excavations followed an earlier evaluation (LA 7, 13 (1995) 337) on this site, which lay within the bounds of the masonry Cripplegate fort, apparently constructed in the early 2nd c. Worked flints and pottery in a soil horizon above the natural brickearth indicated that there had been activity on the site in the prehistoric period. Cutting the natural brickearth were two oval features associated with a small post-built structure and a metalled surface, possibly a yard: these could be dated to no earlier than AD 70 and appeared to be industrial in nature. They were followed by the erection of a number of moderately substantial timber buildings with associated roads and open areas. Although it is possible that there was military occupation in the Cripplegate area preceding the establishment of the masonry fort, it has not proved possible to characterise these timber buildings as military. Prior to AD 120 the timber buildings were swept away and the site left derelict for a time. Probably shortly after AD 120 three barrack buildings and associated roads were established on the site. The barrack buildings were subject to alterations and redecoration on a number of occasions and finally went out of use and were demolished at a date before AD 250. Although the barrack buildings seem to have been comprehensively dismantled, the associated roads clearly remained in use for a further period of indeterminate length, possibly into the 4th c. The Roman remains were, in places, sealed by an accumulation of grey silts dated to the 4th to 11th c. In c.1050 a number of burgage plots were laid out on the site and until c.1200 the area was subject to quite intensive activity. Four buildings dating to this period have been identified, one of which incorporated a cellar of considerable size. A notable quantity of crucibles containing metalworking residues were recovered. In the 13th or 14th c the area seems to have undergone a change in use and a reduction in the intensity of settlement, evidenced by the infilling of the cellar. Post-medieval activity was represented by brick features, possibly belonging to a warehouse that is documented on the site.
1-19 Poultry, 2-38 Queen Victoria Street, 3-9, 35-40 Bucklersbury, EC2 and EC4 TQ 3258 8110 MOLAS (Mark Burch, Julian Hill, Sarah Jones, Duncan Lees, Peter Rowsome, and Phil Treveil) excavation July 1994 to June 1996 Altstadtbau Ltd representing Advanta Management AG and City Acre Property & Investment Trust ONE94
Evaluation and excavation in 1994 and early 1995 (LA 7 no 13 (1995) 337) was followed by a main phase of excavation during 1995-6 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 7) on this site which is situated on the W side of the middle Walbrook valley near the Roman and medieval Walbrook crossings.
The surface of natural, which consisted of terrace sand and gravel over London Clay, sloped downwards to the SE towards the Walbrook, with secondary slopes downwards to the NE and S perhaps related to tributaries of the Walbrook. A palaeo-soil horizon survived above the gravels in places. Excavation of the W part of the site uncovered a 60m length of the main E-W Roman road (Via Decumanus) and a major 1st-c road junction, with roads running N, NW, and S from the main route. All but the S road predated the Boudican revolt of AD 60-61. The location of the junction and the alignment of the E-W and NW-SE roads may have been influenced by the relatively high level of natural at this point (see LA 8, supplement 1 (1996) 7). The earliest evidence of human activity on the W part of the site was horizontal terracing of the natural slope and the contemporary infilling of a low area to the SW. The main E-W road was also established at this time, in c. AD 50. Infilling to the S of the road was associated with low post-and-plank revetments which intersected to form a series of box-like structures aligned with the main road, and which may have served to consolidate the raised ground level. Further external activity included dumping and pitting to the S of the main road, and both dumping and construction of timber-lined cut features, such as wells and soak-aways, to the N. The primary gravel metalling of the main E-W road was about 8m in width. The secondary roads which ran N and NW from a shared, offset junction with the main road were between 4 and 5m wide. Evidence associated with the road joining from the N had not survived beyond the actual junction area, due to modern truncation to the N, but these secondary roads may have been founded contemporaneously. Roadside box-drains were constructed of oak planks and were between 0.4-0.5m wide and 0.2-0.4m deep.
Clay-and-timber buildings were built along both the main road and the NW secondary road. These buildings were destroyed by fire in the Boudican rebellion of AD 60-61. A deposit of soil and charcoal which sealed the early metallings of the NW secondary road may be associated with a short period of disuse concomitant with the Boudican destruction and its aftermath. The roads and properties were re-established following the Boudican revolt, and a third road was constructed to run S from the Via Decumanus towards the Thames. Roadside clay-and-timber buildings dating to the Flavian and Trajanic periods (late 1st-early 2nd c) were recorded across the area, their rooms containing either beaten-earth or plank floors. The buildings were destroyed in an early 2nd-c fire, probably the Hadrianic fire of c AD 125.
Further excavation work at the E end of the site, adjacent to the W bank of the Walbrook stream and approximately 30m N of the main Roman road, also uncovered evidence of early Roman activity. Terracing of the western bank of the Walbrook was associated with clustered oak piles which formed a consolidating revetment parallel to the course of the stream. The stream channel itself lay to the E beyond the limit of excavation. During the 1st c the ground surface was raised substantially through the dumping of material, perhaps to reduce the threat of flooding from the stream. In the late 1st c a large clay-lined, timber water tank was constructed on the terraced slope: it was approximately 4.8 m square and 0.7 m deep, and may have supplied water to a nearby trade or industry; timber conduits and drains carried water to the tank, and overflow from it. External cobbled surfaces contemporary with the water tank were composed almost entirely of broken quernstones; over 1100 fragments of manual rotary querns were recovered, the majority a lava-type imported from the Mayen-Niedermendig region of Germany. Many contained hoppers, feed pipes, spindle holes, and handle slots. Wear patterns indicate that the querns had been used prior to disposal, perhaps in a nearby mill or bakery, but they may have arrived in London as ballast after use elsewhere. A clay-and-timber building of Flavian date was located on higher ground immediately to the W of the water tank, the sill beams and lower parts of the wattle walls preserved by the wet conditions. The later Roman sequence in this area was examined in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 7).
On the W half of the site there was little activity after the Hadrianic destruction until the mid-to late 2nd c when new building took place, roads were re-metalled, and roadside drains widened and deepened. A roadside wall of tile and stone was constructed to form what may be a precinct wall around a property on the SE corner of the main road junction. Along the main road this wall incorporated an arched culvert 0.8m wide and at least 1m deep. Part of a stone wall 3.4m to the S and parallel to the outer wall may have been part of the N wall of a building within the precinct. No contemporary floors or ground surfaces were found within the possible building, whose function remains uncertain.
A second stone building was located on the NE side of the NW-aligned secondary road. A single masonry wall set back 4m from the roadside ran parallel to the road for a distance of at least 12m from a SE corner. A return wall ran N from the corner for a distance of 6m, and provided corroborative evidence for the posited N aligned secondary road. No contemporary ground surfaces or floors associated with the masonry building survived. The late Roman buildings were sealed by deposits similar to dark earth, although they appeared to be dumped rather than the result of soil formation.
Post-Roman occupation on the W part of the site included a possible late Saxon sunken building cut into the surface of the disused Via Decumanus, and a NW-SE aligned late Saxon or early medieval roadway located next to, and parallel with, the NW aligned Roman road. The road, whose make-up layers and metallings contained large amounts of butchered animal bone, was slightly sunken through use. The road led SE to a large open area whose metallings also contained butchered animal bone. The full extent of the open space was uncertain, but it appeared to be centred on the area of the former Roman road junction. A number of refuse pits to the W contained embroidered and decoratively-stitched shoes of the 10th or 11th c.
Early medieval buildings may have been constructed around the sides of the open area and along the NW approach to it. By the 12th c the NW approach and part of the open area had become the medieval street of Bucklersbury, and the S side of the space had become the line of Pancras Lane. Timber buildings along the S side of Poultry and the NE side of Bucklersbury contained evidence of iron-working. They were superseded by larger buildings with chalk foundations, but whose floors and contemporary ground-surfaces did not survive. Post-Great Fire cesspits and wells associated with properties between Poultry and Bucklersbury contained material associated with local trades.
A number of early Roman finds were recovered, particularly from the area adjacent to the Walbrook. An unusual 1st-c copper alloy plate brooch depicting three men in a boat whose prow took the form of a bird’s head, carries a strong Celtic element to its iconography and may have come from the NW frontier. Two 2nd-c headstud brooches and their connecting chain were extremely well preserved, with blue and red enamel in a lozenge pattern along the bow and red enamel in the stud itself. Part of a glass medallion from a 1st-c conical flagon in natural blue green glass, showed a male mask - perhaps a Bacchic head. Several other artefacts from Poultry may also have associations with the cult of Bacchus. Of the post-Roman finds, a 12th- or 13th-c purbeck marble grave headstone, which had been reused as hardcore in one of the pier bases of the later medieval parish church of St Benet Sherehog (LA 7 no 13 (1995) 337), carried the inscription Here lies in the tomb Alice, wife of Peter.
A large quantity of environmental material was recovered and many of the samples are particularly rich. Both hazelnuts and pine cones were recovered from the infill of the 1st-c water tank excavated at the E end of the site. The pine cones came from the Stone Pine, found in the Mediterranean region and introduced into Britain by the Romans. The cones may have been used in religious rituals, and oil from pine nuts was used as lighting fuel in lamps.
Pudding Lane/Monument Street, EC3 TQ 3296 8075 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 Corporation of London CYH96
Modern services were located beneath the road surface.
St Bartholomew the Great (S of the Lady Chapel), West Smithfield, EC1 TQ 3199 8173 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 The London Diocesan Fund SBL96
Natural gravel was truncated, presumably during the construction of the parish school in the late 19th c, and overlaid by levelling dumps and garden soil after the demolition of the school building.
14-20, 22 St Mary Axe, 24-28 St Mary Axe/22-25 Bury Street (Baltic Mercantile & Shipping Exchange), 30-32 St Mary Axe/1-6 Bury Court, 19-21, 26-28 Bury Street TQ 3321 8125 MOLAS (Liz Howe, Robin Nielsen) watching brief May-Nov 1996 Trafalgar House BAX95
Disturbed natural brickearth contained struck flints and pottery of possible Iron Age date. Quarrying of brickearth deposits and gravels had taken place, particularly to the N and E. An early but undated linear feature excavated in the W of the site was truncated by a major Roman E-W ditch which extended over approximately 50m. It was approximately 4m wide and would have been up to 2m in depth, with an ‘ankle-breaking’ slot running along the base: it may have been a boundary ditch demarcating the extent of the city prior to the construction of the defensive City Wall. Early indications are that it had been deliberately backfilled with brickearth, although localised ‘dumping’ seems to have taken place: a large amount of high quality pottery and amphorae fragments, and fragments of at least three human skulls. To the S of this feature and in the E of the site a NW-SE ditch was excavated, in the fill of which a human burial was discovered; severe truncation of the area means that the extent of this ditch is largely unknown. The truncated remains of a Roman cellared building were excavated in the centre of the site and to the S of the E-W boundary ditch; it seems to have be apsidal and has produced considerable amounts of pottery and polychromatic painted wall plaster from the backfill. A number of wells considered to be of Roman date have been excavated, two of which were adjacent to the cellared building. Later, the quarry pits to the SE of the boundary ditch were filled with domestic refuse, including substantial amounts of painted wall plaster and pottery. Several N-S gullies have been recorded across the site, again to the S of the ditch, suggesting later property boundaries.
Pits of possible 11th-12th-c date were located towards St Mary Axe and in the S of the site several medieval pits contained fragments of possible bell moulds, bronze metal waste and stone crucible fragments. Also in the S were the remains of truncated chalk foundations, two chalk cellars and several wells, the latter two probably associated with buildings fronting St Mary Axe and Brown’s Buildings. A substantial medieval cellar to the W had been re-used after disuse or demolition of the superstructure as a cesspit; it contained three complete or near complete late medieval pottery vessels. Several post-medieval brick features, which may be representative of cellared buildings, were also recorded.
