A13, Ripple Road, Dagenham TQ 485 835 MoLAS (Steve Chew) watching brief Feb-Mar 1997 Newham Museum Service
A detailed alluvial sequence was recorded.
Ibis Hotel, Highbridge Road, Barking TQ 4385 8370 MoLAS (Portia Askew) evaluation Nov 1997 Sphere International (UK) Ltd HHB97
An unstructured peat deposit overlay alluvium in most of the trenches investigated. Lying within the peat in one of the trenches was the remains of a prehistoric (possibly Bronze Age) oak tree-top, which had been discarded after the lower parts of the tree were cut into logs for use in trackways or as posts. Above the peat was another alluvial deposit. In the SE of the site a timber pile was found: it was a tropical hardwood and probably an off-cut from a boatyard of 18th- or 19th- c date.
McDonald's, 154 Stonegrove, Edgware TQ 1836 9278 MoLAS (D Lakin) watching brief Apr-May 1997 McDonald's Restaurants Limited SGV97
Topsoil overlay the natural clay.
Former Erith School site, Belmont Road, Erith, Kent TQ 4970 7710 MoLAS (Bruce Watson) watching brief Jan-Oct 1997 Persimmon and Beazer Homes BMT96
This watching brief started in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 31) and continued during 1997. Undated pits or ditches, a prehistoric cooking pit, Romano-British ditches and post-medieval brick-lined cesspits or soakaways were recorded.
Nursing Home Development, Copperfield Road, SE28 TQ 472 813 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Jan 1997 Porterhouse Ltd CPF97
Deep deposits of 20th-c landfill or dumped material was exposed; natural strata were not reached.
Erith Deep Water Wharf, Crescent Road, Erith, Kent TQ 5175 7790 MoLAS (Jackie Bates) watching brief July-Aug 1997 & (S Stevens) evaluation Nov 1997 Wm Morrisson Supermarket plc EWW97
In the SW of the site natural gravels and chalk were cut by a ditch of possible 16th-c date, a natural channel and a possible posthole. Elsewhere natural gravel was cut by modern drains and building foundations and overlaid by rubble make-up.
Hollywood Road (new road), off Slade Green Road, Slade Green, Erith, Kent TQ 5260 7695 MoLAS (Nick Holder) watching brief Mar 1997 Ballast Wiltshier HYW97
An undated prehistoric cooking pit, filled with numerous burnt flints, cut the alluvium. This was covered by a peat layer containing several burnt flints which might well be of Neolithic or Bronze Age date.
The Norman Park Site, Norman Road, Picardy Manor Way, Belvedere, Kent TQ 497 796 MoLAS (A Woodger, P Treveil & MoLAS McKenzie) watching brief Aug-Sept 1997 Mitchell McFarlane & Partners Ltd/Meirut Estates NOM97
River gravels and sands were sealed by alluvial silts, clays and marginal peats. A single crested blade, which dates from either the Late Mesolithic or Early Neolithic period, was retrieved from an alluvial sand. It is clear from cartographic evidence that until relatively recently the area was marshland.
Summerton Way, Thamesmead, SE28 TQ 4800 8128 MoLAS (David Lakin) excavation June-July 1997 Wilcon Homes SWY97
Previous evaluation work undertaken by PCA (SNY97) was followed by excavation. It revealed the presence of peat deposits of prehistoric date sealed by up to 4m of alluvium. Within this sequence evidence was recovered of field ditches and associated features dating to the late 3rd c - late 4th c. The exploitation of an area close to the Thames and prone to flooding suggests that the river levels were significantly lower in the late 3rd and 4th c. The field systems may have been centred on a nearby building or settlement, the presence of which is inferred from the recovery of building material. Pottery and quernstones from Germany may have been imported directly to the site. Activity on the site apparently continued until the very end of the Roman period and its termination is marked by flood deposits apparently resulting from the breach of river defences. River levels rose constantly during the post-Roman period and the site returned to marginal marshland with little or no further sign of activity in the area until the 19th c.
Watermead Park, Wallhouse Road, Slade Green, Crayford, Kent TQ 5285 7725 MoLAS (B Martin) watching brief Feb 1997 (J Bowsher) May 1997 Barratts East London WMP97
Late 19th - early 20th-c made-ground overlay the natural gravels except in the SW of the site where they were cut by probable gravel extraction pits.
Glebe House, Church Road, Keston, Kent TQ 4170 6301 MoLAS (L Wheeler) Apr 1997 B Hampton Esq GLE96
Subsequent to a watching brief in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 32) an evaluation was carried out. Natural chalk in one trench was overlaid by topsoil; in the other trenches hillwash lay above natural sands.
Mountfield Estate, Molash Road, St Mary Cray, Kent TQ 4775 6815 MoLAS (Simon Stevens) evaluation Nov 1997 Broomleigh Housing Association MSH97
Natural sand was overlaid in places by hillwash and sealed by topsoil or made-ground in which modern industrial activity is suggested by large concrete foundations, including an octagonal plinth, possibly for a chimney.
Electricity Substation, Warner Street, EC1 TQ 3121 8215 MoLAS (Niall Roycroft) watching brief Jan 1997 Howard Humphries & Partners WRS97
The site is located at the N edge of the River Fleet which here flows W-E. Sandy deposits associated with the foreshore of the Fleet and dated to the middle of the 17th c were overlaid by a peaty deposit, indicating still water. The latter is dated to the end of the 17th c and contained many copper pins. It was overlaid by a very thick dumped deposit which was probably connected with the canalisation of this stretch of the river, known to have been carried out during the first half of the 18th c.
Dial House, 151-165 Shaftesbury Ave, WC2 TQ 3001 8118 MoLAS (J Partridge) watching brief Mar 1997 Jarrah Properties Ltd SHF96
Post-medieval deposits were recorded, following an evaluation in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 33).
Barber Surgeons’ Hall Gardens, London Wall, EC2 TQ 3228 8114 MoLAS (W McCann) ground penetrating radar survey Mar 1997 Barber Surgeons BSG97
A survey has identified sub-surface anomalous areas which could be consistent with the survival of some remains from the 17th-c Anatomy Theatre designed by Inigo Jones. Additional anomalous areas may be associated with other structures, particularly that of the City wall at the W edge of the area.
30-35 Botolph Lane, 29-31 Monument Street, EC3 TQ 3303 8074 MoLAS (Peter Rowsome) evaluation December 1997 Berkeley Homes (Essex) Ltd BPL95
A series of engineers’ testpits were recorded, supplementing an earlier phase of evaluation work at the site in 1995 (LA8supp. 1 (1996) 3). Testpits in the central area of the site revealed a substantial Roman masonry foundation which may have been associated with a building or a terrace wall-line. Late Roman and post-Roman external deposits and pits were sealed in some areas by medieval walls and associated surfaces. There was extensive evidence of pre-Great Fire cellared buildings, and some of the cellars were filled with fire debris. Victorian and modern basements had truncated deposits in the N and S of the site.
4 Bouverie Street, EC4 TQ 3136 8113 MoLAS (A Miles) evaluation June 1997 Trustees of the Viscount Folkestone Estate BVS97
Cutting the natural gravels was a series of large pits dated to the late 12th-13th c: they were probably for the extraction of gravel at the time of the construction of the White Friars in 1241.
10 Bouverie Street, EC4 TQ 3137 8108 MoLAS (B Barber) excavation and watching brief Apr-Nov 1997 Scottish Provident BOV95
The earliest deposits recorded - all work being subject to depth restrictions - were a series of alluvial deposits, dated to the later 12th c, which appear to represent the silting and infilling of a large feature, possibly the result of gravel extraction or erosion by either the Thames or an unrecorded tributary of the River Fleet. A massive series of dumps reclaimed the marshy area and provided a platform on which the Carmelite friary complex known as Whitefriars was built in 1241. Several chalk and ragstone foundations were recorded: these may have been pier bases for the nave arcade of the second church of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, which was rebuilt in c.1348-50. Five burials were excavated, at least one of which pre-dated the 14th-c rebuild. These were succeeded by the remains of several 17th- and 18th-c brick structures which had been disturbed by 19th- and 20th-c foundations.
Bucklersbury at the junction of Queen Victoria Street (E carriageway), EC4 TQ 3260 8107 MoLAS (Peter Rowsome) watching brief Dec 1997 British Telecom BKY97
A sequence of external make-ups and rudimentary metalled surfaces was recorded and can be associated with the establishment and maintenance of the late Saxon and medieval street of Bucklersbury. The excavation did not extend to Roman levels.
City Tree Project, junction of Byward St and Great Tower Street, EC3 TQ 3328 8075 MoLAS (S Stevens) watching brief Mar 1997 Corporation of London CYK97
Four tree pits were excavated to a depth of 1.75m: only modern services were encountered.
Junction of Cannon Street and Bread Street, EC4 TQ 3229 8102 MoLAS (D Lakin) watching brief Nov 1997 Corporation of London CNB97
Two phases of a substantial Roman masonry building were recorded above the natural gravels; they probably date to the 1st and 2nd c. Soil deposits, which accumulated during the late Roman and medieval periods, sealed the building remains before another very substantial masonry foundation was constructed some time in the medieval period. It was parallel to, but set back from, the alignment of modern Bread Street. This may have formed part of the undercroft of a major building, possibly Salters’ Hall.
Gateway House, 25 Cannon Street, EC4 TQ 3221 8107 MoLAS (David Bowsher) evaluation Dec 1997 - Jan 1998 International Development Partnership CAO96
Nine boreholes outside the present building were monitored following the evaluation in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 34). Horizontal layers, probably Roman in date, and Roman and medieval pits, were noted above the natural brickearth.
1-4 Carey Lane, 11-12 Foster Lane, EC2 TQ 3220 8133 MoLAS (I Blair) evaluation Dec 1997 Goldsmiths’ Company CAY97
Natural deposits were not reached, the earliest recorded deposits being Roman in date and consisting of a thin banded sequence of internal brickearth floor surfaces and associated trampled occupation silts. Above was a layer of highly scorched fire debris overlaid by possible dark earth. Horizontal Roman deposits to the E of the site were cut by medieval pits, of which the earliest is dated to the 11th c. A chalk foundation was also recorded cutting into a sequence of partially slumped and scorched internal surfaces: both were medieval in date. Post-medieval chalk and brick footings and the remains of a 17th-c brick cesspit or cellar wall were also located above medieval pits.
50 Cornhill, EC3 TQ 3297 8110 MoLAS (David Sankey) watching brief Oct 1997, Fuller Smith & Turner plc, CNI97
Parts of the second forum basilica were located, including floor and foundation deposits, and a wall not anticipated by any previous projections which may relate to an internal wall crossing the aisle. A late medieval or Tudor chalk cesspit was also recorded.
Tanner's Hall, 13-21 Eastcheap, EC3 TQ 3302 8085 MoLAS (N Roycroft) evaluation Nov 1997 Taylor Woodrow Developments Ltd ESC97
An auger survey indicated that natural gravels were overlaid by a levelling layer, probably early Roman in date. It was fairly intensively cut by later Roman and post-medieval pits, and by 19th-c and modern basements.
Plantation House, Chesterfield House, 26-38 Fenchurch Street, 1-16 Mincing Lane, EC3 TQ 3318 8087 MoLAS (N Roycroft) evaluation Oct-Nov 1997 British Land Corporation Ltd FER97
Truncated natural gravels were overlaid by levelling, above which lay the E extension of the via decumana and Roman clay-and-timber building remains. The street had been re-surfaced at least twice and its level raised by nearly a metre by the 2nd c; the buildings kept pace with this rising level. In the N part of the site many fire horizons were recorded. 2nd-c deposits were then cut by part of a Roman masonry foundation, probably for a building of high status since painted wall plaster, box flue tile and fragments of opus signinum were found in the demolition material. It was almost completely robbed out towards the end of the 4th c. For the Saxo-Norman and medieval periods, two wells, a probable cesspit and another pit were recorded.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, 68-71 Fenchurch Street, 1-7 Railway Place (Magpie House), EC3 TQ 3343 8099 MoLAS (D Bluer, Robin Nielsen) watching brief Jan-Dec 1997 Lloyd’s Register of Shipping FCC95
Sealing the natural brickearth was a grey sandy silt which may represent early agricultural activity. In the SE of the site this was cut by two phases of foundation, both of which were truncated below their ground level by the basement slab of the modern building. The earlier phase consisted of narrow strips of rammed gravel, which may have supported a timber superstructure on a dwarf wall base. The trenches of the later phase had been entirely robbed out and the trenches backfilled with waste mortar, suggesting that both the original foundation and superstructure consisted entirely of masonry. Both phases of foundation represented multi-roomed buildings. To the W of these was the remains of a room with a hypercaust, represented by four very large robbed-out walls surrounding a concrete sub-floor with pilae impressions on its surface. Archaeomagnetic dates from hearths which it truncated gave a tpq for the sub-floor of AD 220. To the SW was a smaller area of hypercaust sub-floor, with a few pila tiles still in situ. Burnt deposits on the sub-floor produced coins of 4th-c date. In the SE of the site were several ditches, either drainage or boundary, possible robber trenches and a very deep well. A robbed-out sill-beam and associated floors represented a timber-framed building, while substantial chalk foundations defined a masonry building. In the area of better preservation in the N part of the site, a complex of ragstone walls survived. WC
168 Fenchurch Street, EC3 TQ 3304 8097 MoLAS (Lesley Dunwoodie) evaluation Mar-Aug 1997 Barclay’s Property Holdings Ltd FEH95
This second phase of evaluation, consisting of testpits around the perimeter of the site, followed the 1995 phase (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 4). The testpits were located in the S-W corner of both the first and the second fora of Roman London, a Scheduled Ancient Monument. A number of pre-forum deposits were identified, such as an early gravelled surface overlying reworked brickearth which is thought to have been the remains of a market place. To the E of the site, a slot or gully was found cutting the reworked brickearth. Masonry walls and a brick pier of the S wing of both the first and second fora were located, as well as numerous phases of dumping relating to various episodes of construction and demolition, and surfaces and dumps within the open courtyard area to the N. Along the S edge of the site, deposits - possibly representing the N edge of the main E-W road just to the S of the forum-basilica complex - were recorded, together with dumped material which may have formed a type of berm around the edge of the forum. A timber-lined feature observed in section on the E side of the site may have been a drainage channel. Evidence of medieval activity consisted of a series of pits (possibly for robbing the Roman masonry) and part of a chalk-lined cesspit on the W side of the site. Two linear features, recorded along the S edge of the site, may have been the remains of an early boundary wall associated with St. Dionis Backchurch. On the E side of the site a brick-lined possible cesspit produced finds dated to 1600-1650: it may have been part of a larger, more complex structure; a narrow brick channel lay above it. Disturbed grave deposits were found at the S end of the site where they had probably originated from the medieval cemetery associated with St. Dionis Backchurch. This may have taken place in the post-medieval period, although there is a possibility that it may have occurred at an earlier date.