St Paul's Cathedral West Crypt, W end and SW area and the North Corridor (W of W transept), St Paul’s Churchyard, EC4 TQ 3202 8117 MOLAS (John Schofield) watching brief July-Aug 1996 (Tony Thomas) watching brief Nov 1996-Jan 1997 Dean & Chapter of St Paul’s Cathedral SPU96
Further refurbishment followed that of 1994 (LA 7 no 13 (1995) 338 (SPL94)).
At the W end of the cathedral the principal findings included a medieval foundation which was probably situated outside the S wall of the medieval cathedral, Wren construction layers and 77 moulded stones, mainly from a tunnel cut through from the main crypt chamber into the basement of the SW tower. Two of these recorded stones were in situ in the crypt walls and have been left exposed. The majority of the stones were evidently from the Inigo Jones portico which would have stood a short distance to the W until it was demolished by Wren. There was also a large number of disarticulated human bones in 18th- and 19th-c layers which presumably derived from parts of the cathedral cemetery disturbed by Wren’s excavations.
The North Corridor consisted of a trench just outside the N external wall of the cathedral, leading from the N transept. Natural brickearth was cut by a number of Roman features - pits, postholes and slots - identified as part of a building or buildings; and a N-S ditch. Deposits associated with these Roman buildings were overlaid by medieval cemetery deposits and truncated by early burials. The burials of at least 27 individuals and two possible charnel pits were recovered; they may form part of the Pardon churchyard or its precursor which was situated to the N of the medieval cathedral. At the E end of the trench, the burials were cut by a large N-S chalk foundation which could have been associated with the E range of the Pardon cloister - first observed as a series of pile foundations in excavations in 1914 - or with the medieval cathedral, or with a building on this part of the churchyard. Contractor excavations through the NW wall of the N transept of the cathedral produced a wide range of moulded and worked stone from the medieval cathedral, one of which bore traces of paint. Further excavations in the N transept uncovered moulded and worked stones of possible post-medieval date: most of these seem to fit together to form a part of a series of arches and base, perhaps for an internal screen or monument.
Staple Inn Hall, 1-3 Staple Inn, WC1 TQ 3115 8155 MOLAS (Dick Bluer, Portia Askew) watching brief July-Dec 1996 The Institute of Actuaries STI96
Modern make-up overlay the natural gravels.
3 South King’s Bench Walk, EC4 TQ 3135 8103 MOLAS (John Taylor) watching brief June 1996 The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple SKB96
The only deposit recorded beneath the basement slab was make-up, probably contemporary with the construction of the building.
2-4 Tudor Street, EC4 TQ 3161 8100 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) watching brief May 1996 Haslemere Estates Ltd TOR96
Truncated natural gravel was located in two test pits and crushed brick in a third.
2 Wardrobe Place, EC4 TQ 3188 8106 MOLAS (Mark Wiggins) watching brief Aug 1996 Corporation of London WAB96
The earliest recorded deposit was the backfill of an E-W robbing trench which may have been associated with the buildings of the medieval King’s Wardrobe complex. It was overlaid by a post-medieval pit fill.
Watling St/New Change (City Tree Project), EC4 TQ 3221 8110 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) watching brief Jan 1996 Corporation of London CYF96
Modern rubble and pipework lay beneath the road surface.
57A-59 West Smithfield, EC1 TQ 3191 8168 MOLAS (Liz Howe) watching brief Apr-July 1996 Soho Housing Association WSM95
Truncated natural gravel was recorded during monitoring of ground works.
Daiwa House, 84-89 Wood Street, EC2 TQ 3231 8151 MOLAS (Pat Miller) evaluation Mar-Apr & July 1995 and excavation Dec 1995 - Jan 1996 and watching brief Apr-May 1996 Kajima UK DWA92
An excavation and watching brief that followed an evaluation in 1992 (LA 7, 2 (1993) 47) established that, though possible remains of the Roman Cripplegate fort had been truncated, a series of 11th-12th-c and later medieval features survived the truncation of the natural brickearth. These features consisted of rubbish and cesspits, including chalk-lined cesspits, and a chalk footing. The presence of the 11th-12th-c pits confirms that the area within the Roman fort was occupied at this time, documentary records suggesting that a Saxon palace was established in the area.
20-21 Wormwood Street, EC3 TQ 3318 8145 MOLAS (J Pilkington) watching brief Mar-Apr 1996 Haselmere Estates WOM94
Tiles from the demolished Roman City Wall, which originally ran through the site and the line of which remains a Scheduled Ancient Monument, were recovered from amongst several finds - mostly residual objects in 17th or 18th-c contexts and including late 1st- and early 2nd-c pottery. The tiles derived from various sources and some were reused roof tiles. A small section of the 17th-c City Ditch was recorded and a 17th-c well and brick cesspit, as well as earlier cesspits. 18th-c building rubble filled other holes associated with piling and the excavation of ground beams.
Home Farm, Addington Palace Golf Club, Addington Village Road, Addington, Surrey TQ 3701 6397 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Jan 1996 Addington Palace Golf Club Ltd HMF96
The upper surface of the natural chalk appeared to have been truncated, probably during the post-medieval period when the site was part of a working farm. Above lay redeposited material.
42-46 Bramley Hill, South Croydon, Surrey TQ 3192 6433 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation July Ashbourne Homes plc BMY96
Natural clay with flints was overlaid by topsoil which contained burnt flint and post-medieval pottery.
Canterbury Road, Mitcham Road (junction), Croydon, Surrey TQ 3090 6681 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation Aug 1996 Inmap 2000 (UK) Ltd CTB96
Subsoil above the natural brickearth contained worked and burnt flint and some post-medieval pottery; it was truncated by modern features. Ploughmarks were noted in the brickearth and confirm the lack of development the site until the 20th c.
190-218 Gloucester Road, Selhurst, Surrey TQ 3306 6720 MOLAS (David Saxby) evaluation Oct 1996 Quintonglen Ltd GLR96
Modern topsoil generally overlay the natural sand or sandy clay with gravel but in the centre of the site it had been cut by a pit, possibly for gravel or brickearth extraction, in the 18th or 19th c. Above its infill a surface of stone sets and associated drains probably represented the remains of a cow or pig shed dating to the 19th c. Topsoil sealed the slabs.
The Methodist Church (land adjacent), Limpsfield Road, Sanderstead, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3434 6053 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation Feb 1996 The Cheshire Foundation Housing Association LPR96
Cutting into the natural clay and flint were a number of linear features and pits, the latter containing burnt materials and pure clay. Two of these features contained late Iron Age pottery, a date consistent with the known Late Iron Age - early Romano-British activity in the area.
Mayday University Hospital, New Energy Centre, Mayday Road, Thorton Heath, Surrey TQ 3149 6739 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation July 1996 Mayday Healthcare NHS Trust MDY96
Modern levelling and made-ground overlay the natural.
145-147 North End, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3214 6597 MOLAS (G Potter) evaluation Jan-Mar 1996 Crest Nicholson Properties NOE96
Features related to mid-19th-c and subsequent development of the site were recorded above the natural gravels
68-74 Park Lane, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3255 6514 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) excavation Mar 1996 Croydon Properties Ltd PLN95
A layer of colluvium above the natural gravel sealed prehistoric cut features: two pits, a posthole and a linear cut, which are broadly dated from the Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age. They were sealed by the possible remains of a cultivated soil containing Roman and medieval material. At the N end of the trench a medieval gravel extraction pit was recorded, followed by a further cultivated soil into which 18th-19th-c wall footings had been set; the site was then sealed with modern make-up.
3-7 Park Street, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3239 6540 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation Feb 1996 (Pat Miller) excavation May 1996 watching brief June 1996 Bass Taverns Ltd PKT96
A cultivated soil above natural gravels on the W side of the site contained a quantity of Late Iron Age pottery, worked flints and burnt bone. On the E side of the site the gravels were cut by two, possibly Roman, parallel linear features, one of which contained 1st-2nd-c pottery and may have been a boundary ditch. Roman material was also recovered from a deposit on the W side of the site. The site subsequently developed a ploughsoil, indicating open land, and several pits were cut from which medieval or early post-medieval material was recovered. One at least of these may have been for gravel extraction. This form of land use appears to have continued until the 18th or 19th c when the site was first built up, evidenced by the remains of footings for a property wall, pits and a packed chalk surface, probably a yard surface.
Pollard’s Hill Recreation Ground, Pollards Hill, SW16 TQ 3040 6870 MOLAS (Peter Thompson) watching brief Aug 1996 London Borough of Croydon PHG96
Above the natural clay lay a garden soil containing late 18th- and 19th-c pottery. A series of low banks are visible on the site - these have been interpreted as an earthwork - but testpits close to the banks encountered no evidence for ditches or deep quarrying, implying very limited activity or occupation on the site.
St Thomas Moore School, Russell Hill, Purley, Surrey TQ 3108 6222 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation July 1996 Metropolitan Police RSH96
Above the natural Chalk lay the subsoil which seems to have been truncated during the construction of the school in the 19th c.
The Drummond Centre (Phase II), Tamworth Road, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3216 6584 MOLAS (John Taylor) evaluation July 1996 St Martins Property Corporation Ltd TAM96
Prehistoric flints were recovered from three cut features in the natural gravels on the E side of the site, and from the subsoil. These were overlaid by modern overburden. Elsewhere the subsoil was cut by modern features or undated tree pits. In one of the trenches the remains of a Victorian brick building were located: one of its walls was supported on uncoursed greensand blocks.
Rutland Works, Vulcan Way, New Addington, Surrey TQ 3922 6231 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) watching brief Feb-Mar 1996 Thompsons (UK) Ltd VCW96
Natural clay with flints was covered by made ground in the N of the site and in the S it had been terraced.
Belvue Park, Ealing Road, Northolt, Middx TQ 1335 8397 MOLAS (David Lakin) evaluation Nov 1996 London Borough of Ealing BPN96
Natural clay was cut by a pit containing prehistoric and Roman material; a struck flint was also recovered from nearby topsoil.
3 Islip Manor Road, Northolt, Middx TQ 1272 8454 MOLAS (Mark Wiggins) watching brief Oct 1996 AJ Knight IMR96
Ploughsoil over natural clay was sealed by modern topsoil.
Meridian Point, Glover Drive, Meridian Way, N18 TQ 3550 9180 MOLAS (David Bowsher) evaluation Apr-June 1996 Thorn EMI Properties Ltd GDE96
The natural gravel falls from the W to the E and defines the limits of a buried river channel of the River Lea. On the E side of the site the gravel was overlaid by a thick peat and organic clay sequence which represents a period sufficiently stable for vegetation to develop and take hold in aquatic conditions. This was succeeded by a series of fluvial or alluvial deposits, demonstrating that the water level rose and/or the flow increased and the marshy peat bog was flooded. Radiocarbon dating of the peat produced dates of 7750+/- 80 BP and 10450+/- 80 BP, the end of the last Glacial phase until well into the Mesolithic period. A thin alluvial deposit sealed the natural brickearth on the W side of the site, a similar deposit having been recorded to the N (LA 7 no 13 (1993) GWE92). From this deposit 120 struck flints and a quantity of burnt flint was recovered. The raw material consists of Lea Valley gravel pebbles and has an early Mesolithic component, including two microliths dated to 8,300 - 7,800 calibrated BC, but there may be elements that date to later prehistoric periods. It appears to have undergone some secondary disturbance possibly from occupation around a low bank within the Lea Valley river system or from the fringes of a ‘site’ located further to the W on higher ground.
Glover Drive (former lorry park), Meridian Way, N18 TQ 3524 9178 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) evaluation Sept 1996 Redbourn Group plc GLO96
Evaluation work confirmed that the site lies on the boundary between the alluvium and peat deposits in the floodplain of the River Lea and the higher brickearth deposits on the E side of the site. Natural gravels fall from E-W and may define the limits of a buried channel or large buried pond. The peat was only apparent in one of the trenches. A small amount of struck flint from the later prehistoric period was recovered from the interface between the alluvial deposit and the brickearth or gravel below.
Edmonton Lower School, Little Bury Street, N9 TQ 3306 9442 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) watching brief Jan 1996 Elliott Medway Construction (Northern) Ltd EDS96
Above the natural gravels were a brick wall, of late 19th or 20th c date, and modern services and made-ground.
Ponder’s End Mill, Wharf Road, Enfield TQ 3630 9550 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) evaluation Feb-Mar 1996 RG Wright & Sons Ltd WHF96
The earliest recorded deposit was a probable naturally created riverside bank of clay, the location of which suggests that the River Lea followed a more westerly course than it does today. Alluvial and dumped deposits overlay this bank. In a second trench modern alluvial deposits overlay a metalled surface.
FULHAM AND HAMMERSMITH
Petrofina Wharf, Carnwath Road, SW6 TQ 2541 7556 MOLAS (Steve Tucker) evaluation June 1996 Berkley Homes (Thames Valley) Ltd and Network Housing Association Ltd CNR96
A possible buried soil horizon survived above the natural gravels and, in one area, was overlaid by another soil horizon which appeared to infill a pit containing fire-cracked flint fragments, possibly suggesting prehistoric activity in the area. These were overlaid by alluvial and peaty deposits - having accumulated over a long period of time - and sealed by modern made-ground.
5-15 Galena Road, SW6 TQ 2283 7864 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) evaluation Nov 1996 and excavation Jan 1997 Bellway Homes (N London) GAN96
A large E-W ditch cut into the surface of the natural brickearth: pottery from the fill is dated to the prehistoric period, although it is possible that the ditch is associated with the Roman London to Silchester road. Post-medieval garden features also cut into the brickearth, above which a cobbled surface had been laid, with modern surfacing above.
St Mark’s School, Ackmar Road, SW6 TQ 2515 7671 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) evaluation Jan 1996 The Shepherds Bush Housing Association SMO96
Above the natural gravels were late 19th - early 20th-c pits, services and a wall foundation, overlaid by a make-up dumps.
Gallions Reach Urban Village, Merbury Road, Whinchat Road, SE28 TQ 450 800 MOLAS (Graham Spurr) evaluation Nov 1996 Thamesmead Town GAT96
Above the natural gravels were sands and sandy silts, succeeded by thick deposits of peat associated with the Tilbury III marine regression, which caused a fall in sea and river levels. It is dated to c.6150 BP, the Neolithic period. Environmental evidence indicates alder growing on a wet floodplain habitat, with mixed deciduous forest on the higher ground; the climate is considered to have been warmer than today’s. The peat continued to develop untilc.2540 BP, the Bronze Age, and from its upper layers there is evidence for both Elm and Lime decline and for cereal production. Silty clays sealed the peat and represent Thames III and IV transgressions when sea and river levels rose; they are dated toc.3000 BP. The clays were truncated by construction of the Woolwich Arsenal, demolished in the 1970s and 80s.
53 Norman Road, SE10 TQ 3782 7739 MOLAS (Portia Askew) watching brief Nov-Dec 1996 Greenwich House Properties Ltd NRG96
Natural gravels were overlaid by a river silt, interpreted as a floodplain deposit from Deptford Creek. Above this was a reclamation dump, followed by a thick agricultural soil. The agricultural use of the site is documented from the 18th c and it continued until engineering works were constructed some time in the 1860s; these were demolished recently.
The National Maritime Museum, Romney Road, SE10 TQ 3865 7771 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Apr and Nov 1996 The National Maritime Museum NMT96
Two trenches across the main lawn revealed fragmentary walls of possible 17th c date and an 18th-c wall to the SW. To the N much disturbance had occurred during the construction of the railway but some Tudor and 17th-c material, and the corner of the 19th-c gatehouse was found at the E end. A short trench to the rear of the buildings revealed 19th-c walls identified with a swimming pool and latrine blocks belonging to the Greenwich Hospital School.
Neptune Hall, National Maritime Museum, Romney Road, SE10 TQ 3860 7766 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Oct 1996 National Maritime Museum NPH96
Two trenches within the Hall revealed natural gravels overlaid by the silts of a former topsoil; it contained material dated to 18th-19th c. Above the topsoil lay a mortar or plaster surface that seems to have predated the 1873 construction of the Hall and was probably connected with the former use of the site as a gymnastics ground. A third trench to the E of the Hall revealed a wall which is likely to have been associated with outbuildings depicted on a site plan of 1844.
Port Greenwich Millenium Site, Area A adjacent to Blackwall Lane, SE10 TQ 3890 8010 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Dec 1996 Port Greenwich Ltd PGM96
Above the natural gravels was a fluctuating sequence of fluvial deposits representing differing rises and falls in sea level.
1-2, 38-47 Simnel Road, SE12 TQ 4071 7390 MOLAS (Pat Miller) evaluation Mar 1996 Mount Anvil Construction Ltd SRL96
Land drains and pits of 19th-20th c date cut the natural clay and flint and were overlaid by topsoil.
8 Wilmount Street, SE18 TQ 4369 7869 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Mar 1996 Fournier Construction Ltd WMS96
The brickearth subsoils contained residual 10th/11th and 13th-c pottery. They were cut by a 16th-c posthole, above which were a number of 19th-c dumps.
Geffrye Museum, Kingsland Road, E2 TQ 3353 8309 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation Feb 1996 Geffrye Museum GMK93
Natural brickearth was cut by several post-medieval features, including large pits, which were sealed by an agricultural or horticultural soil. Further features cut this soil before being covered by a 19th-c levelling deposit
108-122 Shacklewell Lane, E8 TQ 3396 8555 MOLAS (Nick Holder) watching brief Apr 1996 The New Islington and Hackney Housing Association SKL95
Natural brickearth was cut by a medieval ditch, a continuation of that excavated in the evaluation (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 10). An 18th-c well, contemporary with a yard surface and drain located in the evaluation, was recorded.
27-37 Well Street, E9 TQ 3506 8422 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation June-July 1996 Lidl UK Properties GmbH WLL96
Natural gravel and brickearth was cut by gravel extraction pits and then by garden features.
Highgate Woods, bounded by Archway, N10 TQ 2828 8838 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) watching brief July 1996 Corporation of London HWO96
Natural clay was overlaid by topsoil though in one area a Victorian posthole and gully were noted. WC
Romford Town redevelopment, South Street, Romford, Essex TQ 5136 8858 MOLAS (M Dunkley) watching brief Aug-Nov 1996 Building Design Partnership for London Borough of Havering SUH96
Alluvial deposits of the River Rom were cut by a 16th- or 17th-c ditch which ran parallel with South Street, possibly its associated drainage gully. The ditch and the rest of the site were covered in modern made-ground.
450, 422-56 Bath Road, Longford, West Drayton, Middx TQ 0540 7700 MOLAS (John Taylor) evaluation Oct 1996 Sheridan Estates Ltd BAO96
Natural brickearth was cut by several pits dating to the post-medieval to modern periods.
120-138 Bath Road, Harlington, Hayes, Middx TQ 0855 7700 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) evaluation Dec 1996 Laing Eastern Ltd BTD96
A fragment of Late Bronze Age pottery and a flint blade fragment were recovered from the surface of the natural brickearth. This was cut by an undated ditch, sealed by a layer of sub or ploughsoil. At the S or Bath Road end of the site were a number of foundations and a floor slab.
Blunt’s Field, Blunt’s Ave, Sipson, West Drayton, Middx TQ 0721 7697 MOLAS (Steve Chew) evaluation Mar 1996 Cornwall Gardens Pte BTF96
Subsoil above the natural brickearth contained two sherds of Roman pottery.
St Martin’s Church, Church Road, West Drayton, Middx TQ 0616 7955 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) watching brief Jan-Feb 1996 The Parochial Church Council St Martin’s Church MWD96
This church has a medieval or earlier foundation date and was incorporated within a manorial holding until the late 18th c; brick enclosure walls and a gate house still mark the site of the manor. An E-W Tudor brick wall was located in the watching brief and identified as the wall enclosing a ‘brew house yard’. Flint waste flakes were also recovered and may indicate prehistoric activity on the site.
Colham Mill Road, West Drayton, Middx TQ 0569 8006 MOLAS (Heather Knight) evaluation Mar 1996 excavation June 1996 Acton Housing Association CMR96
Two wattle-lined pits, separated by a line of wattlework, were cut into the natural gravels; they are dated to the late Saxon to early medieval period. Above lay an organic deposit indicative of marshy ground which is dated to the 10th or 11th c. A gravel track was laid on this but was sealed by an alluvial deposit, suggesting that flooding lead to its disuse. The alluvium was covered by a buried topsoil with modern make-up above.
Cowley Retail Park, High Road, Cowley, Middx TQ 0570 8085 MOLAS (Heather Knight) evaluation Mar 1996 JF Finnegan Ltd HRY96
Alluvial clays and the remains of truncated stream channels were recorded, indicating evidence of the River Pinn. Burnt flints were recovered from the alluvial clays, suggesting that there may have been prehistoric activity in the area.
Cowley Business Park, High Street, Cowley, Uxbridge, Middx TQ 051 828 MOLAS (Heather Knight) watching brief Oct-Nov 1996 Kyle Stewart Ltd CBP96
Natural deposits of organic gravels and silts were recorded; these indicate that there was a stream channel running NE-SW across the area, but there is no date for its silting up.
High St (rear), Uxbridge, Middx TQ 1737 7724 MOLAS (Heather Knight) excavation Sept 1996 Sun Alliance Group Properties HSU96
In one area of the site a gully, which appears to have been part of a Bronze Age field enclosure, was excavated. Post-medieval features and dumps were also recorded and are consistent with the area being open ground until the 18th and 19th c, when a number of substantial houses, including The Lawns and The Shrubbery, were built in the early 19th c: wells and domestic features found on the site may have been associated with these houses. Near The Lawns, a wide, deep feature, possibly a ditch or pond, was located; it contained a range of finds dating from the 17th - 19th c. In another area of the site, to the rear of the High Street, there was evidence for a range of activities taking place behind properties fronting the High Street in the medieval period. Three burgage plots have been identified, laid out in the 12th - 13th c and apparently from W-E. The central plot contained the remains of what appears to have been the base of a 13th-c updraught kiln which was dismantled, possibly in the 14th c.
Heathrow Airport Car Park, Sanctuary Road, West Bedfont, Middx TQ 0725 7420 MOLAS (Peter Durnford) watching brief Feb 1996 Heathrow Airport Ltd SNC96
Natural gravels, overlaid in places by patches of brickearth, were sealed by topsoil.
Imperial College Sports Ground, Sipson Lane, Harlington, Middx TQ 0804 7768 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad , Heather Knight) evaluation Jan 1996 Henry Streeter Ltd IMP96
Natural brickearth was cut by enclosure ditches, pits and postholes which ranged in date from the Neolithic to Roman periods (4th c). One of the pits contained flint scrapers, flakes and polished axe fragments. Four possible prehistoric cremations were also found, one in an upturned Late Bronze Age ‘bucket urn’.