7-12 Gracechurch Street, EC3 TQ 3298 8105 MoLAS (B Barber) evaluation Sept 1997 Masterworks Development Corporation GCS97
Natural gravels had been truncated when the present basement was constructed in the early 20th c.
2-12 Gresham Street, EC2 TQ 3228 8133 MoLAS (N Roycroft) evaluation July 1997 Standard Life Assurance Co GSM97
Examination of a number of boreholes revealed 1st-c brickearth extraction pits, sealed by a levelling deposit for a wide gravel NE-SW road which probably dates from the late 1st - early 2nd c and would have linked the entrance of the CripplegateFort with the via decumanus along Cheapside to the S. Many resurfacings were recorded, the entire thickness reaching 1.10m in places. Associated with the road were clay-and-timber buildings and dumps of domestic refuse: these appear to have been sealed beneath gravel deposits that may represent the shifting or widening of the road. The road was then overlaid by probable dark earth. Modern basements had truncated all horizontal stratigraphy later than the Roman period, but a series of cut features were recorded, including a substantial medieval chalk and mortar wall foundation, two medieval or post-medieval pits - one probably a cesspit - and a deep post-medieval brick-lined cesspit.
Garrard House, 31-45 Gresham Street, 100 Wood Street, EC2 TQ 3229 8142 MoLAS (L Howe) watching brief Jan 1997 Wates City of London Properties GAH95
More Roman deposits were recorded to the S of the car park excavated in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 35). Elsewhere medieval and post-medieval pits and some wall foundations were recorded.
Broken Wharf House & Sir John Lyon House, High Timber Street, EC4 TQ 3218 8081 MoLAS (R Wroe-Brown) evaluation Oct-Nov 1997 Jones, Lang, Wootton HTS97
Parts of medieval timber revetments, chalk wall foundations and reclamation dumps above the foreshore were recorded.
Atlantic House, 46-50 Holborn Viaduct, EC1 TQ 3153 8159 MoLAS (L Dunwoodie) evaluation Nov 1997 Prudential Portfolio Managers Ltd ATC97
Natural strata were not reached during the monitoring of three engineers’ trial trenches. The deposits observed largely consisted of post-medieval dumps associated with land reclamation on the W bank of the River Fleet, and were similar in nature to those recorded at similar levels during a testpit evaluation in 1989/1990 (LA6, 10 (1991) 275 (ATL89)).
Equitable House, 47-51 King William Street, 16 Fish Street Hill, EC4 TQ 3288 8080 MoLAS (D Sankey) excavation & watching brief Nov 1997 - Feb 1998 Greycoat plc ETE97
Truncated pits and wells were recorded, cutting into the natural gravels: Roman pits and wells contained pottery dating from the 1st to the end of the 3rd c, medieval pits held primary butchery waste and may relate to nearby butchers in Pudding Lane, and a 17th-c well contained large amounts of clinker in its backfill.
15-17 King Street, EC2 TQ 3249 8128 MoLAS (L Dunwoodie) evaluation Feb 1996 Banca Commerciale Italiana KIG95
An additional testpit to those examined in 1995 (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 5) was recorded in 1996. Natural deposits were not observed. The remains of a probable rubbish pit of Saxon or early medieval date was revealed, sealed by a surface or the base of a chalk foundation in which three stakeholes were recorded.
Suffolk House, 5 Laurence Pountney Hill & 154-156 Upper Thames Street, EC4. TQ 3271 8077. MoLAS (Aidan Woodger) watching brief & excavation Feb-Mar 1997 Argent Real Estate (Knightsbridge) Ltd SUF94
A trench for a new manhole was excavated, the final phase of work following the 1994-5 evaluation (LA7, 13 (1995) 335) and the 1996 excavation and watching brief (LA 8 supp. 2 (1997) 35). The earliest recorded feature was a fragment of ragstone wall, probably the W wall of a Roman town house, which was approximately 1m long by at least 1.4m high, with double string courses of tile at intervals and an internal buttress or pilaster at right-angles to the main wall. The wall and buttress were constructed on a ‘brick’ foundation contemporaneously. Both faces of the wall had been protected with a hard lime wash or render but only the inner E face had been plastered. At some time the buttress had been broken back at the first tile course level to slope in to the main wall at about the second tile course level. The buttress was also broken into below the first tile course for the insertion of a crosswall . The presence of plaster over the top of the modified buttress above the crosswall suggests that it may never have stood to more than about 500mm high, and certainly not to ceiling height. The crosswall had in turn been broken through for the insertion of a threshold and a probable flue for a heating system; the flue contained charcoal and burnt pottery of the 3rd or 4th c. Fragments of white painted plaster adhered to the face of the main wall and a reddish border was recorded in the junction between the wall and its buttress. To the W of the building the earliest deposit recorded was natural clay with occasional tile fragments that rose up against the face of the wall where it was truncated. To the W of the wall, at the same level, was a spread of loose pink mortar. A brickearth slab, capped by strongly cemented pebbles, may be a road surface constructed in about the mid 1st - mid 2nd c. Following disuse of the building its floors were sealed, possibly in the 4th c or later, by a thick layer of silt and rubble containing wall plaster and large quantities of roof tile. Brickearth floors and organic occupation levels were probably part of a Saxo-Norman sunken building or cellar reusing the W wall of the Roman building. The latest feature recorded was a chalk foundation, of possible 13th- or 14th-c date. Although the foundations may not have been built to strict courses they had clearly been levelled off following the deposition of each distinct build. The base of a second chalk foundation was also recorded.
20-22 Leadenhall Market, EC3 TQ 3308 8016 MoLAS (Trevor Brigham) watching brief Feb 1997 Saigon Times LHL97
Several service trenches were monitored in the area of the apsidal E end of the early 2nd-c Roman basilica. Fairly substantial remains of the main outer wall foundation were recorded, and a small area of brickearth dumping within the apse and abutting the main wall.
Cunard House, 88 Leadenhall Street, EC3 TQ 3336 8115 MoLAS (Elizabeth Howe) watching brief Sept 1997 Fitzroy Robinson/ Paddy Brown CUN95
Above the natural gravels archaeological deposits had been truncated.
Winchester House, 72, 74-82 London Wall, EC2 TQ 3300 8145 MoLAS (P Askew) excavation & watching brief Mar 1996 - Feb 1997 Morgan Grenfell & Company Ltd & Hochtief Costain WCH95
A sequence of deposits dating from the Roman period onwards, largely confirmed the sequence found at the evaluation stage (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 6). Natural gravel and brickearth sloped down to the W, indicating the E side of a tributary of the Walbrook stream which appeared to be aligned N-S, rather than the predicted NE-SW. The stream had silted up at least three times during the Roman period, and after each phase, the ground had been raised to counteract the flooding. After the second phase of silting timber piles were driven into the sediment in order to stabilise the river bank and prevent further erosion. Two of these piles were reused: rare 1st-c Roman building timbers. A brickearth dump (seen in section during the evaluation stage and interpreted then as a possible brickearth sill of a Roman building), containing large quantities of polychrome painted plaster, had been deposited around the timbers. The last phase of Roman activity was evinced by the insertion of a drainage ditch which in turn silted up as the area developed into a marsh. A dark earth sealed the Roman levels, into which were cut medieval pits. The watching brief on the W perimeter and N-W corner of the site indicated a sequence of natural clay, into which timber piles had been driven, overlain by river sands and silts, sealed by a marsh deposit.
Barrington House, 1-6 Love Lane, 59-67 Gresham Street, EC2 TQ 3237 8140 MoLAS (A Woodger) evaluation Aug-Sept 1997 Legal and General Property Ltd LVL97
Along the Love Lane frontage - the only area of the site where archaeological deposits survived - natural brickearth was cut by a rubbish pit of late 11th - 12th c date which also contained a single sherd dated to 1230 or later. This pit may have had a wattle lining. A further three rubbish, quarry or cesspits are undated. One of these was overlaid by a medieval chalk wall footing. Modern brick and concrete structures then truncated the site.
Three Quays House, Lower Thames Street, EC3 TQ 3335 8055 MoLAS (I Grainger) evaluation July-Aug 1996 Scottish Widows Fund and Life Assurance Society LTS95
After an evaluation in 1995 (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 6) a further evaluation took place in 1996 when the earliest deposits recorded were waterlaid clays of probable prehistoric date at the N edge of the site. These were sealed by a foreshore of early Roman date, in which a number of channels had probably formed by river erosion. The backfill of one of these channels contained a large concentration of 3rd-c samian pottery, before it was cut by a timber box-drain of similar date but associated with a possible revetment to the S. This was followed by the chalk rubble and timber pile foundations of the late 3rd-c defensive river wall; its foundations had been severely eroded and were sealed by a number of medieval foreshore deposits. To the N these were overlaid by a probable clay bank and revetment of 13th-c date which shared the alignment of Lower Thames Street and may have originally formed the S side of this street. A number of organic deposits were subsequently dumped to the S of this: they would have been associated with a 13th-14th-c revetment which probably lay to the S of the trench. The dumps were cut by the foundations and a cesspit pit of buildings behind the later medieval waterfront.
Procession House, 55 Ludgate Hill, EC4 TQ 3259 8143 MoLAS (I Grainger) excavation July-Nov 1997 Heron Property Corporation LUG97
Along the S side of Ludgate Hill, in the E area, a defensive or boundary ditch, dated to AD 50-70, and a number of rubbish pits were cut through the natural gravels. Later horizontal stratigraphy had been truncated but there was evidence of medieval occupation in the form of cut features, in particular a large rubbish pit dated to the later 13th c, and the remains of foundations of an interval tower or bastion for the City Wall extension of c. 1279 and 1284. In the W area alluvial deposits of the River Fleet were sealed by dumped layers dated to the late 11th-12th to early 14th c: these probably represent levelling and land reclamation along the E bank of the river associated with the construction of the City Wall extension. They were succeeded by a number of buildings which were modified and extended in the 16th and earlier 17th c, before being destroyed by the Great Fire and replaced by a series of warehouses built by Wren in the 1670s. Subsequent modifications to the warehouses occurred in the late 17th and early 18th c. Drains and walls of late 18th- to 19th-c date were also recorded.
1-3 Ludgate Square, 56-66 Carter Lane, EC4 TQ 3182 8111 MoLAS (B Watson) watching brief Oct 1997 Paskin Kyriakin Sands LUS97
Previous archaeological work (1986-90) has established that the site lies with a Norman fortress known as Montfichet's Tower. In four of the test pits truncated rubbish and cesspits of unknown date were recorded. Another test pit located a fragment of medieval cellar wall foundation, One borehole encountered an infilled post-medieval well.
Moorgate Station, 21 Moorfields, EC2 TQ 3265 8167 MoLAS (N Roycroft) evaluation Feb 1997 Hammersons UK Properties plc MFL97
Natural sand and clay was truncated by modern construction activity.
10-15 Newgate Street, EC1 TQ 3192 8132 MoLAS (Portia Askew) evaluation Mar-April 1997 Sudbury House/Christchurch Court Ltd SHN97
Investigation of testpits in the Barclays Bank building indicate the presence of Roman deposits, most of which relate to occupation horizons. One testpit revealed a gravelled surface which could be either part of a Roman road or one of the gravel spreads referred to by Grimes during his work on the site in 1961. WC
Britannia House, 16-17 Old Bailey, EC4 TQ 3173 8138 MoLAS (A Steele) evaluation May 1997 Foggo Associates OBL97
Natural gravels, overlaid in places by brickearth, were largely truncated by deep cut features ranging in date from Roman to 16th c. The Roman features seemed to have been gravel extraction pits and other pits: all were sealed by dumps. A very deep circular feature may have been a Saxo-Norman well. WC
40-66 Queen Victoria Street, EC4 TQ 3247 8104 MoLAS (J Hill) watching brief Oct 1997 - Mar 1998 Heron Developments Corporation QVA97
Above the natural brickearth were the remains of two successive phases of structural activity dating to the later 1st and 2nd c, the earlier phase of which included some evidence of beam slots. These were sealed by a deposit of fire-debris which had been truncated by a Victorian basement. Four intrusions of late-Roman and post-Roman date and a Victorian sewer or drain had truncated much of the horizontal stratigraphy.
31-32 St Andrew's Hill, EC4 TQ 3183 8099 MoLAS (A Miles) watching brief May-June 1997 Southern Properties Ltd SRW97
No archaeological remains were recorded in any of the trenches or pits excavated on the site, the new drains following the course of the existing drains. The excavation of a lift pit revealed a yellow stock brick man-hole.
36 St Andrew's Hill, EC4 TQ 3186 8102 MoLAS (Julian Ayre) watching brief Oct-Dec 1997 GAD Holdings SNW97
Natural strata were not reached. Three fragments of truncated chalk and ragstone masonry foundations were recorded cutting into earlier medieval dumping; these were part of the King’s Great Wardrobe complex (constructed in 1360). A tiled floor, probably a later phase of surfacing, was sealed by fire debris. The latter is likely to represent the destruction of the Wardrobe in the Great Fire. Truncated brick cellar walls were the remnants of the 17th- or 18th-c buildings on the site; they were sealed by destruction debris. The standing 19th-c building appears to follow the same property lines as those of the post-Fire buildings.
St Andrew by the Wardrobe, Queen Victoria Street, EC4 TQ 3184 8099 MoLAS (A Miles) watching brief Aug 1997 Marshall Sisson Architects SAA97
The top of a brick-built vault was recorded.
7-13 St Bride Street, EC4 TQ 3159 8130 MoLAS (Liz Howe & Portia Askew) watching brief Sept-Nov 1997 Southern Properties Ltd SBS97
Truncated natural gravel was generally located below the basement slab, although truncated pit fills, a chalk wall and a beam slot were also recorded.
Staple Inn Hall, 1-3 Staple Inn, WC1 TQ 3115 8155 MoLAS (P Askew) watching brief Jan-Apr 1997 The Institute of Actuaries STI96
Modern make-up overlay the natural gravels.
Junction of Suffolk Lane with Upper Thames Street (S end), EC4 TQ 3267 8078 MoLAS (K Pitt) watching brief Mar-Apr 1997 W S Atkins (City Engineers) Consultancy Limited SUK97
Natural strata were not observed; only Roman dumped deposits, probably demolition debris or robber-cut fill, were recorded.
Brooks Wharf, 48 Upper Thames Street, EC4 TQ 3222 8080 MoLAS (J Ayre) evaluation Mar-Apr 1997 Barratt East London BHD90
A series of medieval reclamation and levelling dumps, with chalk foundations and cesspits cut into them, was exposed during the excavation of modern intrusions. A number of revetment timbers were also observed in the deeper trenches.
Bull Wharf, Thames Court, Upper Thames Street, EC4 TQ 3232 8074 MoLAS (J Ayre, R Wroe-Brown) evaluation Feb 1997 Markborough Properties UK Ltd BUF90
Testpits associated with the proposed construction of a footbridge located the remains of a wall of a sunken Victorian lavatory.
Wardrobe Court, 53-57 Carter Lane, 1-5 Addle Hill, EC4 TQ 3189 8103 MoLAS (K Tyler) evaluation Oct 1997 Wardrobe Court Ltd WDC97
Redeposited brickearth and gravel, probably of Roman date, was noted over all the site. Alluvial deposits were recorded to the W of the N-S position of the Western Stream which is known to have been infilled by the early 14th c. Chalk foundations of the 14th-c King’s Wardrobe survive.
Weddel House, 13-21 West Smithfield, 22-29 Hosier Lane, EC1. TQ 3178 8159 MoLAS (R Bluer) evaluation Dec 1997 - Jan 1998 the Haberdashers’ Company WSI97
A partially-excavated feature, cut from the level of natural gravel, was probably a 1st-c gravel extraction pit. A chalk-lined cellar of presumed medieval date was destroyed and replaced with a substantial wall of suggested 16th-c date, which was in turn cut through by a masonry foundation. 19th-c fire debris was cut by a brick wall forming the SW corner of a building. To the W were deep intercutting cesspits of medieval or early post-medieval date. WC
22-24 Wormwood Street, EC2 TQ 3316 8146 MoLAS (D Sankey) excavation Sept 1997 Goldcrest Homes plc WOD86/WOE94
Roman rubbish pits and two wells containing pottery, glass and tile from the City Wall, were recorded.
90-91, 100 Wood Street, St Albans Court, EC2 TQ 3230 8144 MoLAS (E Howe) evaluation Apr 1997 Lloyds TSB WOO97
Roman pits and postholes and a deposit of gravel which may represent road metalling, were recorded above the natural brickearth in two areas. They were succeeded by large medieval pits and a chalk wall foundation. These, and the rest of the site, had been truncated during 19th- and 20th-c construction work.
Land at rear 163 Coombe Road, Croydon Surrey TQ 3338 6470 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Mar 1997 Sunley Estates plc COB97
The sandy clay subsoil was generally overlaid by garden soil, though in one trench it was cut by plough marks which are dated to the later 17th or 18th c. Two pieces of possible worked flint and two sherds of Roman pottery were recovered from the subsoil.
Farthing Down, Downs Road, Coulsdon, Surrey TQ 3000 5818 (middle car ark), TQ 3017 5715 (main car park), TQ 3020 5719 (E grass car park) and (TQ 3007 5717 (W grass car park) MoLAS (B Watson) watching brief Aug 1997 Corporation of London - City Engineers FTD97
The sites of proposed new gate and latch posts were excavated under archaeological supervision as a condition of Scheduled Ancient Monument consent. Natural chalk or in some cases deep modern disturbance was located.
Station Road (former garage workshop site), Kenley, Surrey TQ 3241 6020 MoLAS (R Hewett) evaluation Sept 1997 Neighbourhood Centres (UK) plc GOT97
Hillwash, containing prehistoric flint finds, was overlaid by an agricultural soil into which a 19th-c brick wall footing and 20th-c foundations and brick-lined soakaway were set.
Atwood Primary School, Limpsfield Road, Sanderstead, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3422 6054 MoLAS (D Saxby) evaluation Sept 1997 Governors of Atwood Primary School LFD97
In the S-W area of the site natural clay with flints was truncated by concrete footings and land stripping during the construction of the school.
513, 515 London Road, Croydon, Surrey TQ 3143 6721 MoLAS (R Hewett) evaluation May 1997 Southern Primary Housing Ltd LNN97
Garden soil, probably relating to London House (constructed in the 1870s), overlay natural gravels.
Methodist Church (land adjacent), Limpsfield Road, Sanderstead TQ 3429 6057 (S Stevens) watching brief Mar-Apr 1997 The Cheshire Foundation Housing Association LPR96
The watching brief followed an evaluation in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997). One undated pit was recorded, cutting the subsoil. It was sealed by topsoil in which a possible prehistoric flint and post-medieval material was noted.
Garage/Workshop site (former), Station Road, 60 Godstone Road, Kenley, Surrey TQ 3241 6020 MoLAS (R Hewett) evaluation Sept 1997 Neighbourhood Centres (UK) plc GOT97
Prehistoric flintwork (debitage and marginally utilized tools) and one Roman potsherd. were recovered from hillwash deposits. These were overlaid by make-up and/or demolition deposits relating to the 19th-c and later development of the site.
64-68 Thornton Road, Thornton Heath, Surrey TQ 3111 6763 MoLAS (R Cowie) watching brief June 1997 Radcliffe Housing Society Ltd THR97
Natural gravel was truncated by a basement or overlaid by topsoil.
Elm View, Norwood Green Road, Southall, Middx TQ 1325 7862 MoLAS (A Steele) evaluation July 1997 Northcote Housing Association/Lawson-Price Environmental NGN97
Natural brickearth was cut by two ditches, one of mid-late 11th c and the other of mid-late 12th c, with the latter being truncated by a third ditch. For the post-medieval period, a ditch, a brick-built drain and a large cut were recorded.
268 (rear) Northfield Ave, W5 TQ 1700 7905 MoLAS (D Lakin) evaluation Oct 1997 Bellway Homes NTA97
A fishpond of possible mid-18th-c date was found cutting the natural brickearth. It was backfilled, probably in c.1932 when the adjacent cinema was built.
Enfield Energy Centre, former Brimsdown Power Station, Brancroft Way, Enfield TQ 3684 9673 MoLAS (M Burch) evaluation Dec 1997 ABB Power Generation Ltd BNW95
Natural gravels were overlaid by alluvium of the River Lea which lies just to the E of the site. This was sealed by modern dumped imported demolition material.
Forty Hall Farm, Forty Hall, Forty Hill, Enfield TQ 3358 9859 MoLAS (E Howe) watching brief June 1997 Capel Manor Horticultural and Environmental Centre FOF94
A watching brief was carried out during the initial groundwork for the restoration of barn 3/4 at Forty Hall Farm after the evaluation of 1994 (LA7 no 13 (1995) 339). It is a Grade II Listed Building. Remnants of the original barn construction and usage were revealed in the form of brick wall foundations, dated to the late 17th-early 18th c, and a brick floor and gutter of 19th-c date. Timber of a possible wooden floor was also revealed.
270 Great Cambridge Road, Enfield TQ 3436 9604 MoLAS (J Roberts) watching brief Feb-Mar 1997 DFS Furniture plc GCE97
Natural brickearth was cut by a ditch or channel, probably of 19th- or 20th-c date.
Railway Goods Yard (former), Kingsway, Southbury, Enfield TQ 3482 9595 MoLAS (M McKenzie) excavation Sept 1997 Servite Houses KNY97
A number of undated features cut the natural brickearth and were sealed by post-medieval agricultural soil, above which lay made-ground for the construction of the railway goods yard.
Gallions Reach Urban Village, Central Way, Western Way, SE18 TQ 4535 8015 MoLAS (D Saxby) evaluation Feb 1997 Thamesmead Town GAC97
In two of 54 trial holes evidence of prehistoric activity was represented by struck flints, fire-cracked flint, animal bone and charcoal found on the surface of the natural sandy clay. They were sealed by the Tilbury III peat deposit dating to the Late Mesolithic - Early Neolithic period. In the other trial holes the Tilbury III peat deposit was overlaid by a sterile clay above which lay the Tilbury IV peat deposit, dating to the Late Bronze Age. At the W end of the site a river channel was located: it was filled with layered silt and peat and probably dates to the Bronze Age or Iron Age.
Gallions Reach Urban Village (Phase 2), Central Way, SE18 TQ 450 800 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Sept 1997 Thamesmead Town GAE97
A record of the prehistoric topography was made and peat and wood samples taken. The evaluation suggested an area of dry higher ground within an area typical of a lower lying, wet marsh environment which was traversed by substantial tidal channels.
DLR Lewisham Extension, Cutty Sark Station, Creek Road, SE10 TQ 3823 7774 MoLAS (M McKenzie) excavation Apr 1997 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXL97
Natural gravels and alluvial deposits in the S trench were cut by a cess or refuse pit of 12th-13th-c date. In another trench a N-S channel, cut into the alluvium, may have been part of an attempt to drain the area, possibly at a time when there was a growing demand for new development as medieval Greenwich expanded westwards. The channel could only be broadly dated by reference to one 15th - late 18th-c peg tile. Dumped material then raised the ground level across the whole site; Above it lay a garden-type soil which was succeeded by the cellars and cesspits of late 18th-early 19th-c tenement buildings. They appear to have been backfilled at the end of the 19th c.
Deptford Creek, SE10 TQ 3770 7730 MoLAS (B Sloane) Archaeological Foreshore Survey May 1997 London Borough of Lewisham FLS02
Guildford Grove, SE10 TQ 3790 7685 MoLAS (J Bowsher) evaluation Nov 1997 Buxton Homes GUL97
Topsoil over natural gravels was cut by 19th-c features, including a brick-lined cesspit, a soakaway and domestic pits.
Creedy's Yard, High Bridge Wharf, High Bridge, SE10 TQ 3876 7810 MoLAS (J Bowsher) evaluation Jan 1997 Berkeley Homes (Kent) Ltd HBW97
Natural sand was cut by stakeholes and two pits, all containing 12-13th-c pottery. These were sealed by ploughsoils and subsoils above which was constructed a substantial stone building of late medieval or early Tudor date. An associated plaster floor was sealed by demolition debris that included medieval brick, glazed floor tiles and stained window glass which indicate a building of high status. A sealing layer of 17th-c date was superseded by structural remains of the 18th c and 19th c.
Neptune Court, National Maritime Museum, Park Row, SE10 TQ 3860 7766 MoLAS (J Bowsher) watching brief Apr-May 1997 NPH96
Following an evaluation (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 42) a watching brief took place in 1997. Subsoil over the natural gravels was sealed by a topsoil which contained material dating to the 18th and 19th c and must represent the governor of Greenwich Hospital’s garden. Above were the remains of 19th-c walls which were directly sealed by the concrete surface that seems to be the original floor of Neptune Hall (b. 1873).