The Triangle Site, Mondial Way (a new road), Harlington, Middx TQ 0822 7706 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) evaluation Mar 1996 Chase Midland plc MWH96
No archaeological features or artefacts were found.
Site 5 Heathrow Airport Redevelopment (phase 1), Newall Road, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0828 7685 MOLAS (Peter Durnford) evaluation Mar 1996 (Joe Partridge) excavation May-June 1996 Lynton plc NAL96
The natural brickearth was cut by a deep linear feature with a sharply pointed profile which was probably of periglacial origin. It was sealed by an alluvial layer of prehistoric date, possibly Late Bronze Age or Early Iron Age. Post-medieval activity was represented by 17th- or 18th-c quarry pits and late 19th- or early 20th-c bottle dumps.
Nobel Drive, land adjacent to Ibis Hotel, Harlington, Middx TQ 0911 7701 MOLAS (Nicholas Elsden) evaluation Dec 1996 - Jan 1997 Howmac Ltd NDH96
Vestigial traces of brickearth covered the natural gravels. Three ditches, a posthole and a pit constitute evidence of a prehistoric agricultural landscape, probably of Middle or Late Iron Age date. The low concentrations of artefacts, flint waste flakes and a single pot sherd, indicate that this area was probably some distance from any associated occupation site. Tree extraction holes provided evidence of forest clearance at an undefined time, probably in prehistory.
Perry Oaks Sludge Works, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0550 7580 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) excavation Apr-Oct 1996 BAA plc POK96
The Neolithic Stanwell Cursus, known from crop marks and previous fieldwork to cross this site, consists of two parallel ditches, 20m apart. The cursus was preceded by two intermittent lines of posts which might have marked an earlier processional route through the landscape. Evidence from the excavation indicated that the ditches lined a central raised bank or causeway, rather than having been flanked by two external banks, as had been thought previously. No dating evidence was recovered from the primary fills of the cursus, and material from the later fills suggested that it finally silted up in the Middle Bronze Age. An extensive Middle Bronze Age field system was located, including enclosures and droveways; an area of occupation was also identified by an increased density of pottery. Other features included wells and cooking pits. A well and two ditches of Roman date were excavated; charred cereal grain was recovered from one of the ditches.
Cargo Terminal Fuel Tanks, Sandringham Road, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0592 7478 MOLAS (Nicholas Elsden) watching brief Jan 1996 Air BP Ltd SDG96
Natural brickearth was covered by modern topsoil and service trenches; there was no evidence of activity on the site before the 20th c.
Terminal 4 Fuel Pipeline, land N of X-ray Stands/Cargo Terminal, Southampton Road, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0648 7495 MOLAS (Simon Mason) watching brief Jan-Feb 1996 Air BP Ltd SRH96
Topsoil overlay the natural brickearth.
St Dunstan’s Church, Cranford Park, Cranford, Hounslow, Middx TQ 1016 7818 MOLAS (Mark Wiggins) watching brief Feb-Mar 1996 Parochial Church Council of St Dunstan’s Church STD96
The earliest deposit recorded was a subsoil which contained medieval and post-medieval material dating from 1230 - 1650, suggesting that it had been frequently disturbed by the various rebuilding phases of the church. Several parts of the foundations of the church were also recorded, including probably reused greensand blocks in the foundation of the 18th-c nave.
Wall Garden Farm, Sipson Lane, Harlington, Middx TQ 0750 7810 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad, Heather Knight) evaluation Apr 1996 Henry Streeter (Sand & Ballast) Ltd WGD95
Further evaluations followed those of 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 12). The natural brickearth was covered by topsoil and cut by an undated ditch and a post-medieval brick lined well. Several fragments of re-deposited burnt and struck flints were found in the vicinity of the evaluation trenches.
Wessex Road (North), Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0560 7620 MOLAS (Nicholas Elsden, Stewart Hoad) evaluation Feb 1996 BAA plc WXE96
At least two phases of prehistoric enclosure or boundary ditches were recorded cutting the natural brickearth. Two of these ditches may have formed part of a double-ditched enclosure, possibly with circular, interrupted ditches; they may date from the Middle Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age. Loom weight fragments and a hearth suggest occupation in the vicinity. Other features include a series of pits, postholes and stakeholes, and amongst the artefacts recovered were pottery of Bronze or Iron Age date, worked flints and a green glass or faience bead. Most, perhaps all, features from this site predate the earliest Iron Age activity observed on the site of the northern runway in 1969.
Wessex Road (South), Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0533 7535 MOLAS (Nicholas Elsden) evaluation Feb-Mar 1996 BAA plc WXB96
The natural gravels and brickearth were cut by a number of minor boundary or drainage ditches with a possible major boundary ditch on the E side: these constitute an extensive field system, probably of Middle Bronze Age date, and forming an extension to a known crop mark. The paucity of artefacts suggests that this field system lay at some distance from any associated occupation. In the W of the site a single ditch is dated to the late 12th or 13th c. The former courses of the artificial Longford and Duke of Northumberland’s rivers were also located: these are dated to the 16th and 17th c respectively and correspond with those indicated by 18th- and 19th-c cartographic sources. A number of palaeochannels indicated the presence of other watercourses in this area, some of which probably date to the 18th c or later.
Wessex Road (South-East), Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0605 7536 MOLAS (Nicholas Elsden) evaluation Mar 1996 BAA plc WXC96
The corner of an enclosure or boundary ditch, an associated posthole, and a ‘cooking pit’ were recorded cutting into the natural gravels and brickearth: they are interpreted as part of a single phase of Middle Bronze Age occupation. All the features contained pottery, burnt flint and charcoal. Ploughing and the construction of Heathrow Airport had truncated any other features.
Perry Oaks Sludge Works, Western Perimeter Road, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0565 7563 MOLAS (Stewart Hoad) evaluation Feb 1996 BAA plc and Heathrow Airports Ltd WXA96
At the W end of the site, boundary or field ditches were recorded, one of which was probably of Iron Age or Roman date. Post-medieval plough marks, indicating agricultural activity, were also observed. To the SE of the site, two postholes and a pit were recorded. Ploughing or construction of the Sludge Works had removed all other features. Artefacts recovered range in date from prehistoric or Roman periods onwards.
Hounslow Police Station, Montague Road, Hounslow, Middx TQ 1373 7573 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) excavation Apr-May 1995 Metropolitan Police Service HPO94
Excavations followed an evaluation (LA 7 no 13 (1995) 342). A number of undated pits or hollows cut into the natural gravel, some of which may have been naturally formed. Above lay deposits dating to the 14th or 15th c and a ditch infilled in the late 15th c: these were probably related to Hounslow Priory (founded c.1200). A clay hearth and an overlying pitched tile hearth also appear to have been contemporaneous, although the latter may date to after the Dissolution. These were overlaid by deposits and cut features, dated to the 17th and 18th c and associated with the Tudor mansion of Hounslow Manor. A brick wall was identified as part of the E wing of the manor house, added in 1711; most of this wall had been removed by a robber pit, presumably dug when the house was demolished in the early 19th c.
Ham Wharf, The Ham, Brentford, Middx TQ 1737 7724 MOLAS (Heather Knight) evaluation Jan-Feb 1996 Notting Hill Home Ownership Ltd HWB96
Alluvial and gravel deposits, one of which contained Roman pottery, were overlaid by post-medieval dumps and the remains of masonry, cesspits and a well belonging to Victorian dwellings.
130-146 Twickenham Road, Isleworth, Middx TQ 1619 7569 MOLAS (S Tucker) evaluation June 1996 The Notting Hill Housing Trust TRI96
Subsoil over natural sandy silt contained post-medieval pottery of the 17th - 19th c. At the W end of the site it was truncated by possible late 18th- and 19th-c brick footings of buildings.
St Luke’s Estate, Bath Street, EC1 TQ 3258 8256 MOLAS (Adrian Miles) watching brief July-Aug 1996 London Borough of Islington/ Metropolitan Police BAH96
Natural was not observed but post-medieval walls and human remains were recorded. One of the walls, to the SW, was probably a boundary wall for the cemetery of St Luke’s poor burial ground. Another, in the N, was part of the 19th-c houses that occupied the W end of Baldwin Street, and one wall probably related to the almshouses that were located in this area, fronting onto Bath Street.
Northampton Hall, 25-32 Chiswell Street, EC1 TQ 3257 8199 MOLAS (I Grainger) evaluation Feb-Mar 1996 City University CSU96
Gravel extraction pits, of probable Roman date, were cut into the natural gravels. These were followed by others dated to the 15th c and the lower fills of which contained large amounts of waste from leather, bone, antler and horn working. One of these pits was sealed by levelling of 15th-16th-c date, succeeded by dumps or garden deposits and pits dated to the 17th c. A cobbled surface above these was probably associated with a documented cooperage of 18th-c origin. It was cut by a brick-lined well of 18th-19th-c date.
94-100 Clerkenwell Road, EC1 TQ 3160 8213 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation Nov-Dec 1996 Texaco Ltd TCR96
The area to the E of the site appears to have lain within the inner precinct of the mid-12th c Priory of St John. Activity in the early medieval period seems to have been confined to dumping and pitting; by the late medieval period a structure had been built which was not demolished until the late 17th c at the earliest. In another testpit, quarry pits cut the natural and these were succeeded by domestic rubbish pits of late medieval date.
129-139 Finsbury Pavement, EC1 TQ 3277 8175 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation Oct 1996 Norwich Union Investment Management FIS96
Cut features and brick wall foundations, dating from early medieval period to the present day, were found above natural brickearth. Residual late prehistoric and Roman pottery was recovered from the early medieval features and indicated earlier occupation in the area.
New Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, Gaskin Street, Islington Green, N1 TQ 3172 8373 MOLAS (Adrian Miles) watching brief Apr 1996 - Mar 1997 Groveworld Ltd IGN96
The watching brief consisted of monitoring the commercial clearance of the New Bunhill Fields burial ground to identify any patterns present and to collect any surviving coffin furniture. Exceptional preservation led to the collection of 1450 coffin plates: these form a unique collection from London, possibly the entire country, of 19th-c material from an extra-mural cemetery (rather than a vault).
New River Walk, Willow Bridge to Canonbury Road, N1 TQ 3208 8434 MOLAS (Adrian Miles) watching brief Oct-Nov 1996 London Borough of Islington NRW96
The replacement of the wooden revetting on both banks of the river was observed. All the timber was part of the same build and was of modern date; no evidence of the original banks of the New River was revealed as the present river edges were made up almost entirely of tree and shrub roots.
St Luke’s Church, Old Street, EC1 TQ 3232 8242 MOLAS (R Brown) watching brief Sept 1996 Levitt Bernstein Associates SLU96
In two of five testpits situated against the external walls of the church (designed by Hawksmoor and James, dedicated 1733), the stepped brick foundations of the church were constructed on a compact, possibly contemporary, layer of stone rubble; this was the earliest recorded deposit. Above, and in all the other testpits, was a sequence of silty deposits overlaid by rubble: these may represent backfill of construction trenches for the foundations, or they may have been dumped later. On the S side of the church, near its E end, the foundations had been re-built and underpinned, and a stock brick wall - showing signs of subsidence - constructed as part of a lightwell for the crypt. The deposits in two of the testpits had been cut by the insertion of brick walls, probably of burial vaults; one of these had been disturbed in the 19th or early 20th c, presumably in order to carry out remedial works. Burials were encountered towards the outer edges of the testpits.