9 Appold Street, and Snowden House, 66-90 Worship Street, EC2 TQ 3318 8205 MoLAS (D Sankey) evaluation June-July 1997 Gemini Commercial Investments Ltd APP97
Natural brickearth was overlaid by 17th-19th-c landfill dumps reclaiming either the N end of the Moorgate marsh or a tributary of the Walbrook stream. Fragments of moulded Caen stone from a 16th-c building were found reused in a 19th-c foundation and 19th-c cellars.
St Augustine's Church Tower, Mare Street, E8 TQ 3498 8499 MoLAS (M Burch) watching brief Nov 1997 Hackney Historic Buildings Trust SGS97
To the S and W of the tower limited works exposed graveyard soil and brick rubble beneath stone paving slabs which seem to have been laid in the late 19th-early 20th c.
2-6 Link Street, Homerton, E9 TQ 3534 8504 MoLAS (Kieron Tyler) excavation Apr-May 1997 New Islington & Hackney Housing Association LIK95
Excavations followed an evaluation in 1995 (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 10). Natural gravel was located, overlaid at the N of the site by brickearth. The chalk foundations of a building, as well as external pits, were recorded above; these are dated to the 11th-12th c, suggesting that the origins of Homerton are much earlier than its documented date of mid-14th c. Subsequent to this, a building with chalk and flint foundations was constructed, some time after the 13th-14th c and before the late 15th-early 16th c. To its S, and contemporary with this building, were a series of ditches and a timber sluice: these related to the management of water in the area of Hackney Brook, located to the S of the site. They were replaced by a brick-lined reservoir constructed during the late 15th or early 16th c. During this period the land came into the ownership of Ralph Sadleir, the owner of Sutton House, a Tudor mansion still standing to the E of the site. The demolition of the chalk and flint-founded building was succeeded by an external surface subsequently built upon in the very early 19th c, after the demolition of buildings adjacent to the site which are known to have been standing in c. 1792.
All Saints Primary School, Bishops Avenue, SW6 TQ 2417 7639 MoLAS (J Partridge et al) watching brief Feb-Apr 1997 London Diocesan Board for Schools ASP97
Limited work took place in the N corner of Fulham Palace, a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The watching brief did not reveal any significant archaeological remains. In two areas modern construction and/or made ground related to the development of the school in the 1960s. Elsewhere recent made-ground overlay the natural brickearth. Evidence for earlier activity was limited to a few finds and probable planting holes of 19th-c date.
Fulham Palace, West Court, Bishop's Avenue, SW6 TQ 2402 7613 MoLAS (J Bowsher) watching brief Sept 1997 Fulham Council FPC97
A shallow trench, from the E gate to a fountain in the centre of the courtyard, revealed modern levelling surfaces, a small area of possibly early demolition material and some stone blocks that could have belonged to an earlier (1860s) fountain structure.
69a Fulham High Street, 423 New King's Road, SW6 TQ 2443 7597 MoLAS (J Partridge) evaluation Feb 1997 Threshold Tennant Trust FUH97
Several 17th-c pits and a posthole were cut into the surface of the natural brickearth. They had been truncated by brick foundation walls associated with properties to the E of the old King’s Arms public house. Two of these foundation walls probably date to between the late 17th and mid-19th c; they were both orientated approximately N-S and perpendicular to New Kings Road. They were separated by a drain and a brick-paved passageway that may have led into a yard. Large pits associated with the late 19th-c demolition of the King’s Arms and modern activity had truncated much of the earlier post-medieval remains.
The Distillery site, Winslow Road, Manbre Road, W6 TQ 2337 7783 MoLAS (R Cowie) watching brief June 1997 English Heritage WLR97
Natural brickearth, in which was found a prehistoric flint flake, was cut by several pits and a narrow gully or slot. Some of these were of late medieval and early post-medieval date. A number of other pits probably dated to the 19th c, and six postholes were undated.
Highgate Woods new information centre and staff bothy, N6 TQ 2828 8838 and 2830 8864 MoLAS (Nick Holder) watching brief Jan-Feb 1997 Corporation of London HWO96
Recent and Victorian features were observed cutting the weathered London Clay.
Angel Way (ex GPO site), Romford, Essex TQ 5105 8890 MoLAS (N Holder) watching brief Jan 1997 Mitchell, McFarlane and Partners Ltd ANL97
In two out of ten geotechnical test pits peat horizons overlay the natural gravels.
The Bowling Green, Gidea Park, Main Road, Romford, Essex TQ 5330 9045 MoLAS (M Wiggins) watching brief June 1997 CM Cadman & Sons MNO97
Ploughsoil covered the natural brickearth.
Ruislip Manor Farm House, near Bury Street, Ruislip, Middx TQ 0905 8778 MoLAS (A Steele) watching brief Aug 1997 LB Hillingdon RMH97
Engineers’ testpits were examined at the 16th-17th-c farmhouse (a Listed Building situated in the NE corner of a motte and bailey castle (a Scheduled Ancient Monument)). On the N and E sides of the house flint foundations were recorded above the natural clay: these may have belonged to structures associated with a 13th-c abbey. On the E side they were in close proximity to the moat of the castle and here they were fairly deep. A coin of the reign of Stephen (1135-1154) was found in deposits on the N side of the farmhouse. The foundations were robbed in the post-medieval period and reused as foundations for the farmhouse on the NE side of the building. To this corner had been added a buttress, perhaps in the 18th or early 19th c. Further S a backfilled cellar with a brick floor may have been additional to the original house.
The Norman Hay Site, Bath Road, Harmondsworth, Middx TQ 0701 7708 MoLAS (S Hoad) evaluation Dec 1997 Kingswood Commercial Properties Ltd NHS97
A probable prehistoric ditch, containing a fragment of burnt flint, cut into the natural brickearth. It was truncated by a gully from which a fragment of medieval pottery was recovered. Two postholes were associated with it. Another ditch was also revealed, containing charcoal and daub and likely to have been of Roman or Saxon origin. Three Saxon pits were identified and a loomweight fragment recovered. The remaining features comprised undated tree root holes and a plough mark.
Windsor Court Development, 30-34 Chapel Street, 28-34 Windsor Street, Uxbridge, Middx TQ 0538 8396 MoLAS (H Knight) evaluation Mar 1997 Grosvenor Square Properties Developments Ltd CWU97
A series of 18th-c rubbish pits and two ditches cut the natural gravels. They were probably associated with the activities that took place to the rear of properties facing onto Windsor Street. Two large pond-like features were also excavated: these had silted up by the 18th c and probably dated from when the area was common land.
Heathrow Airport Terminal 4, Remote Stands, Grassed Area 16A, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0750 7485 MoLAS (S Hoad) watching brief Nov-Dec 1997 - Jan 1998 Heathrow Airport Ltd TFR97
Natural brickearth was cut by a total of fourteen features comprising postholes, ditches, pits, tree root holes and field drains. Quantities of Middle Bronze Age pottery, including the remains of two separate vessels, were recovered from two of these features, a small hollow in the brickearth and a ditch. From the same ditch fragments of Middle Neolithic and Middle Bronze Age pottery were recovered. Some features contained burnt flint fragments and numerous fragments of unstratified burnt flint were found. Several postholes and an area of burnt clay were recorded but contained no dating evidence. Post-medieval field drains and ditches were observed, one of which contained a horse shoe and a plough-share. The site was covered by a layer of topsoil or ploughsoil. WC
Heathrow Airport N side Extension - Communications Infrastructure, S of Northern Perimeter Rd (N of N Runway), Hounslow TQ 0527 7678 MoLAS (N Elsden) watching brief May-Sept 1997 Heathrow Airport Ltd HCI97
Pits and ditches were recorded above the natural brickearth, the majority at the W and E ends of the site. They were of uncertain date but their proximity to the prehistoric sites excavated by Grimes in 1944 and Canham in 1969 suggest that they might date to the Neolithic to Iron Ages, and possibly the Roman period. Deposits of alluvium were identified: these were probably palaeo-channels, but might be the remains of ponds or stream channels documented in mid-18th-19th c.
High Street (rear), Uxbridge, Middx TQ 1737 7724 MoLAS (Heather Knight) excavation Dec 1997 Royal & Sun Alliance HSU96
A further phase of excavation was undertaken in this medieval town centre after the work of 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 45). A number of post-holes and gravel surfaces cut by medieval and post medieval pits were recorded. WC
Moyson’s Yard, Moor Lane, Harmondsworth, W Drayton, Middx TQ 0570 7767 MoLAS (A Steele) evaluation July 1997 Stor-A Car MLH97
Weathered brickearth above the natural gravels was cut by three post-medieval pits. These were sealed by topsoil onto which a 19th-c brick yard surface, probably Moyson’s Yard, had been laid.
The World Business Centre, Newall Road, Heathrow Airport, Middx TQ 0834 7689 MoLAS (J Partridge) evaluation July 1997 BAA Lynton plc NLL97
The natural gravels were overlaid by weathered brickearth, and cut by a palaeo-channel or other periglacial feature. No archaeological deposits were present.
Land adjacent to Ibis Hotel, Nobel Drive, Harlington TQ 0911 7701 MoLAS (Nicholas Elsden) excavation July 1997 Howmac Limited NDH96
An evaluation in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 45) was followed by excavations. The earliest evidence for human activity was a pit, the fill of which contained a fine example of a leaf-shaped arrowhead of Early or Middle Neolithic date. It appears never to have been shafted or used, suggesting that it could have been a deliberate deposit. Later prehistoric activity is represented by two boundary ditches. The entrance way through a Middle or Late Bronze Age ditch had a complex series of modifications to its layout, possibly as part of a system for stock management. Its alignment has parallels from sites in the surrounding area, notably Cranford Lane, and appears to have been derived from the local alignment of the slope of the gravel terrace in the valley of the River Crane. One ditch appears to be of Iron Age date or later; this shows a change in orientation from the enclosures of the Later Bronze Age. A single minim coin of the late 3rd or early 4th c ad forms the sole evidence for Roman activity, but is of similar date to a nearby Roman enclosure system at Cranford Lane.
St Giles’ Church Hall, High Road, Ickenham, Uxbridge TQ 0791 8635 MoLAS (M Wiggins) watching brief May 1997 Ickenham Parochial Council SGL97
Natural brickearth was generally covered by ploughsoil though in the SW of the site it was cut by a ditch containing fragments of a Roman tile and an 18th-c brick. Above the infilled ditch a rammed chalk foundation wall was recorded.
Lufthansa Cargo Warehouse, Southampton Road, Shoreham Road West, Middx TQ 0638 7448 MoLAS (S Hoad) evaluation July 1997 Lufthansa Cargo AG LCW97
Natural gravel was overlaid by a series of modern dump deposits, capped by an asphalt surface.
The Shoenberg Site, Trevor Road, Hayes, Middx TQ 0940 7975 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Dec 1997 Thorn High Street Properties Ltd TVO97
Natural gravels at the N end of the site were overlaid by redeposited gravels, probably to terrace the landscape during construction of the adjacent Grand Union Canal. In the S of the site natural gravels were sealed by modern industrial and building debris.
1 Brentford High Street, Brentford, Middx TQ 1871 7792 MoLAS (R Cowie) evaluation Aug 1997 Barratt West London BFH97
Cutting natural gravels and, on the N side of the site, brickearth, were three small post-medieval pits, an 18th-c ditch aligned at right-angles to the High Street, and several brick structures. Of particular interest were the remains of a large building on the E side of the site, identified on 19th-c maps (dating back to 1839) as a malthouse. Walls abutting the malthouse were dated to the 19th c, as was a brick-lined soakaway.
St Mary's Convent, The Butts, Brentford, Middx TQ 1762 7747 MoLAS (R Cowie) evaluation Nov 1997 The Poor Servants of the Mother of God BTT97
Natural brickearth was recorded above gravels in the NE and SW of the site. An iron spearhead, provisionally dated to the early Saxon period, was recovered from a feature cutting into the gravels. In some areas the gravel appears to have been truncated during the early post-medieval period probably because of gravel extraction. Most of the recorded features were of post-medieval date and associated with agricultural activity or gardening. The remains of 19th- and early 20th-c buildings were revealed on the N and E sides of the site. Unstratified finds included three flint waste flakes dated to the Neolithic or Bronze Age, and Roman potsherds.
The Serco Site, 13 Hayes Road, Southall, Middx TQ 1118 7862 MoLAS (D Lakin) evaluation Nov 1997 Helical Bar Developments Ltd HYR97
Natural brickearth was extensively extracted, probably in the 19th or early 20th c.
Former Health Centre, Spring Road, Lower Feltham, Middx TQ 0996 7225
M (H Knight) evaluation Feb 1997 Ealing Family Housing Association Ltd SLF97
Natural brickearth was sealed by ploughsoil into which 19th-c pits and postholes were cut. In the S of the trench it was cut by a shallow stream channel which was infilled with brickearth containing two sherds of late 11th-c pottery.
Mayfield Farm, Staines Road, Bedfont, Middx TQ 0745 7350 MoLAS (H Knight) evaluation Nov 1997 Heathrow Airport Ltd MFF97
Field walking across the survey area produced quantities of burnt flint and a small quantity of worked flint, as well as ceramic building material.
85 Colebrook Row, N1 TQ 3173 8357 MoLAS (A Miles) evaluation May 1997 Commonwealth Invest Ltd COK97
Natural clay was overlaid by thick levelling deposits for 19th-c buildings on the site.
1-7 Dallington Street, EC1 TQ 3189 8236 MoLAS (A Miles) watching brief Apr 1997 Dallington Lofts Ltd DLL97
Natural brickearth or gravels were overlaid by similar deposits, possibly representing agricultural use prior to its development in the 17th c. At the N end of the site deeper deposits may indicate pitting.