70-88 Pentonville Road, N1 TQ 3115 8315 MOLAS (K Heard) evaluation Jan-Feb 1996 Furlong Homes plc PVL96
In the N and W parts of the site, the natural gravels were sealed by post-medieval deposits of late 17th - early 18th c date. These were succeeded by dumps and garden soils of late 18th - 19th-c date and the remains of Georgian houses and property boundaries. Considerable truncation had also occurred through 19th- and 20th-c disturbance.
99 St John Street, EC1 TQ 3176 8206 MOLAS (G Malcolm) watching brief Feb 1996 Harbutt Paul SJT96
A small amount of excavation and recording work was undertaken during the refurbishment of the basement of this building which is in the Outer Precinct of the mid-12th-c St John’s Priory. A brick-lined well of 16th-c date was excavated to a depth of 3m and some fills from a medieval cesspit were sampled. The well was probably in the garden of a property that once belonged to Thomas Docwra, Prior of the Order of St John in England and responsible for much rebuilding work in the priory.
5-7 Singer Street, EC2 TQ 3294 8248 MOLAS (Nick Holder) watching brief Mar 1996 Overcourt Ltd SIG95
Natural brickearth was truncated by the construction of the standing building but the presence of charcoal and tile flecks in its upper surface suggested that it had been a post-medieval land surface.
61-62 Cheyne Walk, SW3 TQ 2710 7762 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) evaluation, excavation and watching brief Nov-Dec 1996 Berkeley Homes (Thames Valley) Ltd CHY96
Prehistoric material and Roman pottery were found within fills of later features. Above the natural brickearth were early medieval deposits and cut features, including pits, postholes, a ditch and possible bedding trenches and a beam slot. Most of these are dated to the late 11th-12th c, with some dated to the 13th-14th c. The central part of the site was then truncated for the insertion of a cellar, constructed of roughly squared chalk blocks, and dated to the 15th c or later. Contemporary and later rubbish and sand extraction pits were recorded and also brick walls and a cesspit of 17th-18th-c date.
Royal Brompton Hospital (North Block), Fulham Road, SW3 TQ 2686 7850 MOLAS (Portia Askew) evaluation Sept 1996 London Residential Ltd RBH96
A buried soil above the natural brickearth was overlaid by a late post-medieval dump of mortar to terrace the land or to aid drainage. This was sealed by levelling and garden soil and finally the modern surface.
Russell Road (W side), W14 TQ 2440 7920 MOLAS (Bruno Barber) watching brief Nov 1996 Barratt London Ltd RSL96
Natural gravels had been truncated over most of the site though brickearth - with modern overburden - survived to the E.
16 Acre Road, Kingston, Surrey TQ 1835 6978 MOLAS (C Pickard) evaluation Dec 1996 Milford Homes Ltd ACR96
Natural brickearth was overlaid by garden or plough soil and cut by 20th-c building construction. Two Anderson shelter foundations were also recorded.
Borax Research (former), Cox Lane, Chessington, Surrey TQ 1907 6463 MOLAS (Mark Birley) evaluation May 1996 Ideal Hardware plc COX96
A scatter of Mesolithic worked flints and a quantity of burnt flints, as well as a single sherd of Iron Age pottery, were found in topsoil overlying natural clay where they had rolled down a slope which rose beyond the SE corner of the site. The struck flint included an end scraper, Petit Tranchet arrowhead, and a utilised fragment from a possible tranchet axe.
Manor Farm Buildings, Church Road, Worcester Park, Surrey TQ 2113 6628 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) excavation May-June 1996 Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames MAF95
Excavations followed an evaluation in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 14). Mesolithic or later flint tools and waste material were recovered from the overburden and may represent the earliest activity on the site. They included two adzes, apparently deliberately placed in a Middle Iron Age pit. A concentration of Early - Middle Iron Age features cut into the London Clay in the NW of the site; they consisted of rubbish and storage pits and postholes, the latter possibly representing a structure. From them were recovered considerable quantities of pottery, animal bone, burnt daub and baked clay loomweights. Romano-British features consisted of land boundaries or drainage ditches and a few pits. One of the ditches in the S corner of the site, more substantial than the rest, may delineate a settlement boundary; such a suggestion is supported by the presence of a large assemblage of unabraded pottery, some representing large fragments of single vessels, and a fragment of sandstone quern. A field boundary ditch of early medieval date, essentially aligned with the present NW boundary of the site, was the only post-Roman feature of note. This alignment persisted into the post-medieval period, implying that the site remained in agricultural usage until the construction of Manor Farm Buildings fromc.1855 onwards.
Kingston Guildhall, Magistrates’ Court Extension, High Street, Kingston, Surrey TQ 1795 6915 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation Mar-Apr 1996 Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames KGM95
A watching brief in 1995 preceded an evaluation (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 14). Natural brickearth in the S of the site was overlaid by a cultivated soil but more generally by an alluvial deposit. In the NE of the site the alluvium was cut by a drainage ditch which was filled, also with alluvium, in the early medieval period. Succeeding this was a possible well and a flint wall footing. Towards the E of the site a wall, of apparent Tudor date, had been built directly onto the alluvium; to its W was a possible surface. The alluvium was cut, in the N of the site, by a large ditch, sealed by a dump deposit; above this a brick wall, of 18th- or 19th-c date, had been constructed on a foundation of reused, faced limestone and chalk blocks.
Lower Marsh Lane (N side), Lower Marsh Road, Kingston, Surrey TQ 1886 6834 MOLAS (Carrie Cowan) evaluation Nov 1996 Moat Housing Society Ltd LML96
Late post-medieval alluvial deposits, probably derived from flooding of the nearby Hogsmill river and associated tributaries, overlay the natural gravel. The channel of one such tributary was found cutting into the alluvium. Above the alluvium was a land reclamation dump, in the uppermost layers of which was a piece of moulded stone, probably from an ecclesiastical building .
Birchmoor, Warren Cutting, Kingston Hill, Surrey TQ 2070 7040 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Sept 1996 Mr M Edward WEN96
A ditch, probably of Bronze Age date, cut through the natural gravels. One possible flint flake was found.
103 Broomgrove Road (rear), Stockwell Road, SW9 TQ 3082 7603 MOLAS (Portia Askew) watching brief July 1996 McCarthy Design & Build Ltd BMG96
Garden soil, containing Victorian pottery, overlay natural brickearth.
51-57 Effra Road, SW2 TQ 3115 7490 MOLAS (Portia Askew) evaluation Oct 1996 Zedprime Ltd EFA96
Natural clay and gravel was overlaid by a redeposited soil mixed with 19th-c rubble. The remains of a late 19th- or early 20th-c foundation wall were recorded in one trench.
4-20 North Street, SW4 TQ 2917 7595 MOLAS (David Saxby) evaluation Nov 1996 Delta Mitre Ltd NTS96
Natural gravels were cut by post-medieval features associated with domestic buildings, including a 17th-c cesspit, an 18th-c ditch and wall and a cesspit and drain dating to the 19th c.
Oxo Tower, Old Barge House Alley, SE1 TQ 3132 8050 MOLAS (Geoff Potter) watching brief May-June 1996 Harvey Nicols Restaurant Ltd OBH96
The earliest recorded deposit was infill, containing 16th-c material, of a large drainage channel which flowed into the Thames. Apparently of medieval origin, this drainage channel is shown on a number of 16th- and early 17th-c plans; thereafter it appears to have gone out of use, although until recently its approximate line was marked by Old Barge House Alley. The site was then substantially truncated by 19th-c and subsequent development.
River Thames Dredging (Flood Mitigation 3), Hungerford Bridge - adjacent to S side, SE1 TQ 306 802 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief May 1996 London Underground Ltd TDR96
Material dredged from the River Thames near Hungerford Bridge was redeposited on the Isle of Sheppey where it was examined for archaeological material. Most of the material proved to be modern with only one or two pieces of very abraded earlier pottery.
St Anne’s Primary School, Harleyford Road, SE11 TQ 3068 7796 MOLAS (Pat Miller) evaluation Feb 1996 St Anne’s RC School SAP96
Prehistoric waste flakes and a sherd of an Early Bronze Age collared urn were recovered from the top of the natural brickearth and gravel, and from a later pit. The natural brickearth or subsoil was sealed by garden soil of 18th - 19th-c date and cut by domestic rubbish pits or garden features associated with the yard areas or tenements that previously existed along the E frontage of the site.
Thames Foreshore, Jubilee Gardens (opposite, on foreshore), SE1 TQ 3054 8027 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation Apr 1996 London Underground Ltd TFJ96
Examination of small trial holes along a measured grid indicated that post-medieval aggregation overlay alluvial silts of possible medieval date.
79-81b Vauxhall Walk, SE11 TQ 3062 7843 MOLAS (Pat Miller) evaluation May 1996 CLSH Management Ltd VXH96
A number of 18th- and 19th-c pits and a probable robbed out wall cut the natural sand; some residual prehistoric flintwork was retrieved from one of these pits. They were overlaid by post-medieval garden or ploughsoil which generally contained 18th- and 19th-c material. Natural sand was truncated to the N by large ragstone and brick footings which related to the 19th-c school buildings that had occupied the site, and by the brick floor of a cellar which probably belonged to a tenement shown on the 1871 OS map.
126-156 Westminster Bridge Road, SE1 TQ 3109 7953 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) excavation Apr 1996 Bellway Homes (South East) WBG96
River alluvium was cut by a possible prehistoric or Roman ditch, recorded in the E corner of the site, and from which a single Roman pot sherd, burnt flint and waste flakes were recovered. The upper fill was truncated by the foundation of a post-medieval wall which virtually followed the same course as the ditch, possibly because they marked a property boundary. The sandy subsoil was cut by a number of pits which contained post-medieval material; above lay garden soil in the backs of the properties that once occupied the site. Two brick-lined wells were recorded to the W and E of the site.
Lewisham Methodist Church, Albion Way, SE13 TQ 3845 7535 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation June 1996 Stoners Buildings Ltd ANW96
Natural gravel was covered by modern make-up or demolition debris probably resulting from wartime bomb damage.
47 Deptford Broadway, SE8 TQ 3720 7695 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) Standing Structure Survey May 1996 Mr H Liu DFB96
The front elevation of this four storey brick building was recorded. The earliest phase probably dates to the second half of the 17th c and is represented by brickwork and a window which occupied the majority of the first floor elevation. The window was blocked in, possibly in the late 17th or early 18th c and a new casement window inserted. Probably during the first half of the 18th c the upper floors - if they existed - were rebuilt and a new sash window was built; this window is part of the upper build of the wall which has projecting tile and stone courses on either side of a brick section for a parapet.
DLR Lewisham Extension, Broadway Fields (Trenches 4-5), SE8 TQ 3748 7672 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Oct 1996 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXK96
A sequence of peats and clays overlay the natural gravels; above the lowest peat in one of the trenches was a ‘hollow way’ trackway with associated hoof prints. A worked wooden stake and flints - worked and burnt - were found immediately above. Landfill dumps, dated to the 19th c, sealed the peat and clay sequence which was cut by four ditches, one clearly for drainage towards the River Ravensbourne; another had hoof prints adjacent to it and residual Roman tile fragments at its base.
DLR Lewisham Extension: Ravensbourne Park (rear of Thames Water, Transection A), Brookmill Road and Beck Close, SE8 TQ 3763 7649 MOLAS (Pat Hunter) evaluation July 1996 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXE96
Two augur transects were made at the edge of the contemporary course of the River Ravensbourne to collect environmental samples and locate the position of the palaeochannel. Environmental samples indicated a floodplain alluvial sequence composed of silts and peats; an area of deeper sediments may represent the palaeochannel.