129-139 Finsbury Pavement, EC2 TQ 3277 8175 MoLAS (K Pitt) excavation Dec 1997 Norwich Union Investment Management FIS96
After the evaluation of 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 47) an excavation was undertaken on this site which lies immediately to the E of the medieval moated manor house of Finsbury. A number of late medieval and early post-medieval cut features and brick structures were recorded, the most notable being the W arm of the moat for the manor house which had probably been backfilled in the 17th c. WC
5 Garrett Street, EC1 TQ 3225 8227 MoLAS (P Askew & L Howe) watching brief Sept 1997 Blueprint Estates plc GET97
A substantial deposit of late medieval - post-medieval garden soil was recorded above reworked brickearth sealing natural brickearth.
Collins’ Music Hall, 10-12 Islington Green, N1 TQ 3172 8368 MoLAS (A Miles) evaluation July-Aug 1997 The Collins’ Music Hall ISL97
Natural gravels were cut by a probable stream channel and overlaid by ploughsoil. Pottery dates from the ploughsoil - mainly mid 14th to mid 15th c, with number of mid 12th-c dates-suggest that the area was open ground from the medieval period. A burnt layer above may represent debris from the use of the land as a timber yard, or the fire which destroyed the Collins’ Music Hall (b.1862) in 1956.
Jerusalem Passage, EC1 TQ 3163 8218 MoLAS (L Howe) watching brief June 1997 Tasou Associates JEP97
Underpinning works were monitored on the site of St John’s Priory, a Scheduled Ancient Monument. A wall comprising chalk blocks and Tudor bricks was recorded: it may have been part of the post-medieval building which was built after the priory was demolished.
387a Liverpool Road, N1 TQ 3125 8456 MoLAS (A Miles) watching brief Mar-Apr 1997 London Building Company plc LIP97
Natural gravels were overlaid by a soil horizon containing pottery dated to mid 11th to mid 12th c. It is most likely that this was for agriculture and that this was the case up until the first buildings were erected on the site in the 19th c.
1 Peartree Street, N1 TQ 3210 8245 MoLAS (Nick Holder) watching brief Feb 1997 Waterman Partnership PTR97
A thick peaty horizon was observed above the natural gravels in three geotechnical test pits. Material within these layers was dated to the 17th c and it is possible that they represent the fills of a deep feature or features associated with Civil War defences of 1642-3.
56-64 Pentonville Road, 1-11 Baron Street, N1 TQ 3122 8316 MoLAS (K Tyler) evaluation Jan 1997 The Jury's Hotel Group Ltd and McAleer & Rushe Ltd PNT97
Natural gravel was, at the S end of the site, truncated by the E edge of a pond which is depicted on a plan of c.1760. Finds recovered from its fill included fragments of sugar cone moulds. The pond was sealed by dumps, dated by pottery to 1730-1770, which were probably associated with the construction in 1788 of Winchester Place, a row of houses fronting onto the recently opened (1756) Pentonville Road. At the N end of the site a gravel extraction pit was recorded, its backfill dated to 1730-1770. It is possible, therefore, that the gravel was removed during the construction of Pentonville Road.
Preachers’ Court, Charterhouse, EC1 TQ 3185 8202 MoLAS (Chris Thomas) watching brief Sept 1997 Sutton Hospital PCC92
A watching brief followed an evaluation in 1992 (LA7 no 3 (1993) 81). Natural gravels were overlaid by early medieval dump layers or gravel extraction pit fills. They were succeeded by features and deposits relating to the Charterhouse (f.1371): a chalk wall, a possible timber drain and dump layers dating to the 14th - 16th c. Above were brick walls, a possible floor and dumped layers dating to the later 16th-18th c. These were overlaid by 19th-c demolition materials.
The Royal Hospital, Royal Hospital Road, Chelsea, SW3 TQ 2794 7808 MoLAS (Sarah Jones) watching brief July 1997 The Commissioners of The Royal Hospital RHR97
Trial holes were monitored in the Great Kitchen of the Royal Hospital which was constructed as part of Wren’s original Royal Hospital building, completed in 1692. Topsoils, which could date to any period prior to the late 17th c, sealed the natural gravels and probably represent the open or cultivated area indicated by the documentary sources. They were succeeded by two spur-walls which were part of the original Wren building phase of the Royal Hospital, possibly forming side walls for one or more of the late 17th-c cooking ranges or hearth surrounds located along the NE side of the kitchen area, beneath the chimney stacks. Make-ups and dumps, presumably for floor surfaces which have not survived, post-dated the spur-walls.
Kingston Bridge (S side), Kingston upon Thames, Surrey TQ 1776 6935 MoLAS (D Saxby) evaluation Apr-May 1997 Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames KIB97
Timber revetments and the N boundary of the property to which the revetments belonged, were located on the S side of the bridge. Ten phases were identified and some revetments were constructed from reused boat and building timbers. The earliest revetment is dendrochronologically dated to the early 14th c. A substantial 17th- or 18th-c brick wall subsequently replaced the property boundary defined by the waterfront structures: it remains today as the wall flanking steps which lead down to the river.
Thames Water pipeline, Belvedere Road, SE1 TQ 3070 7971 MoLAS (J Minkin) watching brief Feb 1997 Galliard Homes Ltd BVD97
A sealed well or sump with the lower part of an in-situ pump was found, set into an alluvial silt and clay above the natural gravels. It consisted of a lining of two casks, one above the other, and on top of which was suspended a joist and plank floor. Set vertically into the cask lining and projecting through the floor was a bored wooden pipe, apparently the remains of a pump. It is dated to mid - late 18th c and may have been associated with a number of workshops adjacent to the site at this time.
The Millenium Wheel site, Jubilee Gardens, Belvedere Road, SE1 TQ 3065 7994 MoLAS (Graham Spurr) evaluation Oct-Nov 1997 The Millennium Wheel Co Ltd JUL97
A number of boreholes were examined to provided evidence of palaeo-environmental conditions. A sequence was recorded of gravels, overlaid by the sands and silts typical of a floodplain, which were in turn overlaid by organic silty clays indicative of a marsh-like environment and at a level which suggests that they related to the Roman period. This sequence was sealed by thick deposits of post-medieval made-ground, including probable building material waste, and some in-situ brick walls.
Thames Foreshore (Flood Mitigation Phase 3), opposite County Hall and S of Hungerford Bridge, SE1 TQ 3064 8017 MoLAS (S Hoad) watching brief Feb 1997 London Underground Ltd TFC97
An auger survey recorded natural gravels gradually falling towards the river, though one of the transections showed a sharp fall, possibly the result of truncation by dredging for the clearance of an entrance to one of the numerous wharves that lined this part of the river in the 18th and 19th c.
DLR Lewisham Extension (Trenches 4 and 5), Broadway Fields, SE8 TQ 3746 7680 MoLAS (J Bowsher) watching brief Mar 1997 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXK96
The excavation of a number of trenches for pier bases was monitored. In one of them were recorded several stakes which would appear to have been part of a small, post-medieval, revetment which lined the E edge of a channel running from the Armoury Mill, (documented in 13th c and later used in the grinding of steel for Henry VII’s armoury at Greenwich).
DLR Lewisham Extension (Trench 10), rear of Conington Road, SE13 TQ 3793 7618 MoLAS (J Bowsher) evaluation Apr 1997 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXH97
Riverlaid silts were truncated by cut features associated with channels running from the Armoury Mill (see above), which is known to have been located to the S of this trench.
Deptford Creek, SE8, SE10 TQ 3770 7730 MoLAS (B Sloane) Archaeological Foreshore Survey May 1997 London Borough of Lewisham FLS02
A survey of the drift geology and archaeology, a photographic record of the principal riverine structures of late 19th-c or earlier date and a record of the physical attributes of the creek bed and associated structures was undertaken. Amongst the latter were: stretches of timber river walls, constructed in the mid-19th c, timber revetments, a masonry riverbed lining of c.1838, a dock or inlet of 1876-94, barge-bed revetments, masonry and timber splash aprons for sewage pumping station outfall pipe of 1868, a masonry and timber drain of c. 1868, Halfpenny Hatch rail bridge of 1870 and a line of timber uprights which may be remnants of the river wall line predating the 18th c.
DLR Lewisham Extension (Trench 9), junction of Elverson Rd and Conington Road, SE13 TQ 3742 7685 MoLAS (J Bowsher) evaluation Apr 1997 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXG97
The sequence was composed of riverine deposits over natural gravel. The upper part of the sequence was sealed by recent landfills.
DLR Lewisham Extension (Trench 14), off Lewisham High St (Tesco’s car park), SE13 TQ 3085 7600 MoLAS (J Bowsher) evaluation Mar 1997 Mowlem Civil Engineering DXJ97
The sequence comprised sterile sands over alluvial silts sealed by recent made-ground. Late 19th- or early 20th-c intrusive features were present.
Tesco Store, Burlington Road, New Malden, Surrey TQ 2252 6850 MoLAS (C Cowan) evaluation Apr 1997 Tesco Stores Limited BUL97
Alluvial clay lay over the natural clay: it was probably derived from inundations of the Pyl Brook, situated immediately to the N of the site.
Land bordered by High Street, Christchurch Road and the River Pickle SW19 TQ 2672 7014 MoLAS (D Saxby) evaluation Sept-Oct 1997 J Sainsbury Developments Ltd CCC97
In the SE of the site natural gravels and an overlying peaty deposit were cut by prehistoric palaeo-channels which were presumably part of the River Pickle/Wandle. The Roman road, Stane Street, which linked London with Chichester, was located in the NW of the site. It had been constructed in a cut and was bordered with banks and ditches, possibly to protect the road from flooding. The S ditch contained pottery dating to the 1st - 3rd c. To the N a ditch or channel cutting the natural gravels is undated but appeared to be cut to the same level as the roadside ditches and to be similarly aligned: it may therefore have been part of an associated drainage system. Sealing the road and channels was a sequence of alluvial flood deposits above which there was some evidence for 18th- and 19th-c activity, including a ditch or channel of 18th-c date which may have been associated with the calico industry.
Land adjacent to 110 Ridgway, SW19 TQ 2328 7033 MoLAS (R Hewett) evaluation Nov 1997 Thirlstone Homes Ltd RGW97
Natural gravels were overlaid by 20th-c features.
42 Tramway Path (land adjacent), Mitcham, Surrey TQ 2735 6801 MoLAS (R Hewitt) evaluation Aug 1997 Care Haven Ltd TRA97
Natural sands and gravels were cut by a pit which contained Roman material and some early to middle Saxon pottery. These latter finds are particularly significant in view of the site's proximity to the Mitcham Anglo-Saxon cemetery, and the previous lack of evidence for settlement in this part of Mitcham.
Caesar’s Camp, Royal Wimbledon Golf Club, Camp Road, SW19 TQ 2240 7108 MoLAS (N Roycroft) watching brief Dec 1997 Swan Golf Designs Ltd CCM97
As part of a pipe-laying operation five trenches were opened in the centre, on the ramparts, in the ditch and on a possible causeway of the Iron Age hillfort of Caesar’s Camp, a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Some burnt flints and one struck flint, a small pit and a possible metalled surface over the W causeway were considered to date from the prehistoric occupation. Evidence for medieval or post-medieval ridge and furrow fields was also noted. A central path flanked by lateral ditches, which was a precursor of the path that cuts through the site, was recorded. It was clear that the medieval or post-medieval ploughing had removed any in-situ stratigraphy inside the fort, leaving deep-cut features into gravel.
East Ham Baths, Nelson Street, E6 TQ 4275 8349 MoLAS (N Holder) evaluation Oct 1997 London Borough of Newham HIS97
Natural brickearth was overlaid by ploughsoil from which 18th-c finds were recovered. WC
Royal Docks Community School, Prince Regent Lane, E16 TQ 4130 8110 MoLAS (N Holder) evaluation and excavation Aug-Oct 1997 London Borough of Newham PRG97
In prehistory the area of the site consisted of two islands of high ground surrounded by marsh and inlets of the River Thames. The higher E island had a sandy subsoil from which a few Mesolithic flint flakes were recovered. It was covered by a Neolithic and Bronze Age soil, from which over 1300 fragments of flint tools, debris and pottery were found. Several features were excavated, including a cooking pit that was filled with and surrounded by burnt flint and a small scatter of animal bone. A group of stakeholes by a deep channel at the edge of the island was interpreted as a platform or jetty. The lower-lying gravel island to the W had no signs of human occupation but a collapsed yew tree was found, covered by a layer of peat. The site is interpreted as a seasonal or temporary camp situated on an island of dry land with good access to the major transport ‘highway’ of the River Thames. Furthermore, the surrounding marshy area and water would have been a valuable resource for hunting wildfowl and animals, fishing and exploiting wood for shelter, fuel and tools.
Council Depot (former), Well Street, opposite junction with Waddington Street, E15 TQ 3908 8498 MoLAS (D Sankey) evaluation Oct 1997 Molloy & Lynskey Ltd WTF97
Natural reworked brickearth and gravels were cut by two 18th- to 19th-c wells which were backfilled at the end of the 19th or early 20th c.
Eastwood Road, 92-96 High Road, E18 TQ 4025 8024 MoLAS (I Grainger) watching brief July- Aug 1997 Lansbury Developments Ltd EWR97
Natural clay was overlaid by the earlier ground surface which was probably pasture, waste or park land before the 19th c. This and a probable quarry pit were sealed by levelling or a surface associated with Grove Lodge, a 19th c Grade II listed building. Brick culverts may also have been associated with the latter.
The Grotto, Wanstead Park, Warren Road, E11 TQ 4195 8748 MoLAS (C Thomas) standing structure survey Mar-Apr 1997 Corporation of London GWP97
A survey and reconstruction drawings of the ruined Grotto were carried out. Situated at the S end of Perch Pond, it was originally constructed as a boat-house, with chambers above for a boatkeeper, within the park of Wanstead House (rebuilt in 1781). A fire caused substantial damage to the Grotto in 1884 and more recent erosion, robbing, and vandalism have caused widespread damage, leaving the building very ruinous. The E wall of the boat-house dock, uncovered in previous excavations, was re-surveyed.
Beveree, Twickenham Preparatory School, 43 High Street, Hampton, Middx TQ 1399 6970 MoLAS (R Cowie) evaluation Aug 1997 Twickenham Preparatory School Trust HGH97
Natural gravels were cut by six ditches, one of which seems to be dated to the 16th or 17th c; the others were probably of similar date, but produced no datable artefacts. The gravels - and possibly the ditches - were overlaid by ploughsoil, which produced abraded sherds of Kingston-type ware and fragments of post-medieval tile. The ploughsoil was sealed by 18th-c garden soil. This was cut by gravel-filled features including a path, which were probably of 19th- or early 20th-c date.
Lower Nurseries, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Road, Kew, Surrey TQ 184 774 MoLAS (M Wiggins) watching brief Jan 1997 ADAS LNK97
A number of engineers’ testpits, most of which were located close to existing glasshouse walls, were examined. Natural strata were not certainly reached. Beneath the modern gravel path lay garden soil, a possible weathered soil horizon and a possible demolition layer.
61-69 Mortlake High Street, SW14 TQ 2070 7600 MoLAS (N Holder, S Hoad) watching brief, evaluation and excavation Apr-Sept 1997 Crown Dilmun plc MOT97
Natural gravels were cut by a small pit of possible prehistoric date. They were overlaid by 16th- to 17th-c garden soils and features which may have been associated with the fragmentary remains of walls and a pond. These possibly represented the remains of a Tudor house and garden that fronted on to Mortlake High Street at this time. Above the Tudor deposits were a series of brick walls, foundations and drains which were probably connected with a 17th-c sugar refinery referred to in documentary sources. They were associated with numerous fragments of sugar cone moulds and a series of dump and demolition layers. These were followed by walls, drains and foundations, dated to the 17th-18th-c, and associated with the documented Sander’s Pottery. Quantities of pottery wasters, both tin glazed and salt glazed, have been recovered across the site. Evidence of the production process, such as kiln furniture (saggers and spacers), was recorded as well as a large amount of vitrified and curved bricks which could either represent kiln debris or have been related to the production of salt glaze pottery. Also recorded were the remains of a kiln structure with brick fireboxes, associated with the reuse and repair of and later additions to the earlier sugar refinery building. The pothouse was demolished during the 19th c, the debris apparent in dumped levelling layers, from which the majority of ceramic wasters has been recovered. Above were the substantial brick walls, floors and foundations of a documented 19th-c malthouse and associated oasthouses.
The Lord Napier Public House, 71-75 Mortlake High Street, SW14 TQ 0208 1025 MoLAS (S Hoad) excavation May-June 1997 Michael Shanly Group HSL96
An evaluation in 1996 by Wessex Archaeology (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 53) was followed by an excavation in which two prehistoric pits and a ditch, both containing struck flint artefacts, were found. One fragment of pottery was also recovered. These were succeeded by a pair of double ovens, brick walls, floors and drains which may be associated with a documented 17th-c sugar refinery.
Dalemead Residential Care Home, 10-12 Riverdale Gardens, St Margarets, Twickenham, Middx TQ 1735 7454 MoLAS (R Cowie) watching brief May 1997 Anwar Phul RDG97
Natural sand was covered by topsoil.
Trumpeter's House, The Old Palace, The Green, Richmond-upon-Thames, Surrey TQ 1750 7485 MoLAS (R Cowie) excavation July 1997 Diverse Production Ltd on behalf of Channel 4 TRU97
Excavations to reveal the precise location of the ‘privy lodgings’ - or royal apartments - of the Tudor Richmond Palace revealed the remains of a number of structures, including a wall constructed of Tudor brick, dated to the reign of Henry VII. The wall was on the predicted line of the S (riverside) frontage of the royal apartments and although it was thought to be too thin for the main outer wall, it may have been part of a bay projecting out from the main building (as shown on 16th- and early 17th-c pictures of the palace). Evidence for the NW tower and the N side of the royal apartments was also found. Dumps of brick, stone and mortar rubble containing sherds of 17th-c stoneware were almost certainly connected with the demolition of most of the palace during the Commonwealth (in c. 1650). Among the debris were fragments of moulded stone from mullions and sills, a stone from part of the battlements, and a fragment of early 16th-c ornamental terracotta. The latter had a moulded acanthus leaf design, and showed traces of blue paint. The project was filmed for a programme in Time Team series, which was screened in January 1998.
Harrods Depository (former), Trinity Church Road, SW13 TQ 2315 7765 MoLAS (S Jones) evaluation Sept 1997 Berkeley Homes (Thames Valley) Ltd TRC97
Natural sand and gravel was cut by four undated ditches, the southernmost of which was appreciably wider than the others and may have been a palaeo-channel. Ploughsoil sealed the two westernmost ditches and was then overlaid by alluvial deposits, which also filled and sealed the other two ditches and appeared to increase in depth towards the River Thames to the E. None of the alluvial deposits contained organic or peaty horizons, or dating evidence. A ditch which cut into the ploughsoil along the W edge of the area, contained 17th-c pottery, and was probably a field drain.
Globe Theatre and Anchor Terrace Car Park, Anchor Terrace, SE1 TQ 3235 8035 MoLAS (B Barber) watching brief Feb 1997 Hollybrook Ltd GLB96
The earliest recorded deposits were alluvial in nature, mostly the result of flooding during the medieval period. A gravel surface, apparently containing only Roman material, was recorded between two bands of alluvium in the SW of the site. This may indicate either that the natural topography rose to the SW, or that earlier deposits had been eroded elsewhere on the site by an unrecognised channel. The latest alluvial deposits were more mixed with cultural material and in places sealed by dumps, suggesting a phase of land reclamation. These were cut by a series of parallel, shallow pits dated to the 16th c, and a N-S ditch which may relate to one of the S boundaries of the documented Globe Estate. They were sealed by a series of dumps and garden soils, some of which may have been contemporary with the Globe Theatre: one context produced a lead disk - possibly a token - dated 1625. Excavation in this area did not impinge upon the Globe Theatre, a Scheduled Ancient Monument, but against the E edge of the excavation was a sequence of mortar surfaces, probably associated with two chalk and brick packed postholes which occurred at a similar level to parts of the Globe Theatre, located in 1989 (LA6 no 7 (1990) 192): they may have been part of one of the properties fronting onto Globe Alley (documented in 1647). Measures were taken to preserve these features in situ. The upper part of the sequence related to later 17th-c industrial and domestic activity and mid-late 18th-c brick wall footings and external surfaces. They were sealed by modern makeup.
Benbow House, Bear Gardens, Bankside, SE1 TQ 3223 8051 MoLAS (T Mackinder) excavation July-Sept & Dec 1997 Chelsfield plc BAN95
Following an evaluation (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 18) and a watching brief (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 54) two phases of excavations took place, after which the site was reburied. Crushed chalk had been dumped above alluvium to form the foundation of buildings fronting onto Bankside during the medieval period. Remains of the buildings consisted of walls, floors, a large cellar and several pits: these are identified as the ‘stews’, owned by the Bishop of Winchester. Post-medieval brick walls, cellars and drains were recorded as well as evidence of industry: a delftware kiln, debris from glass-making and metal-working.
80 Camberwell Church Street, SE5 TQ 3291 7665 MoLAS (P Askew) evaluation May 1997 Landmark Housing Association CBW97
A garden soil sealed the natural the natural gravel and sand. This was cut by a mid 19th- c pit on the S-W side of the trench and a brick cellar. On the E side of the trench, the garden soil was cut by two post holes, one of which had the remains of a stone post pad and its timber upright. The cellar and pit had been backfilled and sealed by late 19th- to early 20th-c demolition rubble. Cutting through the demolition material was a large pit, presumed to be early 20th c in date, sealed by the modern make-up rubble and concrete of the site.
Gloucester Grove (Phase 3C), St George's Way, SE15 TQ 3325 7755 MoLAS (D Saxby) evaluation Mar 1997 Peckham Partnership GLG97
Natural gravel was overlaid by ploughsoil dating to the 19th c.
165 Great Dover Street, SE1 TQ 3268 7946 MoLAS (Tony Mackinder) watching brief June 1997 Berkeley Homes (Hampshire) Ltd GDV96
After an evaluation in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 54) a watching brief was carried out to monitor the construction of a drain. A very narrow trench exposed mainly Roman cut features: pits, a ditch and a possible infilled quarry cut.
10-18 London Bridge Street, SE1 TQ 32790 80205 MoLAS (Portia Askew) watching brief and excavation July-Oct 1997 London Hotels Limited LNB97
This standing building lies on the site of St Thomas’ Hospital (1215-1862). The excavation of the lift pit identified evidence of Roman activity represented by a possible drain, two post holes and a pit which are dated to the 2nd c. Medieval dumping followed with evidence of pitting, and a cellar or cess pit constructed from chalk, ragstone and flint. Two grave slabs dated 1200-1350 had been reused in its construction: one was for an adult, the other for a child, the latter having an inscription on either side of its bevelled edges. Both slabs are believed to have come from the early medieval St Thomas’ Chapel which lay on the N side of the site, within the area covered by the standing building. The medieval dumping contained pottery spanning the 13th-15th c, including a complete jug of the 13th or late 14th c. Also found within the medieval dumps was a residual fragment of Roman stamped Caerleon ware bead and flange mortarium, c. AD 110-170/180, bearing the letters DB-. This find is the first of its kind in London and the stamp has not yet been paralleled.
18-26 Nunhead Lane, SE15 TQ 3457 7550 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Feb 1997 Design and Build Services Ltd NUN97
Flooding is indicated by a layer of alluvium which covered the natural clay. This appears to have been a result of poor drainage; it is dated to the post-medieval period. In one trench the alluvium was overlaid by a soil which probably represents the development of market gardening in Peckham in the 17th c.
Platform Wharf, 23 Paradise Street, SE16 TQ 3483 7965 MoLAS (S Blatherwick) watching brief Feb 1997 Landers and Associates PDS97
The digging of wall foundations on this Scheduled Ancient Monument site was monitored. A brick soakaway and a brick surface, both of 19th-c date, were recorded; they could have been associated with documented tenements.
Staffordshire Street, Goldsmith Road, SE15 TQ 3450 7685 MoLAS (C Pickard) ev Jan-Feb 1997 Unicorn Homes plc SFF97
Above the natural gravel or brickearth were soil deposits suggestive of market gardening. They are dated to the 17th and 18th c and were associated with related garden features. Three wells, probably dating to the late 19th c, were also recorded.
14-16 Stoney Street, SE1 TQ 3252 8032 MoLAS (C Cowan) watching brief June 1997 Wineworld London Ltd SYT97
The natural gravel foreshore of a channel was recorded, its S edge revetted with a timber post-and-plank revetment: this could have been either Roman or medieval in date. Roman deposits, which may have derived from clay-and-timber buildings, and alluvial deposits of a N-S post-medieval channel were also recorded. The channel was located on excavations to the W and is marked on historic maps. A 17th-c date is indicated by the pottery.
1-29 Studholme Street, SE15 TQ 3477 7726 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Mar 1997 Countryside in Partnership plc SDH97
Natural brickearth was overlaid by an alluvial sequence and cut by a large quarry pit of late 19th- or early 20th-c date.
Vinegar Yard, 33 Tanner Street, SE1 TQ 3341 7967 MoLAS (K Heard) evaluation and excavation March-April 1997 Weltonvale Ltd VIY97
Natural sand was cut by a small, possibly prehistoric, cooking pit, infilled with burnt flint. It was truncated by a wide, shallow channel which was filled with alluvial sand and peats containing small quantities of burnt flint, flint implements and pottery of possible Bronze Age date. The peats were sealed by a thick deposit of silt containing residual Roman and medieval pottery. A later sequence of watercourses was recorded along the S boundary of the site. The edge of one of these channels was marked by a line of elm posts, probably indicating the remains of revetting for land reclamation in the later medieval period. On its landward side there was a large, trapezoidal pond or reservoir, possibly fed by a ditch, which is provisionally interpreted as a fish pond associated with nearby Bermondsey Abbey. The pond silted up gradually in the Tudor period, being used for the disposal of waste bone and leather from the tanning industry. In the mid-17th c a post and plank revetment (incorporating a number of ship timbers) was constructed on the edge of the channel which bounded the site to the S. This was probably the N side of a revetted roadside ditch, since Tanner Street (previously Five Foot Lane) is known to have existed at that time. The construction of the revetment coincided with increased tanning activity on the site, represented by a number of sunken barrels (used for liming small hides), a timber box drain and a possible lime-slaking pit. The site continued in use as a tan-yard until the second half of the 18th c. At this time large, wooden tanks were constructed, for tanning cattle hides, one of which was equipped with a lead drainpipe, for discharging spent tanning solution into the adjacent roadside ditch. In the early 19th c the site was acquired by a vinegar company, and was used as the factory yard until its closure in 1991.