DLR Lewisham Extension: Ravensbourne Park (Transection B), Brookmill Road, SE8 TQ 3768 7637 MOLAS (Pat Hunter) evaluation July 1996 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXF96
Augur borings indicated some waterlaid deposits above the natural gravels, sealed by made-ground.
South Pepys Estate, Grove Street, SE8 TQ 3650 7860 MOLAS (Graham Spurr) evaluation Apr 1996 Willmott Dixon Housing Southern Ltd GVS96
Modern made-ground overlay natural gravels
The Island Site, Plassy Road, SE6 TQ 3781 7363 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Feb and May 1996 Salmon Developments plc PRC96
Natural gravels were cut by a ditch which was sealed by subsoils: it is therefore likely to be prehistoric in date. A 19th-c pit and 19th/20th-c wall footings were recorded in the rest of the trenches.
The Well House, 21 Arthur Road, SW19 TQ 2459 7155 MOLAS (John Taylor) evaluation July-Aug 1996 Mr & Mrs Glastad ARR96
Deposits above the London Clay are considered to derive from land use subsequent to the major landscaping of the early 18th c when the new manor house was constructed to the SE.
Oval Plant site, Byegrove Road, SW19 TQ 2659 7058 MOLAS (Pat Miller) watching brief Aug 1996 Norcliffe Properties Ltd BYE96
Overlying natural gravels were alluvial deposits associated with the River Wandle which forms the W boundary of the site. These were succeeded by soil horizons of probable post-medieval date and which were at times disturbed. Above lay modern made-ground.
Silvertown Urban Village, Barnwood Court, E16 TQ 4040 8035 MOLAS (J Sidell) Geophysical Survey Apr 1996 Lawson-Price Environmental BWC96
Fluvial gravels were overlaid by peat dating to 5,500 - 2, 500 BP, Neolithic - Iron Age periods. Alluvium above the peat is related to marine transgressions since the Iron Age. This was followed by an ephemeral peat of the medieval period, above which lay upcast from the dock excavations of the 1850s.
Butchers Road, E16 TQ 4050 8150 MOLAS/NMS (Sean Tamblyn) evaluation Sept-Oct 1996 Alfred McAlpine Partnership Housing Ltd BUE96
Natural gravels were overlaid by alluvial clay with modern make-up, services and foundations above. In one trench the alluvial clay sealed a layer of peat.
Stratford Freight Terminal (Channel Tunnel Link), S of Temple Mills Lane, E15 TQ 382 847 MOLAS (Tony Thomas) watching brief Jan 1996 Foundation and Exploration Services Ltd for Union Railways Ltd SFT96
Natural gravels were overlaid by alluvial deposits of the River Lea. Most of the site was reclaimed, probably in connection with the railway and other development along the E bank of the Lea in Victorian and Edwardian times.
1 Duck's Walk, Twickenham, Middx TQ 1742 7463 MOLAS (Carrie Cowan) evaluation Apr-May 1996 Cala Management Ltd DUC96
The former gravel foreshore of the River Thames was overlaid by late post-medieval dumped land reclamation.
29 & 31 King Street, Twickenham, Middx TQ 1624 7316 MOLAS (Robert Cowie) evaluation Apr 1996 Hill Samuel Property Services Ltd KST96
Natural brickearth was cut by a late medieval rubbish pit containing 15th-c pottery; other pits appear to have been contemporaneous with Richmond House (built in the late 17th c and occupied until the 1920s) in whose grounds the site lay, and these pits may have been associated with the gardens. The rubble fill of a large pit included bricks dated to between the late 15th c and the mid-17th c: these may have derived from the demolition of the first Richmond House in c.1816.
107 Mortlake High Street, SW14 TQ 2084 7660 MOLAS (Niall Roycroft) evaluation May 1996 excavation July-Aug 1996 Telstar Holdings Ltd MTK96
Natural gravels and overlying sands were cut by a series of boundary or drainage ditches which date from the Late Iron Age to the late Roman period. These were followed by two sunken-featured buildings constructed in c.500, one with an external oven though attached and accessible from the inside. At the top of the oven was a small exit flue. Subsequent alluvial deposition covered the site up to the end of the 16th c. During the 17th c the site was progressively built over, commencing with a revetment, a square building on the Mortlake High Street frontage and large posthole structures, all separated by gravel surfaces. During the 18th c a wharf was constructed, backed by a pottery works (the buildings and kiln were probably those built by William Sanders in 1752), gardens, drains, buildings and road (connecting the High Street with the wharf) successively built over. One of the later 18th-c buildings recorded was a well preserved malthouse (built 1791) which included floors, wall foundations and drainage system. This building occupied the eastern part of the site, fronting the river and was demolished in the mid-19th c. The Sanders pottery moved to Vauxhall in 1827 and subsequently the kiln was demolished or significantly altered. A new building was erected, recorded on the site as intact walls, floors and fixtures (including fireplaces, cookers, a short flight of steps, a toilet and a sink); it had been refurbished in the late 19th - 20th c and showed evidence of metalworking.
Drake’s House, Willoughby Road, Twickenham, Middx TQ 1749 7470 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Feb 1996 Fleetwood Developments Ltd WBY96
Subsoil above natural gravels was overlaid by topsoil that contained 19th-c pottery.
Globe Theatre and Anchor Terrace Car Park, 1-15 Anchor Terrace, SE1 TQ 3235 8035 MOLAS (John Taylor) watching brief Dec 1996 Hollybrook Ltd GLB96
A mid-17th-c wall and floor were recorded in the SE corner of the site.
Benbow House, Bear Gardens, SE1 TQ 3223 8051 MOLAS (Bruno Barber) watching brief July 1996 Chelsield plc BAN95
Following an evaluation in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 18) monitoring took place on a geotechnical investigation to identify modern intrusions, in order to use them for the insertion of piles while preserving the 16th- and 17th-c remains and the 17th- and 18th-c Bear Garden Glasshouse. Generally, archaeological deposits were not disturbed. The deepest recorded deposits were alluvial silts sealed beneath a concrete base. Two phases of a c.18th-c brick structure, floors and dumps were recorded and, in one strip against the S site boundary, 19th-c ironworking dumps were removed
Odessa Wharf (Block L), Bermondsey Wall West, SE1 TQ 3412 7989 (Duncan Lees, Kate Pollard and Barney Sloane) Archaeological Foreshore Survey Sept 1996 for Wiltshier Construction (London) Ltd FSW01
This foreshore survey followed a general survey conducted along this stretch of the Thames by the Thames Archaeological Survey. An area of over 2600 sq m was surveyed: bargebeds, timber structures and possible ship timbers were noted and plotted.
Jacob’s Island, Bermondsey Wall West, SE1 TQ 3408 7976 MOLAS (David Saxby) evaluation and excavation Feb-Apr 1996 Berkeley Homes Ltd JAC96
Prehistoric peat deposits overlay alluvial silt and sand deposits; the peat is likely to represent the Tilbury IV regression which occurred during the Bronze Age in the late second millennium BC. The evidence of the peat and its sandy content suggests tidal transgression and regression on the foreshore of the Thames; further, it can be presumed that the southern Thames foreshore during the Neolithic period was located approximately along the line of Jacob Street. This sequence was eventually succeeded by the chalk foundation walls of two buildings which were located within the vicinity of the medieval St. Saviour’s Mill and near the River Neckinger. These buildings are likely to have been associated with the mill rather than the mill building itself, such as the miller’s house or storage buildings etc. Inc.17th c the watercourses that define Jacob’s Island were dug; these were linked to the River Thames and probably included mill-streams and a branch of the River Neckinger. The medieval mill continued in use and five separate phases of timber revetments for the mill and River Neckinger, dated to the 17th - 18th c, were recorded. The mill leat, running N-S, was located at the W side of the site where an E-W revetment, one of the five phases, was also recorded. The revetment was constructed from panels of reused clinker boat timbers, dated toc.1600, and probably from a waterman’s ferry. In the vicinity of the mill a brick and timber channel, a silt trap and an arch vaulted drain were found, probably associated with the 18th-c water works which are known to have existed on the site. In the 19th c one of the watercourses was revetted with timbers from both boats and boat-builders’ off-cuts. Since a barge builder is known on the island at this time, it is probable that the revetment was constructed by him, using spare timbers.
207-208 Grange Road, SE1 TQ 3336 7925 MOLAS (Alison Steele) evaluation Apr-May 1996 QT Duong GNG96
Natural gravels were cut by undated pits and a linear feature. Overlying these and partly filling them was a ploughsoil which produced Roman pottery. The ploughsoil was cut by post-medieval wall foundations and sealed by a spread of demolition rubble, presumably bomb damage from the 19th-c terraced house that occupied the site.
165 Great Dover Street, SE1 TQ 3268 7946 MOLAS (James Drummond-Murray) evaluation Aug-Sept 1996 (Tony Mackinder) excavation Sept-Nov 1996 Berkeley Homes (Hampshire) Ltd GDV96
Above the natural brickearth road gravels and associated NW-SE ditches are identified as part of Roman Watling Street. Several field boundary ditches were also recorded, succeeded by a large timber, piled building and timber-lined well. The area was then used as a cemetery and four structures were built parallel to the road. The first was a walled enclosure with 5 inhumations around a central mortar plinth, the latter possibly the base of a sarcophagus or a monument. The second structure was a small masonry building which could have been a mausoleum; then a large walled enclosure around a robbed masonry structure, offset from the centre and associated with several fragments of moulded stone, including a stone pine cone. A buried amphora and a rubble filled feature, which may have been the base of a monument, and at least two inhumations, were also found within this enclosure. In the adjacent section of the roadside ditch a stone head of a river god was found. The fourth structure was a masonry building which could have been the inner part of another large enclosure. To the SW of these structures were several cremations in pots, further inhumations, three ‘plaster’ burials, perhaps a family group, and a cremation pit containing a large number of lamps and pots.
Safeway Stores Extension, Aylesham Centre, Hanover Park, SE15 TQ 3430 7660 MOLAS (Portia Askew) evaluation and excavation Feb-Apr 1996 Safeway plc HAN96
Natural clay was overlaid by a buried soil from which a quantity of residual prehistoric flints and a single sherd of pottery were recovered, indicating limited, probably transient, prehistoric activity in the vicinity from at least the Neolithic and Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age. The soil appears to have been worked for cultivation from Roman times until the 18th c when it was cut by a boundary or ha-ha ditch, apparently associated with a number of pits either at right angles or parallel to it. The ditch was recut in the 19th c and seems to have remained a landscape feature until 1951. On the E side of the site 19th-c garden features and property boundary fencelines were recorded; they seem to relate to boundaries in the back gardens of tenements constructedc.1878.
10-16 Lafone Street, SE1 TQ 3365 7986 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation Feb-Mar 1996 excavation June-July 1996 Raven Wharf Ltd LAF96
Cutting the natural sand in the southern half of the site were a series of intercutting grooves interpreted as prehistoric ard marks formed by ploughing. Further to the N, a series of four stakeholes also cut the natural sand. The whole site was then sealed by a layer of sand, interpreted as a ploughsoil; it contained a considerable quantity of burnt and struck flint and a few sherds of pot, the latter provisionally dated to the late Neolithic - Early Bronze Age. A number of features cut this ploughsoil, the most significant being a substantial E-W ditch or channel towards the S of the site. It appeared to truncate the ard marks, which were only found on its S side, and it may therefore have marked a field boundary. In the N of the site two possible post-holes and a number of shallow indeterminate features were located. Above these and sealing the site was a peat deposit from which a number of burnt and struck flints and pottery fragments were recovered. This layer may represent part of the Tilbury IV regression, which occurred during the late second millennium BC.
It is likely that flooding of the area made the site uninhabitable until the medieval, or possibly early post-medieval period when a wooden structure was built within an E-W aligned channel at the S end of the site; this is provisionally interpreted as the foundations for a bridge spanning the channel. Three phases of construction were identified, the first being a rigid frame composed of two parallel timbers on either side of the channel, connected by three N-S timbers. The E-W timbers contained grooves for posts, none of which survived, although some fragments of planking were recovered; these latter would have been horizontally placed behind the posts. A number of wooden stakes which remained in situ would have supported the planking on the other side. Three additional N-S timbers were later placed on top of the earlier N-S timbers; these each contained two grooves which would have held braces, presumably to give added support to the planking against the side of the channel, perhaps after some of the earlier wooden uprights fell into disrepair. A series of silts and gravels surrounded the timbers, probably representing gradual silting up of the channel. The site was then covered by a thick layer of alluvial clay, representing one or more floodings of the area. It was cut by a N-S channel, probably of late medieval or early post-medieval date. Further deposits of alluvium were eventually truncated by late 19th-c basements.
The Five Estates, land S of Lisford Street, SE15 TQ 3405 7689 MOLAS (Nick Holder) evaluation Mar 1996 Peckham Partnership Project LFS96
The natural gravel was overlaid by a thin subsoil in which three prehistoric struck flint flakes were found. This was cut by a possible Roman pit. Much of the site was covered by a post-medieval horticultural soil, containing residual medieval pottery and tile, which was cut by six 17th - 18th-c pits, probably associated with market gardening. These were succeeded by Victorian terraced housing and then 20th-c housing.
239 Long Lane, SE1 TQ 3319 7946 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation and excavation Jan 1996 Pathfinder Developer IV plc LGN96
Natural sand was cut by a number of medieval and post-medieval pits, some of which may have had an industrial usage. They were succeeded by dump layers cut by two large drains or sewers.
26 Magdalen Street, SE1 TQ 3325 8004 MOLAS (Steve Chew) evaluation and excavation Apr-May 1996 Hollybrok Ltd MGS96
A natural channel over 4m wide was recorded which, from the early 16th c, was repeatedly revetted and constricted. Four phases of revetting were identified and comprised oak and elm reused ships’ planking nailed to posts which had been driven into the underlying clays and silts. Different styles of build could be related to the tenement boundaries along Magdalen Street. As the channel was constricted a number of timber lined cesspits, a timber privy and a sluice were constructed adjacent to it. Carpentry techniques and marks were clearly visible. In the early 17th c the channel, little more than a sewer at this time, was backfilled with domestic rubbish, including delftware vessels and wasters, jugs, bellamines and other pottery groups
71-97 Plough Way, SE17 TQ 3610 7890 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation May 1996 Furlong Homes plc PWA96
Natural sands were overlaid by alluvial silts above peat deposits, suggesting a flooded marsh; one residual prehistoric struck flint was recovered from the peat. Victorian basements truncated the alluvium.
Bull Head Wharf, Rotherhithe Street, SE16 TQ 3569 8027 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation Mar 1996 Barratt London Ltd RSR96
Alluvial clay was overlaid by a series of dumps and further alluvial deposits, probably of post-medieval date and possibly representing localised flooding. These abutted the remains of a low N-S revetment or barge bed, behind which lay dumped deposits. In the NW of the trench a brick floor was located; it comprised several courses of red brick and above it were brick cellar walls, foundations and sewers or culverts which were probably largely Victorian in date. These were then covered in building debris, probably from the demolition of the Victorian structures.
The Knot Garden, 125 Rotherhithe Street, SE16 TQ 3480 8040 MOLAS (Steve Chew) watching brief Dec 1996 - Jan 1997 London Underground Ltd RTH96
Three phases of timber revetment were recorded, all of which were constructed of reused ships’ timbers, some reused on a number of occasions. The latest phase of revetment had been constructed of piles reused from a possible jetty or enclosed wharf. A sequence of post-medieval dumped deposits indicates a date for the timber structures of 1620-1800.
15 St Thomas St (Grout Shaft), SE1 TQ 3282 8017 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) excavation Jan-Feb 1996 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) TOM95
Two early Roman ditches and a number of pits were cut into the alluvial sand; one square pit which was sealed by a clay plug contained a large quantity of Roman pottery and some glass. These features were covered by dumping, above which was a thick deposit of alluvial clay, cut by a ditch and a deep pit. The latter contained an organic fill sealed by fired clay: it may have been a hearth. Above the clay was a layer of peg tile fragments. The timber supports of a rectangular, well-like feature, probably Roman in date, were also recorded.
Surrey Quays Parcels D,E,F, Surrey Quays Road, SE16 TQ 3570 7945 MOLAS (Paul Hutchings) evaluation Jan 1996 (Graham Spurr) geo-archaeological assessment Mar 1996 PSIT Enterprises Ltd SUQ96
Alluvial clays above the natural gravel contained a layer of peats dated to the Early - Middle Bronze Age. They were overlaid by post-medieval infill material.
The Link Primary School, 138 Croydon Road, Beddington, Mitcham, Surrey TQ 3035 6486 MOLAS (John Taylor) evaluation Aug 1996 The Link Secondary School, COY96
Top soil lay above the natural chalk.
Seears Park Nursery, Love Lane, Sutton, Surrey TQ 2463 6404 MOLAS (Kevin Wooldridge) watching brief Aug 1996 London Borough of Sutton Construction and Property Consultancy SEE96
No archaeological deposits or features were observed.
Furlong Close, Mile Road, Hackbridge, Surrey TQ 2852 6617 MOLAS (Robin Nielsen) evaluation July 1996 Sutton Housing Society Ltd FLC96
A depression or channel in the natural gravels on the W side of the site was filled with alluvium and sealed by a ploughsoil containing prehistoric to post-medieval artefacts. Elsewhere, a topsoil above the gravels was overlaid with levelling material associated with the landscaping of the site.
Recreation Ground, Orchard Ave, Hackbridge, Mitcham, Surrey TQ 2825 6642 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) evaluation May 1996 London Borough of Sutton OAR96
Alluvium overlying natural gravel was cut by a ditch, possibly post-medieval in date, and sealed by topsoil.
43 The Crescent, Belmont, Surrey TQ 2535 6181 MOLAS (Joe Partridge) watching brief May 1996 Sutton Heritage Centre TCS96
A possible Saxon crouched inhumation was recorded cutting into the natural chalk. The head lay at the N end of the grave, the body lay on its left side with the left cheek resting on the left upper arm (which was raised) and facing E. The right arm lay across the body and rested on the left arm, the legs were bent at the knee which were raised and pointed towards the E. No finds were recovered apart from a possibly residual waste flake.
250 Bishopsgate, Steward St (car park), EC2, E1 TQ 3342 8180 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie and Chris Thomas) excavation June-Sept 1996 ABN Amro Bank /Spitalfields Development Group STE95
Excavations following an evaluation in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 22) revealed evidence of brickearth and gravel extraction and Roman field boundaries, agricultural activity and two skeletons, the latter probably part of a Roman cemetery known in this area. A number of other Roman pits and postholes were also excavated, one pit containing a substantial quantity of painted Roman wall plaster. In the 12th and early 13th c the site lay at the back of properties fronting onto Bishopsgate. Large areas were quarried for brickearth and gravel and a number of wells from the 12th - 14th c have been excavated, including three with timber sides still complete at the base. Two complete late 12th- or early 13th-c pots were recovered, buried in pits. From 1235 onwards much of the site formed part of the outer precinct to the Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital and associated with this were several wooden structures, represented by large numbers of postholes, two stone buildings and a substantial boundary wall. Areas of the site were clearly set aside for different uses: large rubbish pits dating to the 13th - 16th c, some quarry pits of 13th-c date and ploughing. Ditches seem to have been dug as boundaries defining different activities. Two skeletons dating to the late medieval period were also excavated. After the priory was dissolved in 1538, the area was known as the Old Artillery Ground orGarden and was used by the Honourable Artillery Company for practising drills and shooting: a substantial collection of musket balls was recovered and the brick boundary wall along the western side of the Old Artillery Ground was located. Rubbish pits and bedding trenches were found along the E side of the site. Some of the foundations of houses, built after the Old Artillery Ground was sold in 1682, have been recorded, as well as their associated cesspits. They were succeeded by 19th-c buildings.
Whitechapel Sports Centre Site, Durward Street, E1 TQ 3460 8192 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation Apr 1996 London Borough of Tower Hamlets DUR96
In one trench natural brickearth was cut by a large pit or ditch which was truncated by 19th-20th-c foundation walls and slab. In the second trench natural gravels were cut by a number of large regular post-medieval features which are likely to be related to horticultural activity on the site. Modern dumping sealed all features.
DLR Lewisham Extension, Mudshute Station, East Ferry Road, E14 TQ 3802 7860 MOLAS (Steve Chew) evaluation July 1996 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXA96, DXB96, DXC96
Peats and silts of a floodplain alluvial sequence were cut by a watercourse which had silted up. Adjacent to the watercourse was a number of timbers which are interpreted as a temporary platform of possible Bronze Age date.
Hermitage Basin, corner of Vaughan Way, E1 TQ 3422 8033 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) evaluation and excavation Mar-May 1996 London Docklands Development Corporation HIT96
Natural clay was cut by a waste disposal pit and sealed by a consolidation layer for the construction of a first brick built kiln. The waste pit was the earliest surviving feature of the Hermitage Pothouse, which was located at the head of Hermitage Dock (constructed between 1590 and 1658). The pothouse produced tin-glazed ware pottery from c.1665 to 1773. Seven phases of the pothouse were recorded, including three kilns, potting clay, unfired glaze, kiln furniture, wasters, biscuit and tin-glazed ware. The earliest phase consisted of a circular brick kiln and represents the remains of a firebox to the S, the linking firemouth having been truncated. A pit cutting through the kiln marked its disuse but a second kiln was constructed above: a similar circular brick structure. This kiln was demolished and above it lay the remnants of a brick surface, succeeded by ground consolidation and a waste pit. A further foundation, surfaces and waste pits of the pothouse were recorded, followed by a third (possibly rectangular) kiln and contemporary surfaces. Brick foundations of the Jones’ Foundry, which succeeded the pothouse c.1781, were recorded; the Jones’ Foundry was demolished in c.1796-1799/1800 when the N extension of Hermitage Dock was built. The dock was infilled in 1801-1805, after being sold to the London Dock Company prior to the construction of the London Dock, which opened in 1805; infill of this dock survived on the site, as did features post dating completion of the London Dock.
Hermitage Riverside, Wapping High Street, E1 TQ 3420 8018 MOLAS (Ken Pitt) evaluation May 1996 LDDC HMR96
Natural waterlaid deposits were cut by a linear slot, possibly structural, which was sealed by late medieval reclamation dumps. Further infilling, presumably to consolidate the area prior to the construction of later and more substantial brick buildings, then took place. Four phases of building were recorded, three of which were aligned parallel to Wapping High Street and the Thames.
40-56, 47-51 Hermitage Wall, E1 TQ 3440 8018 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) watching brief Mar 1996 London Borough of Tower Hamlets WPG95
The watching brief succeeded that in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 23) and established that alluvium, representing Wapping Marsh, covered the site and was overlaid by a landfill deposit dating to the first half of the 17th c. This latter reclaimed the marsh in preparation for the development of the area known to have begun by the second half of the 17th c. Fragmentary remains of an apparently contemporary brick structure were recorded in the S of the site.