256-264 Croydon Road, Wallington, Surrey TQ 2998 6500 MoLAS (N Roycroft) evaluation Sept 1997 Collier Contracts Ltd CYN97
Natural sands were cut by four small, undated pits, one incorporating a posthole, and from which some burnt flint, animal bone and one undiagnostic struck flint was recovered. In a second trench truncated natural sands were overlaid by a late post-medieval brick floor, soakaways and garden soil. All were truncated by modern terracing.
Mitcham House, Mitcham Road, Croydon, Surrey TQ 2994 6736 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Feb 1997 Taylor Woodrow Property Co Ltd MHM97
A layer of silt, possibly a subsoil, overlay the natural brickearth and was sealed by overburden.
Medical Research Council site, Woodmansterne Road, Carshalton, Surrey TQ 2750 6250 MoLAS (S Stevens) evaluation Aug 1997 Charles Church Developments WDS97
Previous groundworks had removed all traces of the subsoil: natural chalk, sporadically scored by ploughmarks, was overlaid by topsoil.
55-58 Alie Street, E1 TQ 3400 8125 MoLAS (K Pitt) watching brief July 1997 Pathfinder Developments ALI97
Disarticulated human bone in what is assumed to be the cemetery soil of a burial ground of the German Lutheran church was observed.
Ashton Street, Isle of Dogs, E14 TQ 3828 8101 MoLAS (J Ayre) evaluation Aug 1997 A Lewis & Sons ASN97
Natural brickearth or gravel was truncated by construction work in the 19th and 20th c and cut by two 19th-c wells and a brick-lined pit. These were probably located at the rear of properties fronting onto Ashton Street.
Blackwall Stairs, Blackwall Way, Yabsley Street, E14 TQ 3850 8030 MoLAS (R Wroe-Brown) evaluation July 1997 Environment Agency BLK97
A section through the foreshore and excavation of a small coffer dam revealed post-medieval material in the foreshore.
28-36 Brushfield Street, E1 TQ 3350 8175 MoLAS (L Dunwoodie) watching brief July-Sept 1997 Mount Anvil Construction Ltd BFL97
Natural brickearth was cut by two probable quarry pits which were sealed by several ploughsoil horizons, in which at lE one horticultural or agricultural feature was identified. By comparison with adjacent sites, these are likely to be of Roman and/or medieval date. An 18th-c rubbish pit and 17th- to 18th- c brick-lined cesspits and wells were also recorded.
Horner Buildings, Spitalfields Market, Brushfield Street, Lamb Street, E1 TQ 3359 8183 MoLAS (C Thomas) watching brief Oct 1997 Spitalfields Development Group BHF97
The Horner Buildings date from the 1890s, having replaced the original market which was built in the 1680s. A wall, supporting two brick columns, was recorded in a testpit, as well as further walls and an area of brick and mortar which may have been the remains of a floor. Later brick walls were added, overlying the floor. The brick walls are identified as part of the market which predated the Horner buildings, the type of bricks and mortar suggesting that the earliest of the walls probably date from the late 17th or early 18th c when the market was first built; the other walls are presumably later partitions.
Folgate Street and Spital Square, Spitalfields Market, E1 TQ 3350 8197 MoLAS (Chris Thomas) Jan-Feb 1997 and Dec 1997 - Jan 1998 Spitalfields Development Group SQU94
Eight trenches were excavated as part of an evaluation of a proposed cable trench. The W trenches were within the Scheduled Ancient Monument of the Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital and consequently the depth of the trenches was limited to that of the proposed cable. Substantial quantities of medieval and 16th-c demolition debris were encountered in the trenches closest to the medieval cloister. Further E, in Folgate Street, street surfaces from the post-medieval period were found, as were the front walls of houses dating to the early 18th c. One bone-lined cesspit was also recorded.
Free Trade Wharf, The Highway, E1 TQ 3585 8080 MoLAS (J Roberts) watching brief Feb 1997 Regalion Properties Ltd FTW94
A further watching brief (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 59) was carried out in the S half of the infilled Ratcliff dry dock. Timber fragments and the pattern of infilling was revealed, enabling the outline of an ovoid-shaped dock to be plotted.
Victoria Wharf, Narrow Street, Riverside, E14 TQ 3634 8077 MoLAS (K Tyler) excavation Oct-Nov 1997 Barratt London VIT96
An evaluation in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 59) was followed by excavations which revealed a timber wharf dated to 1584-5 by tree-ring dating. It was constructed of horizontal planks held by upright posts set in wooden baseplates and supported by long tie-backs fixed with iron straps, a technique known from the early 17th c. Later repairs added earthfast angled front braces. Additionally, a N-S element to the revetment was recorded, representing the E side of an access way from the street onto the foreshore. By 1635 this had been infilled and a stair (Whites Stairs, later Kidney Stairs) had been constructed onto the foreshore. Finds included pottery from Persia, S-E Asia, the Rhineland, N Italy and fragments of Spanish olive jars. A discarded ship’s rudder was also found. There were coins from Portugal, Spain, and possibly Havana, German trading tokens, cloth seals and the gnomon from a sun dial. Material associated with the work of shipwrights was found: caulking, tree nails, iron nails, rope, etc. The foundations and basement floors of Tudor brick buildings were also found. By 1658 the whole of this stretch of waterfront had become built up.
1 Prescot Street, E1 TQ 3405 8095 MoLAS (N Roycroft) watching brief Mar 1997 Rialto Homes plc PCS97
Truncated natural gravel was recorded in the central courtyard of the site.
Great Eastern Buildings, Quaker Street, E1 TQ 3383 8214 MoLAS (J Bowsher) watching brief Mar 1996 Ruddy Construction Ltd QAT95
A watching brief, subsequent to an evaluation in 1995 (LA8 supp. 1 (1996) 23), revealed a few traces of 18th- and 19th-c walls.
St John's Church, Scandrett Street, Green Bank, E1 TQ 3465 8012 MoLAS (J Ayre) evaluation Nov 1997 - Jan 1998 Biscoe, Craig, Hall and Goldcrest Homes SJN97
The watching brief consisted of monitoring the commercial clearance of the burial ground of the former church, in order to identify any patterns present and to record any surviving coffin furniture. Evidence of activity on the site prior to the construction of the church had been truncated. About 430 individual burials were removed from the site for reburial: of these 126 could be identified from their coffin plates. The churchyard was divided into three areas, a communal burial vault in the N-E corner of the site containing 41 separate coffins, a series of ten family burial vaults along the S boundary wall of the site which held 44 in total and the remainder of the burial area, containing around 345 individuals. A great many disarticulated remains were also recovered, mainly from a re-interment pit in the centre of the S area of the site, and from a construction trench around the apse of the church. Approximately 100 burials had been reinterred in the trench, while the large pit contained the remains of over 1700 individuals.
The Pier Head, South West India Dock Entrance, E14 TQ 3832 7982 MoLAS (K Pitt) evaluation Apr-May 1997 Barratt London Ltd SWI97
Natural foreshore deposits were cut by a shallow feature, possibly an inlet or terracing of an inlet. The nature of the deposits within this feature could have resulted from the slumping of the sides after robbing of structural elements. It is possible that this was the remains of Rolt’s Yard, a ship repair yard dating to c. 1660-1717. Later dumping of deposits to level this area were cut by a feature containing debris from the repair and breaking of small boats. A timber dock structure located to the S was possibly contemporary with this phase of activity. It was partially robbed and the area built up with boatyard waste and demolition material. A later phase of boat repair and breaking then followed: within this sequence working surfaces and areas of hard standing were found. Later basements were cut through these deposits.
Locke's Wharf, West Ferry Road, E14 TQ 3793 7827 MoLAS (R Wroe-Brown) evaluation Nov-Dec 1997 St George North London Ltd LOC97
A profile through the alluvial material and peat layers that characterised the site prior to the post-medieval period, was recorded. A high alluvial silt bank to the S is interpreted as the medieval marsh wall.
74 Church Lane, E17 TQ 3800 8925 MoLAS (Kieron Tyler) evaluation June 1997 Bridgewood Construction Ltd CUW97
Alluvial gravel was overlaid by a truncated soil which was cut by a quarry pit containing backfill dated to the late 18th c, a date consistent with known building activity in Walthamstow village.
Low Hall Manor, Low Hall Lane, Walthamstow, E17 TQ 3635 8806 MoLAS (I Blair) evaluation Feb-Mar 1997 Avebury Consultants WS-LH97
Excavations on the site of Low Hall manor produced a structural sequence which spanned the entire history of the moated manor house from the 14th - 20th c. The earliest building was of chalk and ragstone and had a rectangular plan comprising a hall and adjoining solar with an elongated service wing at the opposing end and an external kitchen range beyond. A highly scorched surface, associated with a tile bread oven within the kitchen, produced an archaeomagnetic date range of 1410-1425 for its final firing. Within the hall the principle open hearth was constructed of peg tiles set on edge, and had been resurfaced on at least three occasions. Unfortunately the dating of this feature is problematic, as it lay on a crossover of the archaeomagnetic calibration curve, but the later of the two dates, 1415-1440, is more likely and corresponds broadly with the kitchen oven. The main entrance lay at the intersection of the hall and service wing and had an external porch aligned directly on the moat bridge some 20m away. The early bridge was composed of a square abutment constructed of regular courses of limestone ashlar blocks some levelled with peg tiles. Three offsets were present on the lower levels of its deeper front face, in the lower levels of the moat forward of which were uncovered the articulated remains of the associated wooden bridge. This structure was composed of four well-preserved mortised baseplates jointed together to form a rectangular base frame and is likely to have originally supported some form of drawbridge. It is dated by dendrochronology to 1344. Fragmentary remains of a stone gatehouse lay to one side of the bridge abutment and these were composed of a moat-side wall with associated drain and garderobe which discharged directly into the moat.
The main body of the house was subsequently extended to the E of the solar, before the addition of a second wing to the N, which gave the overall manor complex an L-shape. Although few traces of the internal floor surfaces survived an indication of the quality of the original structure was provided by a total of 56 late 14th c decorated Penn floor tiles found during the excavation, with the majority of these being recovered from the moat.
During the 17th c the medieval plan of the manor house was largely abandoned and a smaller building was erected on its N wing utilising some of the earlier foundations. This structure was mainly of brick with a timber frame and was extensively remodelled during its lifetime, with numerous rebuilds and modifications during the 18th c. At this date a new brick moat bridge was constructed to one side of the earlier medieval crossing point. This period, but especially the 19th c, saw the lowering in status of the building from that of a manor to a farmhouse and it was this structure that was destroyed by a V1 flying bomb in August 1944. The remains of the bomb and its crater were found in the courtyard in front of the house and it was this action which finally brought to a close the six-hundred-year history of the manor house.
Avenue Estate, Morris Road, E15 TQ 3906 8576 MoLAS (Al Steele) evaluation Apr 1997 East Thames Housing Group Ltd AEM97
Where undisturbed by modern intrusions, subsoil over natural gravels was sealed by topsoil.
108-110 Vicarage Road, E10 TQ 3768 8725 MoLAS (N Roycroft) evaluation Dec 1997 Aarongate Ltd VRL97
Above the natural brickearth lay an 18th-c gravel path with garden soil beside it, possibly relating to the gardens of St John Strange, which is documented from the mid-18th c. These were overlaid by 19th- to 20th-c garden soil.
219-221 Balham High Road, SW17 TQ 2833 7269 MoLAS (P Treveil) evaluation Aug 1997 Ujima Housing Association Ltd BHG97
Natural gravels in two trenches had been overlaid by mixed gravel and silt deposits which may have derived from a stream known to have crossed the site, the Falcon Brook. Brick walls at the S end of these trenches could have been part of a culvert for the stream. Pits of 20th-c date truncated much of the deposits in these trenches and were probably associated with the use of the site as a motor works from the 1920s onwards. In another trench a cut feature contained late 17th- or early 18th-c pottery.
Land at Enterprise House, Cathles Road, SW12 TQ 2886 7403 MoLAS (J Bates) evaluation Oct 1997 Thirlstone Homes Ltd CAH97
Natural brickearth was cut by a number of 19th-c or later features, including wall footings, and overlaid by relatively modern make up.
Danebury School, Alton Education Centre (former), Danebury Ave, SW15 TQ 2175 7392 MoLAS (R Cowie) evaluation June 1997 Greenacre Homes (SE) Ltd DNA97
Natural clay was cut by a land drain and a large feature, such as a pond or a channel, both of late post-medieval date.
Royal Opera House, Bow Street, WC2 TQ 3042 8098 MoLAS (David Bowsher, Robert Cowie, Gordon Malcolm) watching brief Jan-Dec 1997 Royal Opera House Developments Ltd ROP95
After the 1996 excavations (LA8, supp. 2 (1997) 62) three watching briefs were undertaken, for ancillary works. Two of these, a water connection pit and enabling works in Floral Street, produced no positive archaeological results. A third, electricity trench, was located in the Piazza and design measures were adopted to reduce the impact of the trench on any potential archaeological deposits. In a few places the trench did disturb archaeological deposits from the Middle Saxon to the post-medieval periods. The location of three Saxon buildings was evident from three distinct areas of brickearth floors; one of these buildings was destroyed by fire and rebuilt three times. Associated with the floors was the remains of a wattle-and-daub wall, and two distinct areas of gravel metalling indicated a road, alley or yard areas. These deposits were covered by dark earth. Two small brick cellars with arched roofs were located: they were probably later additions to the Inigo Jones arcade from the 17th-c development of the Covent Garden Piazza.