Free Trade Wharf, Atlantic Wharf, The Highway, E1 TQ 3585 8082 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief June 1996 Regalion Properties Ltd FTW94
Traces of an 18th-c dock, known to be on the site, were recorded. A brick wall of similar date was located to the W of the dock which was itself filled with 19th-c material.
Millwall Wharf, Manchester Road, Isle of Dogs, E14 TQ 3870 7910 MOLAS (Steve Chew) evaluation July-Aug 1996 Wilcon Homes Ltd MWF96
A detailed sequence of alluvial deposits was recorded.
Victoria Wharf, Narrow Street, E14 TQ 3634 8077 MOLAS (Kieron Tyler) evaluation Aug-Sept 1996 Barratt London Ltd VIT96
Above the Thames foreshore was a structure formed from parallel sets of ship timbers which seems to have been a slipway or structure to spread weight; a 16th-c date is suggested for it. To the S (riverwards) of this, an E-W post and plank revetment was set into the foreshore; it is dated by a dump on its riverward side and by landfill behind it, toc.1600. This landfill, which sealed the parallel ship timbers, included waste from shipping activity and pottery. A brick founded building was constructed above the landfill, which cartographic evidence indicates took place by the mid-17th c. There was an open area between the rear of the building and the contemporary river wall. In front of the revetment a series of dump layers reclaimed a further area of foreshore, upon which another brick building was erected: the dumps are dated to 1620-1700. A brick river wall of 18th - 19th-c date cut into these dumps; it lies 11m N of the present river wall.
Spitalfields Market, Steward Street, E1 TQ 3355 8185 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) evaluation Sept-Oct 1996 Spitalfields Development Group SPM96
Pits for the extraction of the natural gravels or brickearth were recorded; one of them may have been revetted. Parts of at least 33 human skeletons were located but not removed from the NW corner of the market; some graves contained single, others multiple burials. The dating evidence suggests that these skeletons were part of the medieval Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital (founded in 1197), in whose outer precinct the site lies.
Spital Square, Lamb Street, E1 TQ 3350 8197 MOLAS (Nick Holder, Chris Thomas) excavation Apr 1996 St George’s plc SQU94
This site lies to the E of the Roman road running N out of the City and traces of a possible Roman cremation were found above the natural brickearth. The W half of the site lies within thePriory and Hospital of St Mary Spital (founded in 1197) and areas excavated so far lie on the very E of the built-up area of the priory. Parts of timber and brick buildings, dating to before and after the Dissolution, have been recorded but it is in the area of the Prior’s garden that most of the excavation took place. A series of horticultural soils above the natural brickearth was cut by nearly 50 ‘bedding trenches’ and a 13th-c probable pond; a drainage channel and a late medieval cesspit with numerous pottery vessels were also recorded. The E boundary of the Priory was defined by a bank composed of brickearth. In the 17th c property development took place for the first time outside the central area of the former Priory and in the 18th c the area was further developed by Huguenot immigrants. These 17th- and 18th-c properties were recorded during the watching brief.
Monoux Almshouses, Church Hill, E17 TQ 3785 8928 MOLAS (Lucy Wheeler) watching brief Dec 1996 Forest Gate Construction Co Ltd MND96
Natural clay was overlaid by a series of levelling deposits associated with rebuilding phases of the almshouses in the 1760s and 1950s.
Leucha Road (land at rear), E17 TQ 3615 8859 MOLAS (Dick Bluer) evaluation June-July 1996 BMG Construction (Clifton) Ltd WS-LU96
Natural clay in the E part of the site and coarse gravel on the W part suggests that the central area of the site marked the E boundary of the post-glacial River Lea. It was sealed by alluvium into which a possible drainage ditch and bedding trenches had cut, and above which was a soil horizon representing 18th-19th-c use of the site as orchards and gardens. This was truncated and replaced in the 20th c with brick rubble make-up.
127 Albert Bridge Road, SW11 TQ 2742 7738 MOLAS (Chris Thomas) evaluation Feb 1996 River Property Investments Ltd ALT96
Natural gravels sloped down from N-S and were overlaid by over 2m of alluvium, the upper part of which dates to the 19th c. At the S end of the site dumped soil over the alluvium probably dates to the mid-19th-c reclamation of this area to form Battersea Park.
5 Bolingbroke Walk, SW11 TQ 2700 7693 MOLAS (Jackie Bates) evaluation Jan 1996 Goldcrest Homes plc BLW96
A number of post-medieval features, including a well and a possible soakaway cut into the natural gravels. They were covered by modern make-up.
38-38a Danemere Street, SW11 TQ 2342 6707 MOLAS (David Lakin) evaluation Jan 1996 Berkeley Homes (Thames Valley) Ltd DEM96
Natural gravels were, in the centre and S parts of the site, overlaid by alluvial sands associated with an E-W stream channel, the Beverley Brook. This stream channel was infilled with dumps of late 19th-c domestic rubbish and building debris.
168-174 East Hill, SW18 TQ 2600 7471 MOLAS (Simon Stevens) watching brief Dec 1996 Blue Door Developments Ltd ESH96
Natural sand and clay was overlaid by post-medieval levelling deposits.
Imperial College Boat Club, 2-3 Holt Villas (formerly), Embankment, SW15 TQ 2365 7605 MOLAS (Bruno Barber) evaluation Dec 1996 Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine ICB96
Earliest recorded deposits were post-medieval marsh deposits overlaid with a thick dump of 19th-c material which served either as part of a phase of flood defence and/or as land reclamation for the construction of the buildings on the site.
51 Berkeley Square, W1 TQ 2879 8051 MOLAS (Mark Wiggins) evaluation Aug 1996 BP Pension Fund BSU96
Alluvial fills within a deep former channel of the River Tyburn were sealed by infill and levelling associated with the construction of the first buildings in the area, probably in the late 17th or early 18th c.
40-41 Conduit Street, W1 TQ 2899 8083 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Apr 1996 Hufvudstaden (UK) Ltd CDT96
Natural brickearth was mainly truncated but an 18th-c well survived in the NE corner of the site and a possible channel in Coach and Horses Yard.
St Paul’s Church Yard, Covent Garden, WC2 TQ 3031 8084 MOLAS (Nick Holder, Adrian Miles) watching brief Nov 1996 Westminster City Council CGD95
Following an excavation in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 25), the watching brief is being undertaken to monitor the reconstruction of the Victorian public conveniences. Two Middle Saxon pits, cutting the natural brickearth, have been recorded. Saxon deposits beneath the Covent Garden plaza, including a probable building with a hearth, have been exposed in section and conserved in situ. WC
Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, WC2 TQ 3042 8098 MOLAS (David Bowsher, Robert Cowie, Gordon Malcolm) excavation Aug-Dec 1996 Royal Opera House Developments Ltd ROP95
The main excavation in the former car park of the Royal Opera House, to the E of the Covent Garden Piazza, followed a watching brief in 1995 (LA 8 supplement 1 (1996) 26). Natural brickearth was cut by a number of undated features including stakeholes, postholes, curving gullies and a ditch, and the fragmentary remains of an inhumation burial. The site was cleared during the late 7th c and a N-S road laid out which was approximately 3m wide (a 26m length survived) and flanked by narrow gullies and drains. It was metalled with very compact gravel and was completely resurfaced ten times. A number of alleys were joined to both sides of the road. Seven or eight building plots were identified between the road and the alleys, and appear to have been continuously occupied by successive rectangular post-built and sill-beam structures. Most buildings were aligned E-W, parallel to the alleys. The buildings were made of various materials including planks, earth-fast posts and wattle and daub. Internal partitions were represented by lines of stakeholes and, in one building, the position of a vertical loom was indicated by a row of loomweights which had fallen to the floor when the building burnt down. Brickearth floors had been frequently patched and resurfaced and two buildings had gravelled thresholds on their S sides. Hearths inside the buildings consisted of rectangular or circular areas of scorched brickearth, sometimes incorporating Roman tile. The buildings seem to have been used both for domestic occupation and also for craft activities, with numerous artefacts associated with spinning and weaving recovered. Most of the buildings had been destroyed by fire.
Numerous large circular rubbish pits and cesspits were found, some of which predated the earliest buildings. A midden of animal bone, oyster shell and other domestic debris accumulated above two backfilled pits in a narrow open area between a building and an alley. A number of timber-lined wells were found along a conjectured spring-line close to the S edge of the site. On the E side of the site at least six large pits, possibly used in the fulling or tanning process, were found.
The site appears to have been abandoned during the mid-9th c. At about this time a large V-shaped defensive ditch (2m deep by 4.5m wide by at least 57m in length), strengthened by an array of stakes, was dug along the N side of the site. Above the Middle Saxon sequence was a thick deposit of dark earth within which a hoard of Northumbrian coins of the 840s was found. The dark earth included the latest phases of occupation and all subsequent activity until the construction of buildings in the 17th c. The site was built on in the 1630s when Covent Garden Piazza and the surrounding streets were laid out; foundations and vaults of the original Piazza arcade designed by Inigo Jones were discovered along the W side of the site. WC
14-18 Great Marlborough Street, W1 TQ 2922 8117 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief Sept 1996 Hufvudstaden (Marlborough) Ltd GMS96
Natural gravels were truncated by the construction of the basement and a 19th-c drain.
55 Grosvenor Street, W1 TQ 2862 8080 MOLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) evaluation Jan-Feb 1996 Capital & City plc GVR96
Silty clay over natural gravel was truncated by modern basements but, recorded at the N end of the site, were the probable remains of part of a brick-lined soakaway or cellar associated with earlier 18th-c buildings on the site.
Bishop’s Depository, Hugh Street, SW1 TQ 2885 7883 MOLAS (Mark Wiggins) watching brief Dec 1996 - Feb 1997 Barratt London Ltd HUH96
Alluvial deposits of a small estuary from the confluence of the former Rivers Tyburn and Westbourne, were recorded. The alluvium included a layer of peat of possible prehistoric date.
Curzon Gate, Park Lane (central reservation), W1 TQ 2838 8009 MOLAS (Pat Miller) evaluation and watching brief June-Aug 1996 GTM Car Parks UK Ltd PRL96
Subsoil over natural clay in the N of the site was cut by a shallow channel or pond which contained Bronze Age, Roman and medieval pottery, the earlier pottery probably residual. To the S Late Neolithic or Early Bronze Age pottery and worked flint was recovered from a small pit cutting the natural gravels; it was overlaid by post-medieval levelling. Elsewhere, natural brickearth or gravel was succeeded by drains or garden related structures of 19th-c date.
Somerset House, Strand, WC2 TQ 3075 8075 MOLAS (Steve Chew) watching brief Aug-Sept 1996 Dept of National Heritage and The Commissioners for the Inland Revenue SST96
Evidence of Saxon foreshore, Tudor and post-medieval deposits behind the Tudor river wall was found. Detailed evidence for the construction and use of the Georgian building was also recorded.
River Thames Dredging (Flood Mitigation 3), Hungerford Bridge - adjacent to N side, WC2 TQ 305 804 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) watching brief May 1996 London Underground Ltd TDR96
Material dredged from the River Thames near Hungerford Bridge was redeposited on the Isle of Sheppey where it was examined for archaeological material. Most of the material proved to be modern with only one or two pieces of very abraded earlier pottery.
Globe House, Temple Place, WC2 TQ 3108 8085 MOLAS (Julian Bowsher) evaluation Jan-May and Nov 1996 - Jan 1997 Hammerson UK Properties plc TMP96
London Clay was overlaid by alluvial clays and sands, sealed by a peat horizon dated to the Neolithic period. Above this were foreshore deposits that contained Roman and Saxon material, including a Saxon bronze alloy strap end.