Bridge Street, new subway for Westminster Station, SW1 TQ 3027 7968 MoLAS (C Thomas C) watching brief Feb-Apr 1997 Jubilee Line Extension BGS97
A large E-W wall, at least 2.50m wide, mainly constructed from chalk and sandstone, formed the 16th- or 17th-c river wall. To its W and parallel to it lay another large ragstone and chalk wall with brick arches inserted behind it. Between the walls and above riverlaid deposits, the S wall of a 17th-c building with mortar floor was recorded. The building went out of use between 1750 and 1754 when Bridge Street was laid out; delft pottery, clay pipes and building material of late 17th- or early 18th-c date were dumped into it.
Commons Court, Houses of Parliament, Bridge Street, SW1 TQ 3028 7954 MoLAS (C Thomas) watching brief Apr & Aug-Sept 1997 Parliamentary Works Directorate CMC97
Work took place in the S half of Commons Court within the Palace of Westminster.
Waterlaid clays and silts overlay natural gravel. The land was reclaimed from the Thames for use by the Palace of Westminster as gardens in the 17th and 18th c. Reclamation dumps were recorded, as were two brick walls which probably formed boundary walls, and a brick drain.
199-203 Buckingham Palace Road, Ebury Bridge Road, SW1 TQ 2860 7850 MoLAS (S Jones) evaluation July 1997 Berkeley Homes Ltd BPR97
An E-W dock or quay-side wall was observed in two testpits, the type of brick used in its construction suggesting a late 19th-c date. It may have represented a late modification to the side walls of theGrosvenor Canal (constructed in the 18th c, modified in early 19th c), presumably from the period when the canal and the railway coexisted between 1860 and 1928. Two red brick walls recorded in another testpit may have been part of an earlier phase of building than the 20th-c yellow brick phase in other testpits; however, it seems likely that they were associated with the 19th- or early 20th-c use of the site, perhaps part of the buildings associated with its use as a stone yard.
Cannon Row (Staircase 7, in street), SW1 TQ 3021 7969 MoLAS (C Thomas) excavation July-Aug 1997 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) CWW97
A possible channel and two pits cut a layer of probable waterlaid sand containing prehistoric flints. The pits were sealed by thick deposits of waterlaid silts and clays which were cut by a channel. At the N end of the site these continued to be deposited against a stone wall probably dating to the 12th c. To the S of this wall were three large stone ovens containing some burnt material. These also seem to date to the late 12th and 13th c. Two of the ovens were sealed by levelling layers and a smaller hearth was laid. Over much of the site was evidence for road surfaces associated with Cannon Row, dating to the 14th c and later. A large brick culvert and two post-medieval pits cut through the road surfaces, and some of the earlier deposits.
Ventilation Shaft in Cannon Row, SW1 TQ 3020 7971 MoLAS (C Thomas) excavation Feb-Mar 1997 Jubilee Line Extension CNW97
Natural sand was cut into by a palaeo-channel and sealed by alluvial sand. It was succeeded by a shallow prehistoric gully which was covered by peat and river deposits. Early medieval drainage ditches were then cut into the river deposits before being sealed by late 13th-c reclamation dumps. A robber cut was found cut into these dumps, overlaid by make-up for road surfaces. To the W of the road was found evidence of pitting, sealed by further dumping. The road and dumping were cut by an 18th- or 19th-c brick culvert.
40-41 Conduit Street, 1-2 Coach and Horses Yard, W1 TQ 2899 8083 MoLAS (S Stevens, M Wiggins) watching brief Dec 1996 - May 1997 Hufvudstaden (UK) Ltd CDT96
A watching brief in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 62) was resumed when underpinning works took place. At the S end of the site natural gravels were exposed, cut by two post-medieval brick-lined wells and a rubbish pit of the same date. In the yard of the Coach and Horses ground reduction revealed post-medieval levelling dumps beneath the modern surface.
St Paul’s Churchyard, Covent Garden, WC2 TQ 3031 8084 MoLAS (N Holder) watching brief Nov 1996 - Mar 1997 City of Westminster CGD95
The backfilling of the Saxon strata exposed in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 62) was monitored.
93 Ebury Bridge Road, SW1 TQ 2849 7812 MoLAS (C Pickard) evaluation Apr-May 1997 Regalion Homes EBR95
A complex alluvial sequence was recorded in the estuary formed by the confluence of the former Rivers Westbourne and Tyburn, at the point where they entered the Thames. This included a sandbank from which prehistoric flintwork and pottery had been eroded into an adjacent channel system, which had in turn been influenced by what was probably the main Thames channel. The sequence of erosion and deposition is poorly dated but may cover an extensive period from the later Mesolithic to the Iron Age and beyond. In its final stages the channel system became a marsh. Substantial post-medieval dumped deposits, predominantly of 18th- and 19th-c date, overlay the alluvium and represented drainage and reclamation of the marshland.
121-125 Edgware Road, W2 TQ 2740 8135 MoLAS (S Hoad) evaluation Jan-Feb 1997 Rater Trading Inc EDW97
Fragmentary remains of a post-medieval building and numerous service drains for this and adjoining buildings, overlay the natural gravels.
27 Floral Street, WC2 TQ 3015 8086 MoLAS (Nick Holder) evaluation Jan 1997 and excavation June 1997 West End Theatre Managers Ltd FLO97
Two large gravel extraction pits, of probable Saxon date, cut the natural gravels, in an area that would have lain outside the Saxon settlement of the 7th c. Much of the brickearth had also been removed, probably around the same time. In the early 8th c an alluvial deposit was laid down, probably representative of flooding or of a marsh, and then a succession of gravel surfaces, each one covered with silty accumulation: these are interpreted as an alley that was occasionally maintained and resurfaced. Butchering may have been taking place close by since the silty dumps contained animal bone characteristic of butchery waste. Two pits lay beyond this alley, possibly in a yard area immediately to the N; one was probably mid 8th c in date. It is suggested that as Lundenwic expanded, the area of the site become built up in the 8th c. A much later cess pit was found dated to between 1680 and 1710.
Horse Shoe Yard, W1 TQ 2875 8094 MoLAS (K Pitt) evaluation Jan 1997 DTZ Debenham Thorpe Building Consultancy HOY97
Eroded London Clay was sealed by thick dumped deposits, into which was cut a channel, possibly the Tyburn Conduit (documented c. 1600). The channel appears to have gone out of use by the 17th c, and was sealed by a marshy-type soil deposit into which a drain was dug. This, and the area of the site was sealed by a thin layer of construction trample. Post-17th-c dumped deposits and brick structures, indicating urbanisation of the area, were also recorded.
Old Brewer’s Yard, WC2 TQ 3023 8103 MoLAS (Nick Holder) excavation & watching brief May-Nov 1997 Mercers Company OBY95
In the early Saxon period, perhaps c. 7th c (though there is no dating evidence), the area of the site seems to have been used for the small-scale extraction of the natural sand, gravel and brickearth, probably for use in the built up area of Lundenwic just S-E of the site. A very compact gravel surface, interpreted as a road, was then laid down in c. 8th c and pits were dug to the side of this road. The road does not seem to have been in use for very long since it, and area to the S, were covered by a dumped layer containing domestic rubbish and butchery waste. The area appeared to be damp and it continued to be used for pitting and dumping, probably to dispose of domestic and butchery waste from nearby occupation during the 8th and 9th c. After the end of the Saxon occupation of Lundenwic in the late 9th c the area seems to have been used for some sort of occasional agricultural activity and this continued with little interruption until the 17th c. Very fragmentary remains of a building dating from the early redevelopment of the area by the Mercers’ Company in the 17th c were found. Extensive vaulted cellars of an 18th- and 19th-c brewery were observed.
Children's Hospital, Paddington Green, W2 TQ 2680 8180 MoLAS (N Holder) evaluation Mar 1997 Wilmott Dixon Housing Ltd PAG97
Evidence for 17th-c brickearth extraction and brick manufacture was found. Later features which were probably within the 18th-c Paddington House included an 18th-c gravel pit and 19th-c garden boundary walls and rubbish pits. A single residual sherd of probable late Saxon pottery was the only evidence found of the historically attested late Saxon settlement of Paddington.
Marlborough House, Pall Mall, SW1 TQ 2946 8009 MoLAS (David Bowsher) watching brief Dec 1997 - Jan 1998 Property Services Agency MRB92
A further watching brief took place in the grounds to the S of the house (LA7 no 8 (1994) 217). This revealed a pit containing high-status pottery of the early-mid 19th c, including fragments marked with the initials of Queen Adelaide and the Prince of Wales feathers.
Parliament Street (stairs and subway), SW1 TQ 3018 7969 MoLAS (C Thomas) watching brief Nov 1997 London Underground Ltd (Jubilee Line Extension) PMS97
Existing 19th-c vaults had destroyed the later archaeological deposits and the new subway was founded at the same level as the old; however, a mortar floor was recorded overlying a levelling deposit.
Corner of Perkin's Rents, Great Peter Street, SW1 TQ 2973 7922 MoLAS (J Bowsher) evaluation Feb 1997 Lawson-Price Environmental PKN97
Above natural gravels and a layer of sand were the remains of domestic buildings, dating from the late 17th or early 18th c and represented by walls and a brick floor, and 17th-c dump layers. Overlying deposits were mostly truncated by Victorian foundations.
Serpentine Gallery, off Serpentine Walk, Kensington Gardens, W2 TQ 2680 8000 MoLAS (M Wiggins) watching brief Feb 1997 Davis Langdon Management SRG97
Post-medieval garden soil and curving red brick wall were recorded: they possibly related to ornamental gardens of Dorchester House shown on Rocque’s map of 1746.
Egyptian Embassy, 26 South Street, W1 TQ 2835 8038 MoLAS (J Ayre) watching brief Sept-Dec 1997 Ballast Wiltshier plc EGY97
The area of the former Embassy buildings was found to have been extensively disturbed with survival limited to the area of the former gardens. The sequence was made up of natural brickearth with redeposited brickearth above, followed by a reworked soil deposit. Post-medieval remains consisted of a garden soil and evidence for the original perimeter boundary, including a length of curving red brick wall which could relate to the layout of the 18th-c ornamental gardens for Dorchester House.
65-72 Strand, WC2 TQ 3038 8065 MoLAS (C Pickard) watching brief Feb 1997 Scottish Amicable SRN97
The site was truncated down to the natural clay.
Courtauld Institute of Art, Strand, WC2 TQ 3075 8085 MoLAS (N Holder) watching brief July-Sept 1997 University of London SRD97
A watching brief monitored works associated with the enlargement of basement vaults of the late 18th-c Somerset House. A small area of in-situ foundation of the Tudor Somerset Palace was recorded, as well as architectural fragments observed in the backfill of the 18th-c vaults.
Somerset House, Strand, WC2 TQ 3075 8075 MoLAS (S Chew) watching brief Sept 1996 - Sept 1997 Dept of National Heritage and the Commissioners for the Inland Revenue SST96
A watching brief in 1996 (LA8 supp. 2 (1997) 63) continued. Saxon foreshore and Tudor and post-medieval deposits were revealed behind the Tudor river wall; evidence relating to the 18th-c building was also recorded.
Swanscombe Community School, Southfleet Road, Swanscombe TQ 6086 7392 MoLAS (Anthony Mackinder) excavation April-May 1997 Kent County Council Education Department KT-SSF97
Following an archaeological field evaluation, by Canterbury Archaeological Trust that identified archaeological features, MoLAS carried out an excavation at the site of the new Swanscombe Community School.
This found a large walled enclosure (measuring 35.0m north-south and 33.0m east-west). The outer wall foundations were constructed of chalk and flint. Most of the north side of the enclosure was rebuilt with timber posts replacing the collapsed or robbed wall. It was surrounded on at least two sides by ditches that contained metal working slag, these were infilled by the mid to late 3rd century. To the southwest was a semi-circular feature, 5.0m in diameter, this may be the eaves drip gulley to a Roman roundhouse or an outbuilding used for storage
Located within the enclosure but not in the centre was a small building. This consisted of a 3.5m square flint and mortar foundation, with a linear feature running around the north, south and east sides. This could be a ditch or a robbed wall foundation, which implies the building, could have been open-ended with access from the west. This building may have had a ritual function, such as a shrine or possibly part of a temple. This had been partially robbed in the 11th/12th century.
There were two concentrations of features within the enclosure dating to the Roman period. To the southwest were mainly postholes, suggesting there was one or more timber building possibly rebuilt several times.
To the northwest the features were mainly rubbish pits, eight of which contained burnt fills. Another pit contained an almost complete Nene Valley colour-coated ware pottery vessel, that was buried upright and may be of votive significance. Some cremated human remains and a single glass bead were found in another pit. There was also a possible corn drier.
Several Palaeolithic hand axes were recovered; these were donated to University College London who were carrying out work investigating Palaeolithic aspects of the site on another part of the site.